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Humongous Insurance PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION. GOALS to reduce the morbidity of surgery to increase the quality but decrease the cost of perioperative care.

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Presentation on theme: "Humongous Insurance PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION. GOALS to reduce the morbidity of surgery to increase the quality but decrease the cost of perioperative care."— Presentation transcript:


2 GOALS to reduce the morbidity of surgery to increase the quality but decrease the cost of perioperative care to return the patient to desirable functioning as quickly as possible These goals have been facilitated by a preoperative meeting 2

3 Meeting specific purposes 1.To obtain patient's medical history and physical and mental conditions, in order to determine which tests and consultations are needed 2.Guided by patient choices and the risk factors uncovered by the medical history, to choose the care plans to be followed 3.To obtain informed consent 4.To educate the patient about anesthesia, perioperative care, and pain treatments 5.To make perioperative care more efficient and less expensive 6.To motivate the patient to more optimal health 3

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5 Preoperative evaluation strives to answer three questions: 1.Is the patient in optimal health? 2.Can, or should, the patient's physical or mental condition be improved before surgery? 3.Does the patient have any health problems or use any medications that could unexpectedly influence perioperative events? 5

6 Such an evaluation must include: review of hospital chart(s) and prior anesthesia records consultation with the primary care physician history-taking physical examination evaluation of laboratory tests obtained, ordering of additional laboratory tests discussion of perioperative anesthesia plans with the patient in a way that provides accurate information and reduces patient anxiety 6

7 History-taking The rule of threes The three aspects of acute history: Exercise tolerance History of present illness and its treatments When the patient last visited with her or his primary care physician 7

8 History-taking The rule of threes The three aspects of chronic history: Medications and causes for their use and allergies Social history including drug, alcohol, and tobacco use and cessation Family history and history of prior illnesses and operations 8

9 The rule of threes The three aspects of physical examination: Airway Cardiovascular Lung, plus those aspects specific to the patient's condition or planned procedure, such as a sensory nerve examination if a regional block is planned 9

10 History-taking General items -When did you last have anesthesia? -Do you have any problems with anesthesia? Have any of your family members had any problems with anesthesia? - -Do you have allergies? -What are you allergic to? -Have you had any blood tests in the last 6 months? -Have you had a chest x-ray in the last 2 months? -Have you had an electrocardiogram (ECG) in the last 2 months? -Has your stool been checked for blood or have you had a colonoscopy, etc., in the last year? -Have you been a patient in a hospital, an emergency department, or an outpatient surgery center in the last 2 years? If so, why? What part of the hospital (for example, critical care unit)? How long were you there? -Do you take any medications? -What medications do you take? -Do you take any medications not prescribed by your doctor, that you purchase through the internet or from a shelf at a drugstore, health food store, or grocery store? -Do you take any supplements or vitamins or minerals? (These can interact substantially with perioperative medications.) -Do you wear contact lenses? -Do you currently use eye drops prescribed by a doctor? -When did you have an alcoholic drink? -Have you ever had a drinking problem? 10

11 Cardiovascular Disease CONFIDENTIAL11 Most important is to determine the patient's cardiovascular reserve

12 Cardiovascular Disease… What is the most vigorous activity you've done in the last 3 weeks? How far have you walked in the last week without stopping? Can you walk a block without stopping? When did you last do so? Can you walk 4 blocks without stopping? When did you last do so? Have you ever awakened and felt short of breath? Do you become short of breath after climbing a flight of stairs or after walking a short distance? When did you last climb a flight of stairs? Are you able to walk up stairs at the same rate as 5 years ago? Can you climb 2 flights of stairs without stopping? When did you last do so? Have you ever had a heart attack, or have you ever been treated for a possible heart attack? Do you have heart problems such as skipped heart beats, angina, or chest pain? Have you been told that you have a heart murmur or rheumatic fever? Have you ever been told that you have mitral valve prolapse? Have you ever had heart or lung surgery? Do your ankles ever swell? Are you ever short of breath? When? Do you ever have chest pains, angina, chest heaviness, or chest tightness? Do you ever have indigestion that does not occur after overeating? Have you ever been told by your doctor to exercise or diet to control high blood pressure? Have you ever been a patient in a critical care unit (cardiac care unit, intensive coronary care unit)? Have you passed out or nearly passed out in the last year? Why? Do you sleep with more than one pillow at night? (This question is useful only for men and women over age 60, as 50% of younger women sleep with two pillows) Do you currently take water pills or diuretics? Do you take medication for high blood pressure or medication to prevent high blood pressure? Do you currently take potassium pills or powder? Do you currently take anticoagulants or blood-thinning medicine? Have you ever been told to take, or have you ever been given, antibiotics before routine dental work? 12

