Presentation on theme: "Morphology and Syntax Complex Words. Simplex words and complex words to walk, to dance, to laugh, to kiss to purify, to enlarge, to industrialize, to."— Presentation transcript:
Morphology and Syntax Complex Words
Simplex words and complex words to walk, to dance, to laugh, to kiss to purify, to enlarge, to industrialize, to head-hunt house, corner, zebra collection, builder, sea horse green, old, sick regional, washable, honey-sweet
Morphemes A morpheme is the smallest part of a word that adds its own distinct bit of meaning to the word. kill-er, work-er, print-er wash-able, laugh-able re-paint-ing
Free morphemes and bound morphemes Free morphemes can stand on their own. Bound morphemes, or affixes, cannot: Q: Is that green? A: *No, at best its –ish. Q: Is she any good at football? A: *Yes, shes a great –er. Q: Does he play the piano often? A: *Yes, he –s it all the time.
Circumfixes and infixes Circumfixes: leef ge-leef-dhuur ge-huur-d play playedlive lived Infixes: base: labasverb: l-um-abas come out base: pasokverb: p-um-asok enter base: biliverb: b-um-ili buy
Compounding Combining two free morphemes: sea + horse sea horse head + strong headstrong hand + made handmade
Productivity Some types of compounding are more productive than others. N-N compounding is completely productive in English: word + kitchen word kitchen (e.g. a kitchen for morphologists) tree + laptop tree laptop (e.g. a laptop with a picture of a tree) gorilla + window gorilla window (e.g. a window through which you can see a gorilla) window + gorilla window gorilla (e.g. a gorilla that always sits behind a window) behind a window)
Derivation Making a completely new word with an affix: build build-er build verb build-er noun large en-large large adjective en-large verb industry industry-al industry noun industry-al adjective industry-al industry-al-ize industry-al adjective industry-al-ize verb
Inflection Providing grammatical information about a word with an affix: work-s (expresses that the verb has a third person singular subject) work verb -s (expresses that the verb has a third person singular subject) work-ed (expresses that the event expressed by the verb took place in the past) work verb -ed (expresses that the event expressed by the verb took place in the past) house-s (expresses that we are dealing with more than one house) house noun -s (expresses that we are dealing with more than one house)
Inflectional morphology can be obligatory in some syntactic contexts. *Sylvia usually walk to work. Sylvia usually walks to work.
Conversion Invisible morphology to build – a build-er to dance – a danc-er to run – a run-er to kill – a kill-er to cook – a cook
Conversion between different categories: to run – a run to run VERB – a run NOUN yellow – to yellow yellow ADJECTIVE – to yellow VERB down – to down down PREPOSITION – to down VERB green – a green green ADJECTIVE – a green NOUN
Null affixes in inflection: I/You usually go- to the market on Saturdays.
Tree structures Representing the structure of a complex word in the form of a tree diagram N Nplural NN s NN s school V N school V N teach er
Structural ambiguity This ex-president-office-manager works for Bill Clinton. This ex-president-office-manager is now a street artist.
NN NN N N ex N N N ex N N N manager N N N N manager N N ex N office N N manager president president office president president office