Presentation on theme: "Sectionalism in the Mid-19th Century United States: United States Manufacturing by Region, 1820-1860 (USD) 1820 1835 1860 North Atlantic States 69,831."— Presentation transcript:
Sectionalism in the Mid-19th Century United States: United States Manufacturing by Region, 1820-1860 (USD) 1820 1835 1860 North Atlantic States 69,831 900,107 1,213,897,518 Old Northwest States 33,335 188,651 346,675,290 Southern States 27,779 166,803 248,090,580 Western States 8,777 50,204 71, 229,989 In what ways do the manufacturing comparisons define sectional interests? How did Agriculture connect The North and the West? How did the Industrialization of the North also connect them with the West?
Most of these immigrants settled in the North and West. How would this contribute to the problem of sectionalism?
Immigration-Irish/German 1820-8,000 1850-428,000 Why was there such an increase? inexpensive ocean transportation famines and revolutions saw the US as land of opportunity Nativism is an ugly response to immigration
Anti-Foreign Party’s 1849 Secret Order of the Star-Spangled Banner created in NYC 1854 American Party—”Know Nothings” Anti-Foreign Party’s 1849 Secret Order of the Star-Spangled Banner created in NYC 1854 American Party—”Know Nothings” Nativists. Protestants Anti-Catholics. Anti-immigrants. Nativists. Protestants Anti-Catholics. Anti-immigrants.
The South King Cotton…Cotton Kingdom Why is slavery important? 1800—less than 1 million, 1850—3 million Eli Whitney: 1790-1860 production increases 1000 fold Slavery: Most valuable in the Deep South
Slavery was profitable South had 30% of the nation’s (free) population South had 60% of the “wealthiest men.” The 1860 per capita income in the South--$3,978 (100,185) in the North--$2,040 ( 51,377) Southern exports in the 1840’s was $192 million This was 4x the revenue of the US government
England imported 80% of the southern crop The South supplied 2/3rds of the world’s “White Gold” 1.5 million US jobs were in the textile industry “The North and South were tied together by the cotton thread.” Explain why this is a factual statement.
Identify the industries that were dependent upon Cotton? By 1860: The West sold $30 million worth of food supplies to Southern cotton producers every year. The Northeastern textile industry produced $100 million worth of cloth every year. The North sold more than $150 million worth of manufactured goods every year. Northern ships transported cotton worldwide. If the North and South were interconnected economically, why did the Civil War occur?
Southern Society (1850) “Slavocracy” [plantation owners] The “Plain Folk” [white yeoman farmers] 6,000,000 Black Freemen Black Slaves 3,200,000 250,000 Total US Population --> 23,000,000 [9,250,000 in the South = 40%]
Southern society Aristocracy: 100 slaves/1000 acres--only 1700 families Aristocracy: 100 slaves/1000 acres--only 1700 families Yeoman Farmers: Less than 20 slaves/200- 300 acres—88% of all slave owners Yeoman Farmers: Less than 20 slaves/200- 300 acres—88% of all slave owners Poor whites: Hill country (Hillbillies), 75% total population Poor whites: Hill country (Hillbillies), 75% total population Mountain people: Ozarks/Appalachians – anti-slavery Mountain people: Ozarks/Appalachians – anti-slavery Free Blacks: 250,000 - Cities Free Blacks: 250,000 - Cities
Southern Society was agrarian, rural based ex: among US cities only New Orleans in top 15 Southern Thought Feudal society—government was an oligarchy Men were trained in the ideals of tradition, honor and how to behave as a proper gentleman Code of Chivalry followed and enforced—duels r okay!
Personal Honor Charles Sumner (R-MA) gave a 3-hour speech criticizing the Kansas-Nebraska Act and its authors Stephan Douglas (D-IL) and Andrew Butler (D-SC) Andrew Butler’s nephew Preston Brooks (D-SC) attacks Sumner with a cane in the US Senate Northerners condemned his actions but Southerners defended his behavior Butler was asked why he did not challenge Sumner to a duel?
“necessary evil” to “positive good” pre 1830—slavery not desired, necessary for political/economic well-being of society post 1831—slavery beneficial for the Africans paternalism toward slaves What movement in America causes this shift?
Positive Good Reality? Slaves posing in front of their cabin on a Southern plantation. Positive Good Reality? Slaves posing in front of their cabin on a Southern plantation.
benevolent guardians of a “naturally inferior race” educate them on religion: Southern Methodists and Baptists The slaves adapted these religions Their more emotional services reflected their native traditions
What were the Southern defenses of Slavery? Slavery was ordained by God and in the bible “Slaves, obey your masters.” Greek and Roman cultures each featured slavery Essential to the southern economy Preferable to the “wage slavery” of the North Beneficial to the blacks who had traded the barbarism of Africa for the blessings of security and Christianity (“positive good”)