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WORD-BUILDING. CONSTITUENTS OF WORDS FREEBOUND ROOTSAFFIXES PREFIXES SUFFIXES INFIXES STEM DERIVATIONALFUNCTIONAL NATIVEBORROWED PRODUCTIVE NON-PRODUCTIVE.

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Presentation on theme: "WORD-BUILDING. CONSTITUENTS OF WORDS FREEBOUND ROOTSAFFIXES PREFIXES SUFFIXES INFIXES STEM DERIVATIONALFUNCTIONAL NATIVEBORROWED PRODUCTIVE NON-PRODUCTIVE."— Presentation transcript:

1 WORD-BUILDING

2 CONSTITUENTS OF WORDS FREEBOUND ROOTSAFFIXES PREFIXES SUFFIXES INFIXES STEM DERIVATIONALFUNCTIONAL NATIVEBORROWED PRODUCTIVE NON-PRODUCTIVE Morpheme(s)

3 AFFIXATION SUFFIXATION PREFIXATION

4 -ably = -able+ -ly -ation = -ate + -ion -ically = -ic + -al + -ly noun-forming: -er -or -ing -ness -ation/ -ion (adaptation, formation, education, translation) adjective-forming: -able (bearable, acceptable, changeable) -less -ful –ic (historic, classic) -ish (girlish, foolish) -y (noisy, silky, sleepy) verb-forming: -ate (legate, advocate, magistrate) -en (deepen, weaken, sadden, blacken) -fy/-ify (beautify, intensify) -ize (organize, mobilize) adverb-forming: -ly -ward (backward, foreward, westward, homeward)

5 deverbal: -er -ing -ment (movement, entertainment) –able denominal: -less -ish -ful -ist –ism –some (troublesome, irksome, tiresome) deadjectival: -en -ly -ish (greenish, reddish) –ness agent of action: -er -ant (student, merchant, servant, peasant) names of nationality, belonging to smth: -ish -an/-ian –ese collectivity: -age (tonnage, acreage, breakage) -ery (machinery, slavery, poetry, husbandry) -dom absence /presence of quality: -less -ful a special subgroup of feminine suf-es: -ess (hostess, poetess, heiress, tigress, leopardess) -ine(a) (heroine, czarina) -ette ( farmerette, usherette)

6 diminutiveness: -ie/-y, -ey (Annie, Charley, deary, auntie -let (circlet, oaklet, starlet, booklet) -ling (duckling, wolfling) connotational characteristics: + emotional force, mainly derogatory OE ester: spinestre (та, что пряла) spinster, gangster, youngster -ton: simpleton -ard: stinkard -ie: oldie -ling: kingling worldling earthling Stylistic reference: neutralstylistically coloured -oid, -form, -tron (asteroid, cruciform, cyclotron)

7 PREFIXATION ~those not correlated with any independent word (either notional or functional) ~ those correlated with any independent word (prepositions or preposition-like adverbs): out- over- up- under- after- in- by- to overpass, over the river, to outline, to take smb.out upstairs, to look up, undercurrent, under the table afternoon, after the breakfast, byroad, by means of deverbal: rewrite, outstay, overdo denominal: unbutton, detrain, ex-president, uplift deadjectival: uneasy, biannual, extraordinary

8 According to their denotational meaning negative: un- < nat. in- im- ir- non-, ab- dis- < Rom. a- < Gr. non-stop, nonsense, abnormal, abuse, disunion, disaffection, atheist, apathy, anonymous opposition: anti- counter-(contra-, contro-) antitype, antithesis, antitank, counter-attack, counterbalance of time & order: fore- pre- post- ex- foretell, foreknowledge, prewar, postwar, ex-minister repetition: re- locative: super- sub- trans- inter- in- out- superstructure, subdivision, intercontinental, transplant

9 pejorative: mis- mal- pseudo- miscalculate, misinform, maltreat, pseudoclassical Stylistic reference neutralstylistically coloured ultra- uni- bi- ultraviolet, unilateral, unilingual, bifocal

