Presentation on theme: "Sectionalism! North, West, South Mr. Owens. Essential Questions What were the causes and effects of the rise of the cotton industry in the South and how."— Presentation transcript:
Essential Questions What were the causes and effects of the rise of the cotton industry in the South and how did connect with the industrial and more urban North? How did the continued growth and reliance on agriculture contribute to a growing regional identity in the South? How did regional interests (sectionalism) often trump national political concerns especially on economic policy and slavery?
The North Industrial & Urban Northeast: textiles, & variety of other goods: farm machinery, clocks & shoes etc. Organized labor: Working Man’s Party, MA Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842) unions had right to organize & strike Urban Life: 15% of pop. By 1850, opportunities & problems African Americans: 250,000 by 1860 (50% of free blacks) faced major discrimination, denied from unions, limited jobs (used as scabs) Agricultural Northwest: corn & wheat production Technology: steel plow (John Deere) & mechanical reaper (Cyrus McCormick) more efficient New Cities: Chicago, Cincinnati, St. Louis, Buffalo Immigration: surged primarily in North & Northwest
Immigration & Nativism Surge due to transportation, problems in Europe & opportunity in America 1.Racism - new immigrants viewed as inferior 2.Belief that they were socially unfit to live alongside “ natives ” (slums) 3.Workers: immigrants lowered wages or were stealing jobs 4.Protestants - objected to most immigrants being Irish or German Catholics 5. Whigs - Immigrants supported Democrats 6.Politicians - immigrants corrupted politics by selling their votes (political machines) Immigration 1820-1860 1840s in response to surge of Irish & Germans Know-Nothing Party: “ The Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner ”
The West American Indians: Exodus west by force or choice west of Mississippi & many adapt to the Great Plains - Cheyenne & Sioux (Lakota) nomadic with use of horse The Frontier: lure of freedom “Mountain Men” ventured West after tales of Lewis & Clark Settlers on Western Frontier: difficult life in log cabins & “soddies”, disease & malnutrition, conflict w/Native Americans Women had more responsibilities, difficulties & shorter lifespan Poor farming techniques led to soil exhaustion & over- hunting brought buffalo & beaver to near extinction in certain areas.
The South 1.Primarily agrarian. 2.Economic power shifted from the “ upper South ” to the “ lower South. ” 3.“ Cotton Is King! ” * 1860 5 mil. bales a yr. (57% of total US exports). 4.Lack of industrialization - De Bow ’ s Review. 5.Rudimentary (basic) financial system - “ factors ”. 6.Inadequate transportation system.
Southern Society (1850) “ Slavocracy ” [plantation owners] The “ Plain Folk ” [white yeoman farmers] Poor Whites - 500,000 6,000,000 Black Freemen Black Slaves 3.2 million (4 million by 1860) (up from 1 mil. in 1800) 250,000 Total US Population 23,000,000 [9,250,000 in the South = 40%] “ Cavalier Image ”
US Laws Regarding Slavery 1.U. S. Constitution: * 3/5s compromise [I.2] * Article IV Section 2 - fugitive slave clause 2.1793 Fugitive Slave Act - illegal to assist escaped slaves - fugitives for life - slave catching industry 3.1850 stronger Fugitive Slave Act - stronger punishment and slaves couldn ’ t testify - rewards.
Emancipation in the North But these dates are misleading - PA law freed newborns at 28 - some slaves in 1830s - NJ 1860s.
The Culture of Slavery 1.Black Christianity [Baptists or Methodists] * more emotional worship services. * negro spirituals. 2.“ Pidgin ” or Gullah languages. 3.Nuclear family with extended kin links, where possible. 4.Importance of music in their lives -esp. spirituals RESISTANCE 1.“ Sambo ” - slaves playing up to stereotypes around owners 2.Defiance - Refusal to work hard. 3.Theft & isolated acts of sabotage. 4.Escape via the Underground Railroad. 5.Revolt – Nat Turner’s Rebellion 1831, VA
“ Sold Down the River ” Upper South - years of tobacco had exhausted soil in Virginia, Maryland, & NC Expanding demand for slaves in Deep South for cotton “ Breeding plantations ” 1790-1860 1 million slaves sold “ down the river ” - also used as punishment 250,000 slaves shipped in 1850s alone
Southern Pro-Slavery Propaganda What is the message?