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The Big Review A Chronological/Thematic Review of US History.

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1 The Big Review A Chronological/Thematic Review of US History

2 How to Use This Review To Review a Time Period: You can explore all aspects of one time period by using the scroll wheel of your mouse or the “up” and “down” keys on your keyboard. To Trace a Theme Over Time: Choose a theme and click the buttons on either side of the screen to navigate between time periods and see how each theme developed over time.

3 Choose a Starting Point Colonial New England to 1754 Middle and Southern Colonies to The Modern Era Politics and Power Demographic Changes/Conflict Gender Issues Work, Exchange, and the Economy America in the World Geography, Technology, and the Environment Ideas, Beliefs, and Culture

4 Summary of the period: (New England) Summary: The colonial time period from was, overall, a time of increasing independence and freedom for most Americans. When the Pilgrims arrived in 1620 to seek religious freedom from the Church of England, they marked the start of a new era in New England. Along with the Puritans’ arrival 10 years later, both groups established a strong Christian foundation for the New England colonies. Some groups were more tolerant than others—the Quakers of Pennsylvania were more lenient than the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay. They viewed men and women as equals, which was highly unusual in this time period, as women had few rights. Politically, American colonists sought to establish self-government that was first developed through the Mayflower Compact. While Great Britain still had technical control over the colonies, the country was too distracted with the English Civil War to maintain total political power over New England. However, some rebellions occurred, proving the instability of the new political systems. Economically, the colonists had some level of independence. Trade dominated New England’s economy, as they provided essentials such as wheat to the growing plantations of the South and the West Indies. The economy depended on the triangle trade and was relatively uninfluenced by Britain’s Navigation Acts at this time. The rocky soil and mountains of New England made farming more difficult for colonists there, so they turned to other industries, such as shipbuilding, lumber production and primitive factory work. Demographically, most settlers were farmers, and only a small amount lived in cities. Conflict emerged between the colonists and Native Americans, and there was a gap between poor African Americans and the merchant elite or white aristocrats, who dominated society. Overall, during the time period of , colonial Americans began forming a separate identity from England. Politically, they sought representative government, and their active trade had provided them a level of independence. As they were geographically removed from England, a level of disconnect with their mother country grew throughout the centuries. The progress of colonial Americans in this time period ultimately led to their rebellion against England, the American Revolution. ↑View Next Summary↑ The colonies have taken the first steps away from England and towards their own identity. Main Menu

5 BIG ISSUE: POLITICS AND POWERTIME PERIOD: (New England) IMPORTANT DETAILS: English Bill of Rights (1689) Magna Carta (1215) – set foundations for colonial order Treatise of Government – John Locke Society is in a contractual relationship with the government Mayflower Compact First example of self-government “due submission to obedience” Separation of church and state (secular) TRENDS: Men held almost all positions of authority. Only men were granted the right to vote. Salutary neglect from England (English Civil War) allowed the colonies to develop their own organization of government. EXCEPTIONS: Dominion of New England (1686) King James II believed the “colonies were for the pure economic benefit of the mother country.” The colonies were under stricter royal control. Bacon’s Rebellion Causes: Problems of social division, resistance to royal government, and the difficulty of controlling former indentured slaves Set fire to Jamestown in 1676 JUDGMENTS: Progress Establishing political structure Consensus Represented mainly by colonists Average Americans better off There are forms of government in places where it previously did not exist. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Colony of Rhode Island Roger Williams (banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony) Settlement of providence New England Confederation (1643) Established collective security Massachusetts Bay Colony (1629) Local government based on virtual representation John Winthrop (Puritan minister) founded – “City on a Hill” Town hall meetings / consistent leadership Main Menu

6 BIG ISSUE: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES AND/OR CONFLICTTIME PERIOD: (New England) IMPORTANT DETAILS: Shipbuilding, commerce, and fisheries were important in coastal towns. Probably close to 80% of the families owned the land they lived and farmed on. They nearly all used English Common Law as their basic code of law. TRENDS: They were mostly farmers and settled in small villages for common religious activity. The rapid growth of the New England colonies was almost entirely due to the high birth rate (greater than 3%) and low death rate (less than 1%) per year. Sturdy New Englanders evolved a tightly knit society, the basis of which was small villages and farms. The spread of English settlements inevitably led to clashes with Indians. Most of the slaves were imported from the west coast of Africa. EXCEPTIONS: Although most settlers were farmers, a merchant class also existed. Despite the fact that, generally, relations between settlers and Indians were bitter, some groups were cordial and participated in trading. JUDGMENTS: The Colonial Era, as it pertains to demographic changes, was an era of progress because, despite the adversities faced by settlers, the New England colonies still presented a better life than that of England. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

