Presentation on theme: "BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES"— Presentation transcript:
1 BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES Effects of heat on food:Foods are composed of:CarbohydratesFatsProteinsWaterMinerals, Vitamins & PigmentsIt is important to understand how these components react when heated or are mixed with other foods
2 BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES CarbohydratesStarches and sugars are both carbohydrates found in: fruits, vegetables, grains, beans and nuts. Meats and fish also contain a small amountTwo most important changes caused by cooking:CaramelizationBrowning of sugars (browning vegetables and golden colour of bread crust)GelatinizationStarches absorb water and swell (thickening sauces)
3 BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES Fat FactsPresent in:Meats, poultry, fishEggs, milk productsNuts and whole grainsFruits and vegetablesBreak down when heatedSmoke when they become hot enoughHigher smoke point fats are good for deep frying
4 BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES 3 Types of Heat Transfer:ConductionConvectionRadiation
5 BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES The science of heat…Cooking is the transfer of heat energy from some source to the foodIn the kitchen there are three devices that are used to cook food:The stovetopConventional ovenMicrowave ovenEach of these devices are designed around a different method of heat transfer.The movement of heat is so important that there is a name for it: Thermodynamics
6 BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES ConductionHeat transfer through direct contact. When cooking on the stovetop, the heat from the flame or electric grill is applied directly to the frying pan. This means that only the flat surface of the pan is sufficiently hot enough to cook anything and we must flip and toss around the food to cook it properly.It is important to note that most pans are made of metals, like copper, that conduct heat very efficiently and do not melt on the stovetop.
7 BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES ConvectionHeat transfer through a fluid. The fluid can be liquid or gas and in the case of a convection oven, the fluid we care about is air.An oven is a confined area that gets hot by flames or electric coils. The air inside is warmed to a desired temperature and, as a result, cooks the food from all directions. This method of heat transfer is responsible for pizzas, cakes, and other baked treats!
8 BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES RadiationThe transfer of heat using electromagnetic radiation. A microwave oven uses very strong radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation), which are very weak and not hotMicrowave ovens work by spinning water, fats, sugars and oils inside the food. This causes friction, which then heats the food and cooks it from the inside.
9 BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES Cooking MethodsMoist Heat:Poach, simmer, boilCooking in water or seasoned, flavored liquidSteamExpose foods directly to steamBraiseCooked covered in a small amount of liquid
10 BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES Dry HeatRoast/BakeTo cook foods by surrounding them with hot, dry airCook uncoveredMeats cooked on a rackChange position of product occasionallySmoke roasting
11 BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES BroilTo cook with radiant heat from aboveUsed for tender itemsSalamanderis a low-heat broilerGrillTo cook with heat from below on an open gridGriddling is done on a solid surface
12 BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES Dry-Heat Using FatsSautéTo cook quickly in a small amount of fatPreheat the panDo not overcrowd the panMeats are sometimes dusted with flour firstPan is deglazed with a liquid after sautéing to dissolve brown bits of food on the pan bottom
13 BASIC COOKING PRINCIPLES Pan-FryTo cook in a moderate amount of fat in a pan over moderate heatSimilar to sauté, but more fat is usedUsually done over lower heatAmount of fat depends on food being cookedFood is normally turned at least onceDeep-FryTo cook submerged in hot fat