13 Respiratory and Airway Problems most important consideration regarding the respiratory system is securing the airway -Do you wear dentures, a crown, a partial, or a bridge? -Are any of your teeth loose, cracked, chipped, or capped? -Have you ever had anesthesia? -Have you or any blood relative ever had any problems with anesthesia? -Can you open your mouth fully? -Do your joints ever click, pop, or hurt? -Have you ever been treated for a problem of the jaw joint (that is, a temporomandibular joint [TMJ] problem)? -Have you ever been hoarse for more than 1 month? -Do you snore, or do others say you snore? (This question proved to be the best predictor of difficult intubation when our computer-based health history was compared with outcome studies but was not very specific [four of five patients who answered yes to this question did not have a difficult intubation].) -Do you ever fall asleep in the daytime? Have you ever had a near-miss car accident because you almost fell asleep in the daytime? Was this not after a period of intentional sleep deprivation? How often? -Have you gained weight recently? (A 10% weight gain increases the number of apneic episodes by 30%) -Have you ever had cancer? -Have you ever had, or been treated for, arthritis? -Do you have neck stiffness or problems moving your head? -Have you ever been told you had diphtheria? (Diphtheria can cause narrowing of the airway.) The following questions search for lung disease: -Have you ever had pneumonia? When? -Have you ever undergone lung surgery? -Do you have shortness of breath, wheezing, chest pain, bronchitis, asthma, or emphysema? -Do you cough regularly or frequently? -Do you cough up mucus (sputum or phlegm)? -In the last 4 weeks, have you had a fever, chills, cold, or flu? -Do you smoke or have you ever smoked? When did you stop? -Do you use spit or chew tobacco? -Have you ever smoked half a pack or more of cigarettes a day on a regular basis? -Have you ever smoked a pipe or cigars on a regular basis? 13

14 Hepatic and Gastrointestinal Disease Have you ever been diagnosed as having a hiatus hernia? - Have you ever been diagnosed as having a hiatus hernia? -Have you ever had hepatitis, yellow jaundice, liver disease, or malaria? -Have you ever had gallstones or gallbladder disease? -Are your stools ever bloody or black and tarry? -Have you seen bright red blood on your stool or on toilet tissue after wiping? -Have your bowel habits changed this year? -Do you often have diarrhea? -Have you ever vomited blood or material that looks like coffee grounds in the last 6 months? -Do you have frequent nausea or vomiting? -Have you lost weight this year without trying? -Has your appetite for food changed in the last year? -Are you eating the same foods you ate a year ago? -Have you had heartburn within the last month? -Are you now being treated, or have you been treated, for ulcer disease? -Are you currently taking antacids 14

15 History-taking Bleeding Problems Have you ever had a blood problem such as anemia or leukemia? -Have you ever had a blood problem such as anemia or leukemia? -Have you ever had a problem with blood clotting? -Have you ever had a serious bleeding problem? -Have you received a blood transfusion since 1979? -Do you use any medications such as aspirin or vitamins such as vitamin E or supplements such as ginseng or garlic known to affect blood clotting? How much? How often? When did you last use such? -Has a family member or blood relative ever had a serious bleeding problem? -Have you ever had prolonged or unusual bleeding from cuts, nosebleeds, minor bruises, tooth extractions, or surgery? -Have you ever had excessive bleeding that required blood transfusion? 15