7 BIG ISSUE: GENDER ISSUESTIME PERIOD: (New England) IMPORTANT DETAILS: Women are expected to be pious but can’t hold positions in church Women could not own property, vote, etc. In some areas, women were only ¼ of population, usually outnumbered by men After the Halfway Covenant, women were the majority in Puritan congregations Marriage was usually for love (Anne Bradstreet’s poem, “To My Dear and Loving Husband”) Salem Witch trials: mostly women accused TRENDS: Women’s main roles are wives and mothers Early marriage & high pregnancy rate (no contraception + children died easily) Men are usually solely responsible for supported family Women do household chores and occasionally fieldwork if necessary Women seen as morally weaker than men (especially by Puritans) Women who speak out are punished (Anne Hutchinson) Very, very small beginning of women’s rights: husband’s power was not absolute, though it was very large. Ex: authorities could punish abusive husbands, divorces could occasionally be granted for things like abandonment EXCEPTIONS: Quakers allow women to preach & saw them as equal Shakers, founded by Ann Lee Women could own property in South (because husbands usually died young) Some professions were acceptable for women (or exclusively for women) such as midwifery, poetry JUDGMENTS: Progress for women: not much, in fact hardly any, but at least there was no regression Women had very few rights On the whole there was little conflict, some dissenters like Anne Hutchinson stand out, but women generally accepted their roles. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

8 BIG ISSUE: WORK, EXCHANGE, AND THE ECONOMYTIME PERIOD: (New England) IMPORTANT DETAILS: Virginia Company managed the Jamestown colony—set out on gaining profit from the region’s resources Dutch East India Company supplied colonists with much-needed slave labor Dutch West India Company established the colony of New Netherland (present-day New York) Focused on producing wheat, corn and bread to supply the Southern colonies’ plantations (particularly New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania) Trade with the West Indies created new class of merchant elites in Northern cities Factories to process raw sugar and alcohol distilleries were created due to imports from the West Indies 95% of Americans were rural farmers, 5% were city dwellers Working class forms early labor unions and craft guilds Navigation Acts put restrictions on American trading endeavors TRENDS: Trade dominated the Northern urban economy Local economy depended on barter and trade systems due to the short supply of cash Artisans congregated in urban areas Career paths were less of a choice and more a result of family history and connections Economy was unstable due to the unpredictability of global trade and value of crops Dependence on the triangle trade between the West Indies, Africa, and England England maintained mercantilism policy Slavery not as dominant in the North as it was in the South EXCEPTIONS: Urban blacks could work equal with whites in fishing and shipbuilding industries Emergence of cities and urban life contrasted the vast majority of rural, agriculture-based society JUDGMENTS: Widening gap existed between the working poor/slaves and merchant elite Decrease in bound slave labor as poor immigrant workers made low-pay laborers easier to maintain As cities grew, the existence of a poor class became more prominent Increase in economic independence and trade made Americans, especially in the port cities, more resentful of the Crown’s control ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

9 BIG ISSUE: AMERICA IN THE WORLDTIME PERIOD: (New England) IMPORTANT DETAILS: 1620: Pilgrims arrived at Plymouth Rock 1630’s Puritans arrived north of Plymouth creating Massachusetts Bay Colony Britain has more exports than imports which was desirable for their own prosperity. TRENDS: People migrated from England for new and freer lives mostly for freedom of religion. The British government controlling the colonists for their own prosperity. Colonists trying to break away form British rule in their home country and in the colonies as well. Riots, protests and boycotts on acts, taxes and tariffs enforced by the British government. Continued rebellion and British ruling in the colonies leads to revolution. EXCEPTIONS: Native Americans were split between the sides but generally did not like any of the colonists or British forces. Native Americans killed by disease and land taken away JUDGMENTS: Progressive for settling new land in America: Pilgrims, Puritans and other colonists. Progressive because colonists break away from mother country and later on end up a free nation (but that’s later :D) Regressive because Native Americans killed from disease, direct force, and pushed away from their homes. Regressive OR Progressive because of many uprisings, riots, boycotts and protests from the Colonists against the British ruling in the colonies. America was changed by the particular cultures and beliefs that settled in the different colony areas. British language and general culture prevails throughout American history. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

