PREFIXATION ~those not correlated with any independent word (either notional or functional) ~ those correlated with any independent word (prepositions or preposition-like adverbs): out- over- up- under- after- in- by- to overpass, over the river, to outline, to take smb.out upstairs, to look up, undercurrent, under the table afternoon, after the breakfast, byroad, by means of deverbal: rewrite, outstay, overdo denominal: unbutton, detrain, ex-president, uplift deadjectival: uneasy, biannual, extraordinary
According to their denotational meaning negative: un- < nat. in- im- ir- non-, ab- dis- < Rom. a- < Gr. non-stop, nonsense, abnormal, abuse, disunion, disaffection, atheist, apathy, anonymous opposition: anti- counter-(contra-, contro-) antitype, antithesis, antitank, counter-attack, counterbalance of time & order: fore- pre- post- ex- foretell, foreknowledge, prewar, postwar, ex-minister repetition: re- locative: super- sub- trans- inter- in- out- superstructure, subdivision, intercontinental, transplant
MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF WORDS 1)morphemic: unwashedness 4 morphemes: 1 root- morpheme, 3 affixational girl—1 r-m.→ a root word girlish—1 r-m. + 1 suf. → a derived word girl-friend—2 r-m-s (stems)→ a compound word old-maidish—2 stems + aff. → a compound derivative 2) derivational: unwashedness a derivative stem with 3 degrees of derivation 3) Immediate Constituents (IC): unwashed + ness un + washed wash + ed
degree of the semantic cohesion Non-idiomatic classroom, medium-sized, theatre-goer, pocket-book, reading-hall, sleeping-car Idiomatic blackbird, football (not a ball but some game), book-keeper, highway (not a way but a broad main road used esp. by traffic going from one town to another)
Morphological formal integrity of compounds blackbird’s paw, shipwreck shipwrecks ≠ (the) wreck (s) of (a ) ship( s) BUT: sweetheart & sweet heart sweethearts & sweet hearts
Syntactical grass-greenvery green grass BUT: very ≠ black market black list blue-stocking & blue stocking round-fish & round fish
Semantic the integrity of a compound word tallboy slowcoach BUT: to rain cats & dogs to pull one’s leg
SEMI-AFFIXES man land berry proof worthy like — as the 2 nd element ~ very frequent as 2 nd elements of w-s for a long time (man, berry, land) ~ are unstressed,- [ə] ~ combining activity is very great seaman airman spaceman policeman horseman gentleman
CONVERSION Eye v & eye n -S, -ED, -ED, -ING-S, -’S, -S’ difference n > difference v counterattack n > counterattack v discomfort n > discomfort v blacklist n > blacklist v inconvenience n > inconvenience v nightwatch n > nightwatch v
to blackmailto honeymoon to tiptoeto nickname to whitewash to outlineto hero-worship to shipwreckto week-end to double-crossto streamline to softpedal (смягчать) to spotlight (осветить, поместить в центр внимания)
~If anybody oranges me again tonight, I’ll knock his face off (O’Henry). ~Let me say in the beginning that even if I wanted to avoid Texas I could not, for I am wived in Texas & mother-in- lawed & uncled & aunted & cousined within an inch of my life (J.Steinbeck, Travels with Charley).
N →V:to hand, to back, to monkey, to stage, to nose, to room, to honeymoon V→N: a must, a chat, a talk, a fly, a jump, a rush, a make Adj→V: to pale, to cool, to rough, to wet, to blind, to dirty, to narrow, to wrong. But he retained my hand, & I could not free it.
N→V the action peculiar to that, denoted by N: to ape, to monkey, to wolf, to hound, to father; to act by means of that, denoted by N: to chain, to finger, to water, to iron, to knife; to supply, cover with that, denoted by N: to curtain, to dust, to shelter; to deprive of that, denoted by N: to dust, to skin; to place to that denoted by N: to table, to pocket, to house, to house, to barrack
V→N isolated action: jump, move, look; an acting object / subject: drill, dig, help, switch, tramp; a place of action: ride, forge, drive, walk, leak, show; an object / result of action: cut, find, tear, peel, burn, catch, lift Henry Marchand: mostly derogatory: bore, cheat, flirt, scold, tease
BACK-FORMATION to beg < beggarto cobble < cobbler to burgle < burglarto swindle < swindler to butle < butlerto televise < television to baby-sit < baby-sitter to house-keep < house-keeper to thought-read < thought-reader to tape-record < tape-recorder to beachcomb < beachcomber to aggressto automateto enthuse to reminisce