Heat Transfer Heat is a type of energy that can be transferred to foods by conduction, convection, or radiation.
Conduction The movement of heat from one item to another through direct contact. Copper and Aluminum are the best metal conductors. Conduction is important in all cooking methods because it cooks from the outside in
Convection The transfer of heat caused by a natural movement of molecules in a fluid; whether air, water, or fat Two types: Natural and Mechanical
Radiation Energy is transferred by waves of heat or light striking the food. Infrared – uses electric or ceramic element that is heated to such high temperature, it gives off waves of radiant heat.
Radiation Cont… Microwave – radiation is generated by agitating water molecules which creates friction and heat. Microwave does not brown food…Not a good replacement for an oven!
Effect of heat on…. Protein – Coagulates Coagulation –the irreversible transformation of proteins from liquid or semi liquid state to a solid state.
Effect of heat on…. Starches – Gelatinize Gelatinization – starch granules absorb water, causing them to swell, soften, and clarify slightly.
Effects of heat on… Sugars – Caramelize Caramelization – when sugar cooks and gradually turns brown and adds flavor. Responsible for most flavors we associate with cooking.
Effects of heat on… Water – Evaporates Fat – Melts
Cooking Methods Dry Heat Cooking using air or fat Moist Heat Applying heat to food by submerging it directly into a hot liquid or by exposing it to steam Combination Heat Uses both dry and moist heat cooking methods
Cooking Method – Dry Heat Broiling – uses radiant heat from an overhead source Grilling – uses a heat source below the cooking surface
Cooking Method – Dry Heat Roasting and Baking – surrounding food with dry, heated air in a closed environment Sautèing – heat from a hot pan cooks food with a small amount of fat
Cooking Methods – Dry Heat Pan frying – heat is transferred from pan and fat to food that is typically breaded. Heat is also transferred through the hot fat by convection. Deep frying – uses convection and conduction to heat food that is submerged in hot fat.
Cooking Method – Moist Heat Simmering – uses convection to transfer heat from liquid to food Usually used to tenderize foods through long, slow, moist heat cooking
Cooking Method – Moist Heat Boiling – uses convection to transfer heat from liquid to food. Rapidly bubbling liquid
Cooking Method – Moist Heat Poaching – uses convection to transfer heat from liquid to a food The food is placed in liquid that is held between 160° to 180°. Do Not Boil!
Cooking Methods – Moist Heat Steaming – uses convection to transfer heat from steam to the food being cooked. Usually used to cook delicate foods that don’t need long to cook
Cooking Method - Combination Braising – usually larger pieces of food that are browned in a small amount of fat; then liquid is added to the pan and it is cooked in the oven or on the stove at a low temperature for a long period of time.
Cooking Method - Combination Stewing – smaller pieces of food that are browned in fat and finished in a liquid sauce. Simmered at a constant temperature until tender.
Daily Dessert What are the 3 cooking methods? and give an example of each.