10 MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF WORDS 1)morphemic: unwashedness 4 morphemes: 1 root- morpheme, 3 affixational girl—1 r-m.→ a root word girlish—1 r-m. + 1 suf. → a derived word girl-friend—2 r-m-s (stems)→ a compound word old-maidish—2 stems + aff. → a compound derivative 2) derivational: unwashedness a derivative stem with 3 degrees of derivation 3) Immediate Constituents (IC): unwashed + ness un + washed wash + ed

11 COMPOSITION COMPOUNDS

12 degree of the semantic cohesion Non-idiomatic classroom, medium-sized, theatre-goer, pocket-book, reading-hall, sleeping-car Idiomatic blackbird, football (not a ball but some game), book-keeper, highway (not a way but a broad main road used esp. by traffic going from one town to another)

13 blackbird—some kind of bird good-for-nothing—not a compliment chatterbox, fuss-pot, blackmail bluebottle:1) flower (василёк) 2) insect (муха трупная) 3) coll. cop

14 determining & determined parts determinant & determinatum Endocentric maidservant looking-glass green-grocer night-school Exocentric killjoy scarecrow cutthroat daredevil pick-pocket turncoat start-back die-hard (iron.)—an irreconcilable conservative

15 pick-up (iron.)—a chance acquaintance, a prostitute blackout—a period of complete darkness hangover Bahuvrihi black-shirtAdj. + Noun fathead highbrow lazy-bones

16 Criteria (criterion) distinguishing between a compound & a word- combination

17 Phonological a uniting heavy stress key-hole hot-house mad-doctor bedroom blackbird BUT: all, self— double even stress ′All-′Fools-Day ′self-′control compound adjectives: ′blue-′eyed ′absent-′minded ′light-′hearted

18 Graphical solid or hyphenated spelling BUT: headmasterhead-masterhead master loudspeakerloud-speakerloud speaker matchboxmatch-boxmatch box textbook, phrase-book, reference book well-, ill- : 34% - separately, 66% - hyphenated man-made : 6% - separately, 82% - hyphenated, 12% - solid.

19 Morphological formal integrity of compounds blackbird’s paw, shipwreck shipwrecks ≠ (the) wreck (s) of (a ) ship( s) BUT: sweetheart & sweet heart sweethearts & sweet hearts

20 Syntactical grass-greenvery green grass BUT: very ≠ black market black list blue-stocking & blue stocking round-fish & round fish

21 Semantic the integrity of a compound word tallboy slowcoach BUT: to rain cats & dogs to pull one’s leg

22 SEMI-AFFIXES man land berry proof worthy like — as the 2 nd element ~ very frequent as 2 nd elements of w-s for a long time (man, berry, land) ~ are unstressed,- [ə] ~ combining activity is very great seaman airman spaceman policeman horseman gentleman

23 ladylike, unladylike, manlike unbusinesslike, suchlike, noteworthy, praiseworthy, trustworthy, waterproof, shockproof, bombproof, fire-proof, kissproof (about a lipstick) -monger, -wright (

24 CONVERSION Eye v & eye n -S, -ED, -ED, -ING-S, -’S, -S’ difference n > difference v counterattack n > counterattack v discomfort n > discomfort v blacklist n > blacklist v inconvenience n > inconvenience v nightwatch n > nightwatch v

25 to blackmailto honeymoon to tiptoeto nickname to whitewash to outlineto hero-worship to shipwreckto week-end to double-crossto streamline to softpedal (смягчать) to spotlight (осветить, поместить в центр внимания)

26 ~If anybody oranges me again tonight, I’ll knock his face off (O’Henry). ~Let me say in the beginning that even if I wanted to avoid Texas I could not, for I am wived in Texas & mother-in- lawed & uncled & aunted & cousined within an inch of my life (J.Steinbeck, Travels with Charley).

