Presentation on theme: "Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology Seventh Edition"— Presentation transcript:
1Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology Seventh Edition By Andrew KarmenChapter One: What is Victimology?
2VICTIMOLOGY“Scientific study of physical, emotional, and financial harm people suffer because of illegal activities.”Included in this definition is the victimization occurring for victims within the criminal justice system.
3VICTIMOLOGYVictims—Individuals who experience loss, injury, or hardship for any reasonCrime Victims—Above as result of an illegal actDirect/Primary Victims—Experience criminal act and its consequences first-handIndirect/Secondary Victims—Family and those who suffer emotionally or financially but are not immediately involved. Can also include care-givers and first responders
4Studying Victimization Scientifically Subjective ApproachIssues are approached from standpoint of morality, ethics, philosophy, personalized reactions, and emotionsObjective ApproachRequires observer to be fair, open-minded, even-handed, dispassionate, neutral, and unbiased
5Studying of Victimization Scientifically Why should victimologists NOT be pro-victim?“Ideal Victim”: person who suffered harm was weaker than aggressor, acting virtuously or not looking for trouble or breaking any laws, and wrongdoer was a stranger acting illegally and was unprovoked
6Victims or Offenders? Who is the victim and who is the offender? Not always clear cut—consider the following:Subway VigilanteMenendez Brothers
7Criminals as Victims Victims not always “innocent;” Examples Gang members attacking another gangDrug dealer ripping off a customerA “john” robbing a prostitute (or vice-versa)
8Cycle of ViolenceCycle of violence over time can transform victim(s) into victimizer(s)Group of picked on students may gang up against the bullyBattered wife may launch a vengeful attack against husbandConvicts much more likely to have been abused physically or sexually as children
9Victims vs. “Good Guys”Victimologists do not limit their studies to clashes between victims and offendersThey also consider the social reaction to victimizationVictims are often “used” by other partiesMedia sensationalizes some casesOrganizations with an agenda might use a victim’s plight for publicity, fund raising, etc.
10Victimology’s Undeserved “Bad Reputation” Victimology during the 90s and into the twentieth century has become a “dirty word” to many peopleDo not confuse “victimism” with “victimology”“Victimology” is often misused, when the author intends to describe “victimism.” The next slide is an example of mis-using the word “victimology”
11Victimology’s Undeserved “Bad Reputation” (Leo, 1994) a news magazine commentator complained, “We are deep into the era of the abuse excuse. The doctrine of victimology—claiming victim status means you are not responsible for your actions—is beginning to warp the legal system.”
12Victimology’s Undeserved “Bad Reputation” Victimology is a new academic discipline that only means “the study of victims.”It is focused on the research about people harmed by criminalsIt does not impose a partisan point of view or a set or predictably biased conclusionsThe ideology of “victimism” is a coherent, integrated set of beliefs that shapes interpretations and leads to political action
13Victimology’s Undeserved “Bad Reputation” Victimological research must tell the whole truth regardless of who is disappointed or insultedThree types of biases undermine the ability of any social scientist to achieve objectivity. They include:
14Three Types of Bias1. May arise from personal experience, taking the form of individual preferences and prejudices2. Derives from the history of the discipline itselfPioneers in the study of victimology first introduced the concept of victim-blamingToday, majority of victimologists are pro-victim
15Three Types of Bias3. A subtle bias traced back to the mood of the times60s-70s: a demand for government to devise ways to help victims get back on their feet financially, medically, and emotionally80s: a theme of self-reliance and a reduction in government social spending and tax cutting gained popularity
16The Origins of Victimology Box 1.3, Page 17, provides highlights in the brief history of Victimology and Victim AssistanceSignificant gains in the United States when the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice urged criminologists to pay more attention to victims
17Milestones in Victimology By the 1970s victimology became a recognized field of studyBy 1990, 240 colleges and universities offered courses in victimologyMost states passed crime victim rights amendments to their state constitution2004—Congress enacts the Crime Victims’ Rights Act which provides for fair treatment and opportunities for input in federal court proceedings
18Victimology vs. Criminology Victimology is best viewed as an area of specialization within criminologyCriminology embraces the scientific study of crimes, criminals, criminal laws and the justice system, societal reactions, and crime victims
19Victimology vs. Criminology Victimologists ask why some individuals, households, and entities are targeted while others are notCriminologists ask why certain individuals become involved in lawbreaking while others do not
20Victimology vs. Criminology Criminologists apply their findings to devise crime prevention strategiesVictimologists use patterns and trends to develop victimization prevention strategies and risk-reduction tacticsBoth criminologists and victimologists study how the criminal justice system actually works versus how it is supposed to work
21Victimology vs.. Criminology BoundariesBoundaries are clear cut for CriminologyBoundaries for Victimology still unclearOverlap due to lack of boundariesCrime rates vs. victimization rates
22Divisions Within The Discipline Conservative InfluenceFocuses primarily on street crimesEveryone to be held accountable for their decisions and actionsEmphasis on self reliance, NOT governmentIndividual responsibility for preventing, avoiding, resisting and recovering from criminal actsStrictly punish offenders on behalf of their victims
23Divisions Within The Discipline Liberal InfluenceScope of field to extend beyond street crimesEndorse government interventionExtend ‘safety net’ mechanisms for all kinds of misfortunesLook to wrongdoers repaying their victims to allow for reconciliation
24Divisions Within The Discipline Radical/Critical/Conflict InfluenceVictimization is a result of oppressive social systemLooks toward societal factors such as poverty, unemployment, language barriers, etc as explanations behind crime
25What Victimologists Do Victimologists explore the interactions between victims and offenders, victims and the criminal justice system, and victims and societyVictimologists study the ways in which crime victims are harmed, including physical injury, psychological trauma, and financial loss.
26What Victimologists Do Four step process victimologists follow when carrying out their research:Step 1: Identify, Define, and Describe the ProblemStep 2: Measure the True Dimensions of the ProblemStep 3: Observe How Victims Are HandledStep 4: Gather Evidence to Test Hypotheses