10 BIG ISSUE: GEOGRAPHY, TECHNOLOGY, & THE ENVIRONMENT TIME PERIOD: (New England) IMPORTANT DETAILS: Geography 71,991.8 sq mi New England Province Appalachian Mountains New England Highlands Seaboard lowlands Mountain Ranges include: Berkshires Green Mountains Taconic Mountains Rivers include: Connecticut River Valley Merrimack Valley TRENDS Mostly rocky soil Mount Washington usually has really bad weather EXCEPTIONS: None in particular JUDGMENTS: More of regression. The rocky soil and cold climates made farming and producing food very hard for the New England colonists. Although tobacco grew well in the climate, it’s use of resources drains the already bad soil of what little nutrients it has. While the coast provided excellent fishing spots. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Lakes include: Lake Champlain Moosehead Lake Lake Winnipesaukee Coastline Very rocky soil Fur trade with Spanish Port cities are the main types of cities due to trade with other countries Technology Not much :P Just musket really Environment The quick influx of European settlers, animals, and plants rapidly changed the New England environment Main Menu

11 BIG ISSUE: IDEAS, BELIEFS, AND CULTURETIME PERIOD: (New England) IMPORTANT DETAILS: Puritanism: A religious group that separated from the Anglican church of England, they wished to reform the ideas and corruption of the church. One extremist portion of this group, the Separatists, wanted completely separate from the Church of England, they are the ones who came over on the Mayflower to develop the Massachusetts bay area. They also came over to gain religious freedom. Important People: Anne Hutchinson-exiled from the Massachusetts bay colony for questioning the authority of the puritan leadership. Roger Williams-early proponent of the separation of church and state, co-founder of Rhode Island. William Bradford-early governor of the Plymouth Colony, designated what modern society now considers thanksgiving. John Winthrop-wrote “The City Upon The Hill” sermon, early leader of Massachusetts. Pilgrims arrived at Plymouth Rock in September of Religious leaders held a lot of power in the New England colonies The Salem Witch Trials show the fear that many in power held over those who questioned their authority, along with the corruption of the Puritan church Puritans vs Separatists-the Separatists were the ones who had the most problems with the Church of England where as the Puritans just wished to reform some parts within the church. TRENDS: Total Depravity Unconditional surrender Limited atonement Irresistible grace Pre-destination Puritanism dominated everyone’s lives in New England. This is the most important factor in almost everything that happens in their lives. There were almost completely homogeneous beliefs in the colonies EXCEPTIONS: In Pennsylvania, the colony was primarily Quaker as opposed to puritan, they were also much more religiously tolerant The Native Americans kept with their non-Christian religions they held long before the colonies were founded Roger Williams-believed in religious freedom in the founding of his colony, Rhode Island While they fled religious persecution in Europe, they persecuted other religions in America JUDGMENTS: They regressed because they were not branching their beliefs out during this time period They had both conflict and consensus-conflict with other religions and consensus within their religion During this time the average person was worse off because they were generally oppressed, especially in heavily puritan areas This time period created the platform for the primary Christian country we the America is today. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

12 Summary of the period: (Southern and Middle) Summary: Although many colonists had made their way over to star anew in the “New World”, much of their politics, economy, and society was determined by British rule. The middle and southern colonies focused much of their time and effort on cash crops and agriculture due to the fertile soil and swampy areas. However, there individual colonies lacked unity and remained divided until the end of the French and Indian War. Despite the little effort for self determination, the seeds of independence still sprouted in the ensuing war with French. ↑View Previous Summary↑ ↑View Next Summary↑ Main Menu

13 BIG ISSUE: POLITICS AND POWERTIME PERIOD: (Middle and South) IMPORTANT DETAILS: John Smith- leader of Jamestown who developed favorable relations with the Powhatan Confederacy House of Burgesses- Virginian governing body made up of local influential Virginians, first governing body in America Act of Tolerance of Maryland allowed toleration to all religions including Catholics Bacon’s Rebellion- the poor people of Virginia did not like that William Berkeley was very lenient to Native Americans and would not retaliate for attacks. The rebellion was the first in America and burned down the government buildings in Jamestown TRENDS: Plantation owners were wealthy and therefore had more control in the colonial governments People considered themselves Englishmen and therefore wanted “rights” as Englishmen Colonies were separate and undifferentiated toward one another EXCEPTIONS: Royal governors that were appointed were unpopular (see Bacon’s Rebellion) The non-royal colonies such as Pennsylvania and Maryland did not have royal governors JUDGMENTS: Time of progression because self-government was developed in the colonies People were in consensus overall because they agreed to ignore each other; a form of colonial oriented isolationism Average person was better off by being left alone by both the colonial government and the British Empire ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