27 N →V:to hand, to back, to monkey, to stage, to nose, to room, to honeymoon V→N: a must, a chat, a talk, a fly, a jump, a rush, a make Adj→V: to pale, to cool, to rough, to wet, to blind, to dirty, to narrow, to wrong. But he retained my hand, & I could not free it.

28 N→V the action peculiar to that, denoted by N: to ape, to monkey, to wolf, to hound, to father; to act by means of that, denoted by N: to chain, to finger, to water, to iron, to knife; to supply, cover with that, denoted by N: to curtain, to dust, to shelter; to deprive of that, denoted by N: to dust, to skin; to place to that denoted by N: to table, to pocket, to house, to house, to barrack

29 V→N isolated action: jump, move, look; an acting object / subject: drill, dig, help, switch, tramp; a place of action: ride, forge, drive, walk, leak, show; an object / result of action: cut, find, tear, peel, burn, catch, lift Henry Marchand: mostly derogatory: bore, cheat, flirt, scold, tease

30 BACK-FORMATION to beg < beggarto cobble < cobbler to burgle < burglarto swindle < swindler to butle < butlerto televise < television to baby-sit < baby-sitter to house-keep < house-keeper to thought-read < thought-reader to tape-record < tape-recorder to beachcomb < beachcomber to aggressto automateto enthuse to reminisce

31 SHORTENING / CONTRACTION lab< laboratory, plane< airplane, sub< submarine, subordinate, subway, subaltern, sublieutenant,subscription, subscriber,substitute

32 1) final clipping (apocope): advert

33 ABBREVIATION U.N.O. [΄ju:nəu]

34 USA UK VIP FBI AIDS HIV PG IPE e.g.

35 ELLIPSIS daily

36 BLENDING brunch=breakfast+lunch mimsy=miserable+flimsy Oxbridge=Oxford+Cambridge motel=motor+hotel smog=smoke+fog smaze=smoke+haze galumph=gallop+triump glaze=glare+gaze fruice=fruit+juice zebrule=zebra+mule clash= clap + crash slanguage=slang+language transistor=transfer+resistor disohol=diesel+alcohol sitcom=situation+comedy infortainment=information+entertainment kissogram=kiss+telegram netiquette=network+etiquette

37 ONOMATOPOEIA SOUND-IMITATION babble (журчать) blob (капать) bubble (пузыриться) flush (бить струёй, хлынуть) gush (хлынуть, литься, разразиться потоком) gurgle (журчать, булькать) splash (брызгаться, плескаться, шлёпать по грязи) swish (рассекать воздух со свистом; шелестеть, шуршать) sizzle (шипеть при жаренье, запекании, сжигании)

38 whirr 1)шуметь (о машинах и т. п.); 2) проноситься с шумом, свистом; 3) жужжать, стрекотать whirl (нестись, мчаться, проноситься) ~ mew / meowbark hissbuzzcuckoocock-a- doodle-doo ~ bang!fie! Hush! Pooh! ~ babble (бормотать, лепетать)chatter giggle, titter (хихикать)murmur (шептать, ворчать) whispermutter (бормотать) grunt (ворчать, мычать) grumble (ворчать, жаловаться) whine (скулить, хныкать, плакаться, подвывать)

39 SOUND-INTERCHANGE food—feedblood—bleed speak—speech life—live prove—prooffull—fill breathe — breath strong—strength long—length broad — breadth

40 DISTINCTIVE STRESS STRESS-INTERCHANGE conduct—to conduct accent—to accent compress—to compress import—to import export—to export present—to present contrast—to contrastincrease—to increase frequent—to frequent

41 SIMPLIFICATION OF THE STEM

42 lady < hlfdige lord < hlaford woman < wifman window < vindauga breakfast < break + fast daisy < dæges eage gossip < godsibb forehead < forheafod kidnap < kid + nap (nab) boatswain < batswegen


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