2cooking timesThe time it takes to heat the food to the desired temperature.Food is “done”, when the desired changes have taken place.There are THREE affecting factors:
31. cooking temperatureCooking Temperature: the temperature of the air in the oven, the fat in the fryer, the surface of the griddle, or the liquid in which food is cooking.
42. The speed of heat transfer Different cooking methods transfer heat at different rates.Air is a poor conductor of heat.Steam conducts heat much faster and more intensely.Forced air in a convection oven heats food faster than a normal oven.
53. Size, temperature, and food characteristics The rate of cooking depends on the size of the food item.The temperature from which the food product began cooking affects the cooking time.The density of the food, such as meats and fish, affect the cooking time.
6chef’s responsibility Due to the many variables, it is difficult to determine accurate cooking times.Kitchen equipment varies greatly from kitchen to kitchen due to age and efficiently.Cooking times are to be used as guidelines.Cooks are responsible for making the final determinations regarding the doneness of food products.Steam carries more heat then boiling, therefore cooking times must be monitored carefully, to avoid overcooking.
7Cooking methodsMOIST HEAT - Heat is conducted to the food by water or water based products, such as stocks, sauces, steam.DRY-HEAT - Heat is conducted without moisture, by air, metal, radiation, or hot fat. Dry heat methods are divided into with/ without fat.
10boiling to cook in a liquid that is bubbling rapidly and greatly agitated. Water boils at 212° F (100°C)Reserved for vegetables and starches, because their composition can handle this rigorous cooking method.High temperatures toughen proteins and the rapid boiling can break up delicate foods.
11Boiling212 degrees F.Boiling food is the process of cooking it in a boiling liquid, usually water.Boiling water has a temperature of 212°, and no matter how long it boils or how hard it boils, it never becomes hotter; for at that point it is transformed by the heat into steam, and in time boils away.This temperature varies with the atmospheric pressure, which in turn varies with both altitude and weather.
12Simmering 185 degrees to 200 degrees F. 85° C - 96° C Simmering is usually reserved for tougher cuts or items that need more time to cook.The temperature of the liquid is usually between 185° and 205°F. A simmer is sometimes called a "gentle boil."Small bubbles periodically rise to the surface - the gentler and slower the bubbles, the lower the temperature.NOTE: You can simmer with a lid, but remember the temperature inside the pot will rise and the simmer can very easily turn into a boil.The simmered item renders a broth that is served as the sauce with your dish.
1371° C - 82°C Poaching 160 degrees to 180 degrees F. Poaching is "to cook an item by submerging it in a liquid that is just barley simmering." Poaching is not a rolling boil. Poaching, compared to boiling, is a much gentler technique.Poaching generally calls for food to be fully submerged in a liquid that is kept at a constant and moderate temperature, between 160° and 180°F. Keeping the temperature constant can take a little practice. The surface of the liquid should just shimmer with the possibility of a bubble.The liquid is generally well flavored - stock, broth, court bouillon infused with herbs, spices or anything the imagination can conceive.Usually the most delicate of foods, like eggs, fish, fruit, and some organ meats are poached. The food must be completely submerged in the water.
14general ruleWHETHER A FOOD IS TO BE POACHED, SIMMERED OR BOILED; THE WATER IS GENERALLY BROUGHT TO A BOIL FIRST.
15BLANCHING To partially cook an item. Usually in water, but also in other liquids.Such as French Fries in oil.Blanching proteins or vegetablesTwo methods of blanching.
16BLANCHING - METHOD ONEPlace the item in cold water, bring to a boil, and simmer briefly.Cool the item by plunging it in cold water.Used to dissolve out blood, impurities, salt, from meat and bones.
17BLANCHING - METHOD TWOPlace the item in rapidly boiling water and return to the boil.Remove the item and cool in cold water.To set the color, destroy harmful enzymes, and loosen skins.
181500 ft above sea level - 203°F - 95°C altitudeThe boiling point of water is lower at higher altitudes.Water boils at a lower temperature as the altitude above sea level increases.Therefore, it takes longer to boil food products to doneness, at these lower temperature.1500 ft above sea level - 203°F - 95°Csea level - 212°F - 100°C
19steam to cook foods by exposing them directly to steam In large quatities, steaming is done in steam cookers, that are designed to use hotel pans.Steaming can also be done on a rack above boiling water.
20steaming Can also be done in a tightly covered pan. OR “en papillote”, wrapped in parchmnet paper.
21pressure steamer a cooker that hold in steam under pressure The temperature in the steamer goes above 100°C due to the biuld up of steam molecules contained under pressure.Pressure - pounds per square inch5 psi °C10 psi °C15 psi °C
22Braise to cook covered in a small amount of liquid, usually after browning, liquid served as a sauce Braising can be defined as a combination metod, because the product is first browned using dry heat method, however the majority of the cooking is done by moist heat. The brownng is done to develop flavor and color.Technically, the term braising is used for larger cuts of meat, and the term stewing is used for smaller food items.
23braising characteristics Braised meats are browned first.Vegetables can be braised in small amount of liquid, they do not always have to be browned first.Braising liquids should not completely cover the item. One to two thirds, depending on how much sauce is desired.Poultry and fish can be braised without liquid, because they produce their own liquid from the moisture trapped by the cover.Braising can be done on the stove top or in the oven.
24oven braising - advantages UNIFORM COOKINGLESS ATTENTION REQUIREDFREES SPACE ON STOVE TOP
25DRY HEAT METHODS ROAST AND BAKE BROIL GRILL, GRIDDLE, AND PAN BROIL USING FATSAUTÉPAN FRYDEEP FRY
26SAUTé - to jump Note: Not all items need to be tossed in the pan. Preheat the pan.Don’t overcrowd the panMeat can be dusted with flour to prevent stickingA liquid is used to deglaze the pan.
27pan-fry to cook in a modrat amount of fat in a pan over moderate heat More fat is used in pan-frying and the cooking time is longer.It is for larger pieces of food and they are not tossed or flipped in the pan.Use a lower heat for a longer time period, as the food is larger.The amount of fat depends on the item being pan- fried.Foods are turned at least once for even cooking.Items can be finished in an oven to simplify production of large quantities.
28deep frying to cook a food submrged in hot fat CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD DEEP FRYING:Minimum fat absortionMinimum moisture lossGolden colorCrisp coatingProtective bread coatings are of high high qualityNo flavors from the oil
29deep frying guidlines Ensure proper temperatures 350°C - 375° C Too low frying temperatures result in greasy foodDo not overload the fry basketsUse good quality fat with a high smoke point.Replace 15% - 20% of fat after each daily use, discard used fat.Avoid combining different flavour combinations.Fry as close to service as possible, fried foods do not hold well.
30protect frying fat from: heat :Turn fryer off when not in useoxygen: keep covered, aerate as little as possiblewater: remove moisture from foods, dry basketssalt: never salt over fryerfood particles: skim & strain regularly, remove loose food particles from product.