2 Simplex words and complex words to walk, to dance, to laugh, to kissto purify, to enlarge, to industrialize, to head-hunthouse, corner, zebracollection, builder, sea horsegreen, old, sickregional, washable, honey-sweet
3 MorphemesA morpheme is the smallest part of a word that adds its own distinct bit of meaning to the word.kill-er, work-er, print-erwash-able, laugh-ablere-paint-ing
5 Free morphemes and bound morphemes Free morphemes can stand on their own.Bound morphemes, or affixes, cannot:Q: Is that green?A: *No, at best it’s –ish.Q: Is she any good at football?A: *Yes, she’s a great –er.Q: Does he play the piano often?A: *Yes, he –s it all the time.
6 Suffixes and prefixes Suffixes green-ish build-er wash-able solid-ify industry-al-izePrefixesen-largere-en-actde-throneex-minister
7 Circumfixes and infixes leef ge-leef-d huur ge-huur-dplay played live livedInfixes:base: labas verb: l-um-abas ‘come out’base: pasok verb: p-um-asok ‘enter’base: bili verb: b-um-ili ‘buy’
8 Compounding Combining two free morphemes: sea + horse sea horse head + strong headstronghand + made handmade
9 ProductivitySome types of compounding are more productive than others.N-N compounding is completely productive in English:word + kitchen word kitchen (e.g. a kitchen for morphologists)tree + laptop tree laptop (e.g. a laptop with a picture of a tree)gorilla + window gorilla window (e.g. a window through which you can see a gorilla)window + gorilla window gorilla (e.g. a gorilla that always sitsbehind a window)
10 Derivation Making a completely new word with an affix: buildverb build-ernounlargeadjective en-largeverbindustrynoun industry-aladjectiveindustry-aladjective industry-al-izeverb
11 InflectionProviding grammatical information about a word with an affix:workverb-s (expresses that the verb has a third person singular subject)workverb-ed (expresses that the event expressed by the verb took place in the past)housenoun-s (expresses that we are dealing with more than one house)
12 Inflectional morphology can be obligatory in some syntactic contexts. *Sylvia usually walk to work.Sylvia usually walks to work.
13 Conversion ‘Invisible’ morphology to build – a build-er to dance – a danc-erto run – a run-erto kill – a kill-erto cook – a cook
14 Conversion between different categories: to runVERB – a runNOUNyellowADJECTIVE – to yellowVERBdownPREPOSITION – to downVERBgreenADJECTIVE – a greenNOUN
15 Null affixes in inflection: I/You usually go- to the market on Saturdays.
16 Tree structuresRepresenting the structure of a complex word in the form of a tree diagramNN pluralN N sschool V Nteach er
17 Structural ambiguityThis ex-president-office-manager works for Bill Clinton.This ex-president-office-manager is now a street artist.
18 N NN N ex NN N manager N Nex N office N N managerpresident president office