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CHAPTER 11 ROME
Etruscans Foreigners Anatolia Influence: Roads, defenses, govt. Decline FOUNDATIONS
Monarchy Republic Senate TRANSITION
Aristocracy v. people Complex racial makeup Indigenous Italians Indo-Europeans Greek colonies REPUBLIC
Rivalry with neighbors Central, southern Italy by mid-4th century B.C.E. Causes? Extension of citizenship Growth of military Punic Wars 146 B.C.E., Roman victory Carthage EXPANSION
Consequences Gap betw. rich and poor Larger estates Slaves + EXPANSION
EXPANSION, 133 B.C.E.
Class conflict Julius Caesar 49 B.C.E., takes power 44 B.C.E., assassination CRISIS
Civil War Caesar's nephew, Octavian, 31 B.C.E. Empire “Augustus” CRISIS
First 2 centuries of common era Republic to dictatorship Imperial greatness “PAX ROMANA”
Imperial Rule Unification Inclusion, citizenship Roman culture EMPIRE
Augustus and His Successors Reforms Laws supporting marriage, family Building program EMPIRE
Government and Expansion Commerce regulated Grain supply Taxation EMPIRE
Farming Merchants later Family Patriarchal society EMPIRE
Equity Roman “pater” weakened Women Innocent until proven guilty ROMAN LAW
Greek influence Roman differences Rhetoric SOCIETY
Roads Best technology Engineering Stone arches Strength, longevity Public works Concrete – Roman invention Baths, buildings, aqueducts “BUILDERS”
Increases with empire war captives SLAVERY
Violent, bloody fights Humans, animals To death betting GLADIATORS
Bath houses All Romans Clean and elaborate Process d Steam Warm water Hothouse – dry bath Warm pool Cleaning, scraping, dried Lukewarm bath Cold bath Food, drink, sex THERMAE
Meretrix – prostitute Mainly slaves, some Romans Highly regulated Clothes, taxes, officials Lupanar – brothel Different conditions Well organized Many involved in operations Small rooms; dark, gloomy Little privacy PROSTITUTION
THE ROMAN EMPIRE FROM AUGUSTUS TO 180 C.E.
In Roman empire, not culture Jesus of Nazareth Reform Judaism Love, charity, humility Popular following CHRISTIANITY
Growing popularity Why? Paul of Tarsus Initially anti-Christian Spread Christian message Jesus – real person Dynamic, aggressive, equality Rich and poor Beliefs CHRISTIANITY
Christian religion Greek and Roman ideals Imperial cult Persecution CHRISTIANITY
Christianity Most important ritual: eucharist Wine: centerpiece, duty Blood of Christ Miracles Sacred vs. secular Moderation ALCOHOL
Wine production Convivium – Dinner party Coarse, rowdy (compared to Greeks) Drunkenness, lewd conduct ALCOHOL
Challenges Declining revenue Borders threatened Fewer slaves Epidemics DECLINE
Classical Mediterranean Heritage Passed on Greek culture + contributions in law, architecture, empire DECLINE
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