16 History-taking Renal Disease Have you ever had any kidney problem? -Have you ever had any kidney problem? -Have you ever had kidney failure, dialysis, or kidney infections? -Have you ever had kidney stones? -Are you undergoing dialysis for kidney problems? -Have you had changes in bowel or bladder function in the last year? -Has your appetite for food changed in the last year? (Voluntary avoidance of foods having a high protein content is a subtle sign of renal disease.) 16

17 History-taking Endocrine Disturbances -Do you wake up at night to urinate? How often? -Have you ever been told that you have diabetes or sugar diabetes? -Do you take, or have you taken steroids, cortisone, muscle-building supplements or steroids, or DHEAs or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the last year? -Do you perspire (sweat) much more than others or a great deal every now and then? -How often do you have headaches? -Does your face flush or get red every now and then, even when you are not exercising -Have you ever taken medicine (e.g., Synthroid [levothyroxine]) or had radioactive iodine ( 131 I) for thyroid disease? -Do you consistently like the room warmer or colder than your spouse does? -Do you have muscle cramps or spasma in your legs more than three times a year? 17

18 History-taking Neurologic Disease -Have you ever had a seizure, convulsion, fit, stroke, or paralysis? -Have you ever been diagnosed as having a tremor? -Have you ever had migraine headaches? -Have you ever had nerve injury, multiple sclerosis, or any other disorder of the nervous system? -Have you ever had numbness, tingling, or "pins-and-needles" in your arm or leg that has lasted more than 2 hours? -Have you taken antidepressant, sedative, tranquilizing, or antiseizure medications in the last year? Do you take SAM-e (adenosyl methionine) or St. John's Wort because of feeling blue? (I might add, if the patient is a woman over age 45 years, Do you take any medications for hot flashes or for peri- or postmenopausal symptoms?). 18

19 History-taking Musculoskeletal Disease -Have you ever had low back pain? -Have you been working at your usual job or doing your normal activities in the last week? -Have you taken pain pills or had pain shots in the last 6 months? 19

20 History-taking Sensitive Areas of Concern: possibility of pregnancy, illicit drug use, and the potential for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) -Within the last 2 years, have you taken nonprescription drugs, such as cocaine, crack, heroin, or LSD? -Have you been exposed to the body fluids (blood, semen, urine, or saliva) of anyone likely to have the AIDS virus? -Are you in any of the groups at high risk for AIDS (homosexuals, bisexuals, hemophiliacs, and those who have had sex with a prostitute within the last 18 years)? -Would you like to undergo a test to find out whether you have been exposed to the AIDS virus? 20

21 The Physical Examination -Determination of arterial blood pressure in both arms, and in at least one arm 2 minutes after the patient assumes the upright position after lying down. -Examination of the pulses and of the chest for heaves, thrusts, pulsations, murmurs, and gallops. -Examination of the carotid and jugular pulses. -Examination of the chest and auscultation of the bases of the heart for subtle rales suggestive of congestive heart failure, or for rhonchi, wheezes, and other sounds indicative of lung disease. -Observation of the patient's walk for signs of neurologic disease and to assess back mobility and general health. -Examination of the eyes for abnormal movement and, along with the skin, for signs of jaundice, cyanosis, nutritional abnormalities, and dehydration. -The fingers are checked for clubbing. -Examination of the airway and mouth for neck mobility, tongue size, oral lesions, and ease of intubation. -Functional evaluation of cardiovascular risk by observing vigor and stamina in walking. -Examination of the legs for bruising, edema, clubbing, mobility, sensation, and adequacy of hair growth (or skin texture) as signs of circulatory competence. 21