14 BIG ISSUE: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES AND/OR CONFLICTTIME PERIOD: (Middle and South) IMPORTANT DETAILS: Exploration, indentured servitude/ slavery, Native Americans, disease/ poverty Mostly English Pennsylvania: primarily Lutheran 6% German 7% Scot-Irish “Pennsylvania Dutch”: 1/3 of population Charles Town was founded by planters from Barbados 1700: population of 300,000; 20,000 were black TRENDS: Cash crops increased the need for labor which led to higher birth rates 1619: Dutch traders brought the first African slaves to Jamestown South held 90% of the slaves Christian religion groups attempted to enforce strict religious observance through government and town law Conflicts with Native Americans. Exception: Quakers Protestant rationalism and work ethic was the dominant religious force among leaders of the colonies EXCEPTIONS: Pennsylvania Quakers were against the “slavery” trend because they considered themselves “morally superior” Quakers treated Native Americans with respect, while most other groups had more hostile relations with Native Americans JUDGMENTS: Progression because America was being colonized for the first time Sets foundations and precedents for what would eventually become America They faced many trials such as a harsh environment, diseases, and relations with Native Americans The varying demographics began the blending of cultures that would lead to a diverse nation ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

15 BIG ISSUE: GENDER ISSUESTIME PERIOD: (Middle and South) IMPORTANT DETAILS: -Women had little to no legal rights, because their husbands basically “owned” them -There was a lack of women in Virginia -Native American women had much more independence -women stay at home and go to church often, especially after first great awakening -Mothers are the moral center of the households TRENDS: -women are expected to stay at home and take care of the house, and also go to church more than men, but they were not allowed to be ministers -They were encouraged not to speak out, even at church, where they were put into separate groups -Still maintained “coverture”, an English common law which treated women very harshly. It meant that the husband controlled every aspect of his wife’s life. -husbands were legally allowed to “physically correct” wives -If women had legal problems, including trying to get a divorce, it was not impossible, but it was very difficult -When the husband died, women were given everything but land. They were not allowed to own land -Widows often remarried, especially in Virginia EXCEPTIONS: -In places like Virginia, less women were there and therefore were appreciated a little bit more and considered the “moral center of the household” a\during the 18 th century -Native American women were more independent, almost equal with husbands -Quaker women were also given much more independence than others -Anne Hutchinson was a very big exception, because she was considered a rebel for speaking out against what the church was and wanted people to have more individual experiences with God. Apparently she got visions and such and was eventually banned. JUDGMENTS: There was very little change regarding the treatment of women for over a century, so it seems like a regression regarding gender issues. While there were standout groups like Quakers, women were treated badly in other areas in the middle and southern colonies. Generally, women did nothing against that problem, with the exception of Anne Hutchinson. Women were often treated badly in legal situation like divorce, and sometimes physically abused at home. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

16 BIG ISSUE: WORK, EXCHANGE, AND THE ECONOMYTIME PERIOD: (Middle and South) IMPORTANT DETAILS: South  rice, indigo, tobacco, lots of agriculture Cash crops were the main source of income for the south and middle colonies. Subsistence farming Lots of plantations John Rolfe High labor Created need for expansion TRENDS: Society was centered around the profits of the colonies for England. Expansion, technology, and legislation was focused on the perpetuation of the economy and creation of the separate economy from the European Empire. Demographics were changed to fit labor needs that were important for sustaining and growing the capitalist and laissez faire economy. EXCEPTIONS: The economy began with subsistence agriculture where food was piled and dished out in rations to workers. Evolved to include monetary funds when trade was established JUDGMENTS: This time period was purely about the regression of European values for the progression of the new economic ideals. The regression of European values was that of the art and philosophies while still widely accepted, the new colonies had no time to further the arts. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

