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A Brief History of Drama Major Developments. Drama – To be, or not to be, that is the question Drama – a literary composition involving conflict, action.

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Presentation on theme: "A Brief History of Drama Major Developments. Drama – To be, or not to be, that is the question Drama – a literary composition involving conflict, action."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Brief History of Drama Major Developments

2 Drama – To be, or not to be, that is the question Drama – a literary composition involving conflict, action crisis and atmosphere designed to be acted by players on a stage before an audience. This definition may be applied to motion picture drama as well as to the traditional stage. Drama – a literary composition involving conflict, action crisis and atmosphere designed to be acted by players on a stage before an audience. This definition may be applied to motion picture drama as well as to the traditional stage. Drama had its origin in the country of Greece around 500 B.C. Drama had its origin in the country of Greece around 500 B.C. Drama, as a literary genre, is an art form that is meant to be performed! Drama, as a literary genre, is an art form that is meant to be performed!

3 Greek Theatre The Greek Theatre or Greek Drama is a theatrical tradition that flourished in ancient Greece between c. 550 and c. 220 B.C. in Athens. Athens was the centre of ancient Greek theatre. Tragedy (late 6 th century B.C.), comedy (~486 B.C.) and satyr plays were some of the theatrical forms to emerge in the world. Greek theatre and plays have had a lasting impact on Western drama and culture. The Greek Theatre or Greek Drama is a theatrical tradition that flourished in ancient Greece between c. 550 and c. 220 B.C. in Athens. Athens was the centre of ancient Greek theatre. Tragedy (late 6 th century B.C.), comedy (~486 B.C.) and satyr plays were some of the theatrical forms to emerge in the world. Greek theatre and plays have had a lasting impact on Western drama and culture.

4 Greek Theatre continued The earliest dramas were designed to worship to gods and goddesses, specifically Bacchus and Dionysus The earliest dramas were designed to worship to gods and goddesses, specifically Bacchus and Dionysus The Greek tragedies of Aeschychus, Sophocles and Euripides were performed annually at the spring festival of Dionysus, god of wine and inspiration. The Greek tragedies of Aeschychus, Sophocles and Euripides were performed annually at the spring festival of Dionysus, god of wine and inspiration.

5 The Greeks In 534 B.C a contest was won by Thespis in Athens. In 534 B.C a contest was won by Thespis in Athens. He is the first recorded winner of this contest. Tragedy (the group word tragoidia began with the introduction of an actor, who played various roles by changing masks, whose actions the chorus commented on in song. He is the first recorded winner of this contest. Tragedy (the group word tragoidia began with the introduction of an actor, who played various roles by changing masks, whose actions the chorus commented on in song. Thespis according to Themistiuss account, was the first actor and usually credited with inventing drama as we know it (actors speaking lines) – thus actors are know known as Thespians Thespis according to Themistiuss account, was the first actor and usually credited with inventing drama as we know it (actors speaking lines) – thus actors are know known as Thespians

6 Decline of Drama Drama went into a period of decline around A.D. 400 (Roman Empire) Drama went into a period of decline around A.D. 400 (Roman Empire) Due to the Power of Christians Due to the Power of Christians Acting has been deemed at times to be unchristian, idolatrous and depraved or, worse, boring. Actors themselves have frequently been seen to be one of the humbler classes, and only towards the end of the 19 th century did their status start to improve Acting has been deemed at times to be unchristian, idolatrous and depraved or, worse, boring. Actors themselves have frequently been seen to be one of the humbler classes, and only towards the end of the 19 th century did their status start to improve

7 Revival of Drama A. D A. D Medieval Drama, when it emerged hundreds of years later, was a new creation rather than a rebirth. The drama of earlier times having almost no influence on it. The reason for this creation came from a quarter that had traditionally opposed any form of theatre: The Christian church Medieval Drama, when it emerged hundreds of years later, was a new creation rather than a rebirth. The drama of earlier times having almost no influence on it. The reason for this creation came from a quarter that had traditionally opposed any form of theatre: The Christian church

8 Medieval Drama Purpose: Teach religion Purpose: Teach religion Types of acceptable drama: Types of acceptable drama: 1. )Miracle plays – lives of saints. 2.) Morality plays – being good/ moral 3.) Mystery plays – life of Christ

9 Middle Ages Theatre During the Middle Ages, most plays were about the lives of saints and/or Bible stories. During the Middle Ages, most plays were about the lives of saints and/or Bible stories.