22 DETECTING DISEASE: HISTORY, PHYSICAL EXAMINATION, AND CHART REVIEW VERSUS LABORATORY TESTS combination of history-taking and physical examination is the best tool for optimal evaluation of patients and optimal selection of laboratory tests (i.e., selection of only those tests that have a greater chance of benefiting rather than harming the patient). The problems with ordering batteries of laboratory tests for all patients: -laboratory tests are not very good screening devices for disease. -the subsequent "extra" tests that physicians order as a follow-up of supposedly abnormal results are costly. -nonindicated tests often represent additional risk for the patient, increase medicolegal risk for the physician, and render ORs in outpatient centers and hospitals inefficient. 22

23 why laboratory tests do not have more benefit for the perioperative patient? most abnormalities in asymptomatic patients do not reflect the presence of disease. the distribution of results in a population of patient is gaussian (i.e., normal). The values defining "abnormal" are set arbitrarily" Therefore, 5% of test results from patients without disease will be "outside the hospital reference range." If one were to order 100 hemoglobin determinations for a sample of healthy patients, 5% of the results would be expected to be "abnormal." Ordering multiple preoperative tests increases the chances of at least one abnormal result. 23

24 why laboratory tests do not have more benefit for the perioperative patient? Assuming that results of tests are independent of one another, the more tests ordered, the higher the likelihood of an abnormal result. For example, if two tests are ordered for a patient without disease, the chance of both being normal is 0.95 × 0.95 or For 20 tests, the chance that all would be normal would be only 36%. The chance that at least one result will be abnormal is 64%. Thus, if one uses more than 13 tests to screen patients before surgery, one should expect at least one abnormal test result. 24

25 Preoperative Testing ?!! Studies show that : the history and physical examination are the best ways to screen for disease no harm from omitting all laboratory testing for ASA I patients the history and physical examination dictated the appropriate laboratory testing Laboratory tests can be used to screen for disease when the patient has appropriate risk factors and when such tests have proved effective 25

26 Medicolegal Liability "Extra testing"—testing not warranted by findings on a medical history—does not provide medicolegal protection against liability Studies show that 30% to 95% of all unexpected abnormalities found on preoperative laboratory tests are not noted on the chart before surgery the failure to pursue an abnormality appropriately poses a greater risk of medicolegal liability than does failure to detect that abnormality pursuit of unexpected abnormalities in asymptomatic patients is more likely to harm than benefit such patients 26

27 Operating Room Schedules surgeons find it easier just to order all the tests and let the anesthesiologist sort them out. Surgeons also believe that it is much more efficient to order batteries of tests than to have an anesthesiologist, who sees the patient the night before or the morning of surgery, obtain the tests on an emergency basis. This line of reasoning overlooks the fact that abnormalities arising from tests performed in the battery fashion are usually not discovered until the night before or the morning of surgery, if at all. 27

28 Does Surgical Procedure Influence Laboratory Test Choice and Requirements? 28 Type A procedures are minimally invasive operations. I believe that no laboratory testing is indicated for these operations, based on preoperative status alone. Type B and C procedures are progressively more risky and invasive. Therefore, often require more preoperative testing.

29 Chest Radiographs What abnormalities on chest radiographs can influence management of anesthesia? tracheal deviation or compression mediastinal masses pulmonary nodules a solitary lung mass aortic aneurysm pulmonary edema Pneumonia Atelectasis new fractures of the vertebrae, ribs, and clavicles Dextrocardia cardiomegaly. 29

30 Chest Radiographs 30 In fact, the risks associated with chest radiographs probably exceed their possible benefit if the patient is asymptomatic and less than 75 years of age

31 Electrocardiograms atrial flutter or fibrillation first-, second-, and third-degree atrioventricular block changes in ST segment suggesting myocardial ischemia or recent pulmonary embolism premature ventricular and atrial contractions, especially those that are frequent (i.e., greater than 3 per minute) left or right ventricular hypertrophy short PR interval Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome myocardial infarction prolonged QT segment tall peaked T waves 31 The abnormalities on the ECG that have the potential to alter management of anesthesia:

