Presentation on theme: "BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES Effects of heat on food: Foods are composed of: Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Water Minerals, Vitamins & Pigments "— Presentation transcript:
BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES Effects of heat on food: Foods are composed of: Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Water Minerals, Vitamins & Pigments It is important to understand how these components react when heated or are mixed with other foods
BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES Carbohydrates o Starches and sugars are both carbohydrates found in: fruits, vegetables, grains, beans and nuts. Meats and fish also contain a small amount o Two most important changes caused by cooking: Caramelization o Browning of sugars (browning vegetables and golden colour of bread crust) Gelatinization o Starches absorb water and swell (thickening sauces)
BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES Fat Facts Present in: Meats, poultry, fish Eggs, milk products Nuts and whole grains Fruits and vegetables Break down when heated Smoke when they become hot enough Higher smoke point fats are good for deep frying
BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES The science of heat… Cooking is the transfer of heat energy from some source to the food In the kitchen there are three devices that are used to cook food: The stovetop Conventional oven Microwave oven Each of these devices are designed around a different method of heat transfer. The movement of heat is so important that there is a name for it: Thermodynamics
BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES Conduction Heat transfer through direct contact. When cooking on the stovetop, the heat from the flame or electric grill is applied directly to the frying pan. This means that only the flat surface of the pan is sufficiently hot enough to cook anything and we must flip and toss around the food to cook it properly. It is important to note that most pans are made of metals, like copper, that conduct heat very efficiently and do not melt on the stovetop.
BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES Convection Heat transfer through a fluid. The fluid can be liquid or gas and in the case of a convection oven, the fluid we care about is air. An oven is a confined area that gets hot by flames or electric coils. The air inside is warmed to a desired temperature and, as a result, cooks the food from all directions. This method of heat transfer is responsible for pizzas, cakes, and other baked treats!
BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES Radiation The transfer of heat using electromagnetic radiation. A microwave oven uses very strong radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation), which are very weak and not hot Microwave ovens work by spinning water, fats, sugars and oils inside the food. This causes friction, which then heats the food and cooks it from the inside.
BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES Cooking Methods Moist Heat: Poach, simmer, boil Cooking in water or seasoned, flavored liquid Steam Expose foods directly to steam Braise Cooked covered in a small amount of liquid
BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES Dry Heat Roast/Bake To cook foods by surrounding them with hot, dry air Cook uncovered Meats cooked on a rack Change position of product occasionally Smoke roasting
BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES Broil To cook with radiant heat from above Used for tender items Salamander is a low-heat broiler Grill To cook with heat from below on an open grid Griddling is done on a solid surface
BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES Dry-Heat Using Fats Sauté To cook quickly in a small amount of fat Preheat the pan Do not overcrowd the pan Meats are sometimes dusted with flour first Pan is deglazed with a liquid after sautéing to dissolve brown bits of food on the pan bottom
BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES Pan-Fry To cook in a moderate amount of fat in a pan over moderate heat Similar to sauté, but more fat is used Usually done over lower heat Amount of fat depends on food being cooked Food is normally turned at least once Deep-Fry To cook submerged in hot fat