10 Renaissance Drama Ruler: Elizabeth I Ruler: Elizabeth I Renaissance Drama is English drama written before the Reformation and the closure of theatres in It may also be called early modern English theatre or (misaccurately) Elizabethan theatre. It includes the drama of William Shakespeare, the most notable playwright during this period. Renaissance Drama is English drama written before the Reformation and the closure of theatres in It may also be called early modern English theatre or (misaccurately) Elizabethan theatre. It includes the drama of William Shakespeare, the most notable playwright during this period. One distinctive feature of the companies that put on Elizabethan plays was that they included only males. One distinctive feature of the companies that put on Elizabethan plays was that they included only males.

11 Elizabethan Drama Shakespeare Shakespeare Christopher Marlowe Christopher Marlowe Thomas Kyd Thomas Kyd John Lyly John Lyly

12 Victorian/Modern English drama Oscar Wilde Oscar Wilde George Bernard Shaw George Bernard Shaw The Abbey Theatre: key figures were W.B. Yeats and Lady Augusta Gregory; opened in Dublin in 1903 and helped to produce new Irish plays (J.M. Synge) The Abbey Theatre: key figures were W.B. Yeats and Lady Augusta Gregory; opened in Dublin in 1903 and helped to produce new Irish plays (J.M. Synge)

13 Modern Drama Primary characteristic – realism Primary characteristic – realism Some of the major forms of drama are: Some of the major forms of drama are: Tragedy Tragedy Comedy Comedy Melodrama Melodrama Most importantly, drama, as a literary genre, is an art form that is meant to be performed. Most importantly, drama, as a literary genre, is an art form that is meant to be performed.

14 Dramatic Terminology Literary Terms

15 Acts and Scenes Subdivisions in the play when the time or place usually changes Subdivisions in the play when the time or place usually changes Acts – big breaks (in Shakespeare plays usually 5 Acts) Acts – big breaks (in Shakespeare plays usually 5 Acts) Scenes – smaller breaks within acts (usually one or two per act) Scenes – smaller breaks within acts (usually one or two per act) Act I Act II Act III Act IV Act V

16 Aside A dramatic device in which a private thought is spoken aloud. It is intended for the audience alone – not other characters in the play A dramatic device in which a private thought is spoken aloud. It is intended for the audience alone – not other characters in the play Contributes to dramatic irony – Contributes to dramatic irony – (the audience knows something other characters in the play do not)

17 Comedy A type of drama in which the characters experience reversals of fortune, usually for the better. In comedy, things work out happily in the end, usually in marriage. A type of drama in which the characters experience reversals of fortune, usually for the better. In comedy, things work out happily in the end, usually in marriage. Comedy Mask

18 Tragedy A type of drama in which the characters experience reversals of fortune, usually for the worse A type of drama in which the characters experience reversals of fortune, usually for the worse Tragedy

19 Dialogue Conversations among characters Conversations among characters

20 Drama One of the three main types of literature; it tells a story through the words and actions of a character. One of the three main types of literature; it tells a story through the words and actions of a character. Additional AdditionalInformation

21 Intermission A break in the performance of the play A break in the performance of the play

22 Monologue A speech delivered by one person A speech delivered by one person

23 Playwright The author of a drama The author of a drama

24 Props Articles or objects that appear on stage during a play Articles or objects that appear on stage during a play

25 Script The written version of the play The written version of the play

26 Stage directions Instructions to the performer and the director; usually written in italics or parentheses Instructions to the performer and the director; usually written in italics or parentheses

27 Staging The effect the play has on its audience – including the position of actors, the scenic background, the props and costumes, and the lighting and sound effects The effect the play has on its audience – including the position of actors, the scenic background, the props and costumes, and the lighting and sound effects

28 Subplot An additional or minor or parallel plot in a play or story that coexists with the main plot An additional or minor or parallel plot in a play or story that coexists with the main plot

29 Thespians Actors and actresses Actors and actresses


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