32 Electrocardiograms ECGs are indicated for asymptomatic patients of average risk undergoing type B or C procedures who are over 40 (men) or 50 (women) years of age. one would be justified in obtaining repeat ECGs prior to elective surgery for above patients who have recently had an ECG if it is more than 5 months old or was abnormal. 32

33 Evaluating cardiovascular risk for patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: 33

34 Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, and White Blood Cell Counts 34 Polycythemia: -Most data confirm that polycythemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality -Most physicians arbitrarily do not treat unless the hemoglobin level is greater than 16 mg/dL -Most physicians arbitrarily do not treat unless the hemoglobin level is greater than 16 mg/dL.

35 Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, and White Blood Cell Counts No data confirm the hypothesis that preoperative treatment of moderate or mild normovolemic anemia in class-A patients decreases perioperative morbidity or mortality. No data exist regarding the possible harm from abnormal white blood cell counts found preoperatively. Therefore, the following ranges of "surgically acceptable values" are arbitrary: -for hematocrit, 29% to 57% for men and 27% to 54% for women -for white blood cell count, 2,400 to 16,000/mm 3 for both men and women. 35

36 Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, and White Blood Cell Counts preoperative hematocrit or hemoglobin levels should be determined for: all female surgical patients all male surgical patients over 64 years of age who are undergoing type B or C surgical procedures Red cell antigen screening would be warranted for all patients undergoing procedures involving possible blood loss of more than 2 U/70 kg body weight (type B and C surgical procedures) White blood cell counts appear to be rarely, if ever, justified for asymptomatic patients 36

37 Blood Chemistries, Urinalysis, and Clotting Studies Albumin albumin level was an important predictor of perioperative morbidity and mortality in every surgical specialty. It may therefore be time to add this laboratory test for patients undergoing surgical class C procedures, and for patients who have a physiologic age (RealAge) of over 85 who are undergoing surgical class B procedures. 37

38 38 Blood Chemistries, Urinalysis, and Clotting Studies blood glucose assays are indicated: - before type B and C procedures -for individuals over 75 years of age

39 39 Blood Chemistries, Urinalysis, and Clotting Studies BUN assays are indicated: before type B and C procedures for patients over 65 years of age

40 Clotting Studies 40 Although partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and prothrombin time (PT) are useful tests for screening patients who have a history of bleeding, their value as screening tests for asymptomatic patients has never been shown

41 the patient taking aspirin: Aspirin at a dose of 3 to 10 mg/kg of body weight daily does not seem to pose a risk of bleeding Because the pharmacokinetics of aspirin change when more than 2 g/70 kg of body weight is consumed daily, a patient should be evaluated that there is no appreciable level of acetylsalicyclic acid in the blood for 24 hours before surgery The patient should also be evaluated if surgical hemostasis cannot be ensured or if a regional procedure into a closed space is planned. 41 Blood Chemistries, Urinalysis, and Clotting Studies

42 Tests for HIV, Pregnancy, Hemoglobinopathies, Malignant Hyperthermia, and Magnesium Deficiency raise ethical questions the history is still the best tool for identifying those who should be tested or those who are at risk of the condition. In the past, no screening test has existed for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia syndrome (MHS) other than a personal or family history of the condition. Several new tests are available; none uses genetic testing, but one is expected to be available shortly. 42

43 Malignant Hyperthermia It is still too early to predict the usefulness of these tests as a screening procedure for MHS 43

44 Hypomagnesemia is a prevalent laboratory finding in hospitalized patients. Some investigators believe that serum Mg should be measured routinely in hospitalized patients because of the high prevalence of hypomagnesemia coupled with the difficulty of diagnosing hypomagnesemia on clinical grounds alone. I could not find any data indicating better perioperative outcome in patients not undergoing cardiovascular surgery because of routine detection and correction of hypomagnesemia. 44

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46 Procedure for determining when pulmonary function tests are warranted 46

47 signs and symptoms of significant liver disease that warrant the performance of liver function tests 47

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