Bina Nusantara Words made from a basic word (or stem) with the addition of an affix (eg. Personality) Compound words which are made of two or more independent words (eg. Armchair) Two types of complex Words 3
Bina Nusantara The affix itself receives the primary stress ; ex. Semi + ‘circle ‘semicircle The word is stressed just as if the affix is not there; ex. ‘pleasant un’pleasant; ‘market ‘marketing. The stress remains on the stem, not the affix, but is shifted to a different syllable ; ex. : ‘magnet mag’netic. Effects on word stress 4
Bina Nusantara Stem + Affix Suffix which influence stress in the stem –eous: ‘advantage, advan’tageous –graphy: ‘photo, pho’tography –ial: ‘proverb, pro’verbial –ic: ‘climate, cli’matic –ion: ‘perfect, per’fection –ious: ‘injure, in’jurious –ty: ‘tranquil, tran’quility –ive: ‘reflex, re’flexive
Bina Nusantara Compound Words A compound word can have stress on the first element such as:‘blackboard, ‘hotbed, ‘blueberry, ‘mailman, ‘shortcake. But modifier + noun may have the stress on the second element such as:Hot ‘house, dark ‘room, black ‘bird, tender ‘foot, handy ‘man. Compound with the first element in number have final stress such as : three ‘wheeler, second ‘class, five ‘finger. Compound functioning as adverb are final stressed such as: head ’first, north ‘east, down ‘stream.
Bina Nusantara Compound Words Compound with adjectival first element and –ed morpheme at the end have this pattern, such as: bad – ’tempered ; half – ‘timbered; heavy –’handed. Compounds which function as verbs and have and adverbial first element have final stress, such as: down ‘grade, back ‘pedal, ill ‘treat.
Bina Nusantara Shifting/ Variable Stress Many words in English have shifting stress : the position of stress may shift with a change of context. In isolation, before a pause, or before a weak syllable, these words have a primary stress on the last syllable. When the primary stress in such a word occurs directly before another syllable with primary stress, the primary stress can be shifted to the front of the compound word or demoted to the second word.
Bina Nusantara Grammatical stress pattern The placement of stress mark will determine the meaning of the compound noun. 1.Compound noun pattern : ´` : blackboard, hotbed 2.Modifier + noun pattern : `´ : hot house, dark room ´high `chair : special chair for infant `high ´chair: chair that is high 3.Verb + object pattern : `´ : baking apples, racing horses 4.Verb + adverbial pattern : `´ : cutting up, handed out. But the nouns derived from this pattern has the pattern ´` : cutup, handouts.
Bina Nusantara Word Class Pair Different word class will have different stress placement ‘abstract (A) ; ab’stract (V) ‘conduct (N); con’duct (V) ‘desert (N); de’sert (V) ‘export (N), ex’port (V) ‘object (N), ob’ject (V)