17 BIG ISSUE: AMERICA IN THE WORLDTIME PERIOD: (Middle and South) IMPORTANT DETAILS: colonies of England Mercantilism Navigation Triangular trade “New World “ vs. “Old World” Forced isolation “Benign Neglect” Tensions with France- (Ohio River Valley) King William’s War ( ) and Queen Anne’s War ( )= small scale conflicts involving France, and Britain (involving Native Americans ) TRENDS: ‒At First, America was considered as only a secondary economic source for the British Empire and its depletion of resources. As a result, mercantilism and acception of foreign influence prevailed in America. Moreover, as tensions with France over holdings in the Ohio River Valley emerged, the Seven Years War erupted with partial American Participation. ‒Despite the previous conflicts of King William’s and Queen Anne’s War America carried a trend of little unity and global influence; therefore, America only accepted the influence of global powers. ‒Mercantilism: makes American dependent on the economy of Britain resulting in little economic independence ‒Colonial disunity: origin of states’ rights and seen in the Albany Congress of 1754 (only 7 out of 13 colonies showed and failure of Albany Plan) EXCEPTIONS: On the other hand there were certain unofficial trade agreements that the colonies made, even as the Navigation Acts were passed, the British policy of “Salutary Neglect” (Benign Neglect) enabled the colonies to have trade with the Spanish for molasses and sugars JUDGMENTS: Neither progress or regression, due to the fact that from , America still relied on British intervention and the presence of colonial disunity until the end of the French and Indian War No conflict but little consensus due to little colonial unity seen in the colonial clashes with Native Americans Trends created little to no standards of American living and did little to change American perspective ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

18 BIG ISSUE: GEOGRAPHY, TECHNOLOGY, & THE ENVIRONMENT TIME PERIOD: (Middle and South) IMPORTANT DETAILS: Swampy in Southern colonies (good for tobacco, presence of Malaria) Soil was fertile in the Middle Colonies (Bread Basket) Subtropical environment in Virginia Cites and towns grew around major waterways such as the Chesapeake Bay TRENDS: Settlements and towns built up around waterways like the Chesapeake Bay due to the reliance on water for agriculture, hygiene, and basic life To even further restrict the settlements, fertile land was also a necessity for food to be grown This resulted in some exhausting of soil resources due to over-planting. This resulted in expansion to find new soil Trees were a key so that boats and ships could be made for trade and waterway navigation Mills on the water were used as a source of power Relied on Indian for technology regarding the food and cultivation of agricultural goods EXCEPTIONS: The swamplands in the Southern Colonies were the perfect climate for the mass harvesting of tobacco. This was an exception to the farmland being used purely for food an survival. Some technology was shipped in from Europe but it was few and far between JUDGMENTS: There was significant progress in the farming and ship building industry due to the need brought about by trade In the beginning there was not that much progress because of the subsistence farming Grew to prosper because of crop production and cash-cropping along with indentured servants and slaves ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

19 BIG ISSUE: IDEAS, BELIEFS, AND CULTURETIME PERIOD: (Middle and South) IMPORTANT DETAILS: The Great Awakening- Religious revolution. -Jonathon Edwards Quakers in Pennsylvania Puritans- Virginia Catholics- Maryland Mostly religious toleration in south but more so in the middle colonies. Population was ethnically diverse in Middle. Mennonite-Pennsylvania, migrated from Germany and Netherlands in the face of prosecution and believed in living a simple life for god. Dutch Calvanists. TRENDS: Laws mandated that everyone attend a house of worship and pay taxes that founded the salaries of ministers. Mixture of religions. Quakers faith influenced their treatment of Indians. Great Awakening was favorable to poor and uneducated and it was focused on sinfulness of every individual. Protestant rationalism was the dominant religious force. Cash crop cultures were prominent. EXCEPTIONS: Pennsylvania was more or less a religious safe haven. Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams defiance of church. Great Awakening backlash of enlightenment. JUDGMENTS: Progress.: religious revolution/freedom paved the way for freedom of religion as stated by the First Amendment. Women were valued because they were a moral center of the house hold. Planted the seeds of self determination and appreciation of England ‘s benign neglect. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

20 Summary of the period: Summary: The beginning of this time period was characterized by an increase level of intervention by the British in American affairs due to the debt acquired by the French and Indian War. King George III felt that the colonists were responsible for paying back war debts, which led to irritation on the part of the colonists, because they felt that it was not their responsibility to pay for the war. The British adopted new, harsher policies to prop up mercantilist economy, and to buttress their own economy. In addition, they banned settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains, territory recently acquired from France. With the advent of the Proclamation of 1763, the colonists felt invaded because this proclamation was an abrupt departure from the policy of benign or salutary neglect that was used before the French and Indian War. With the adoption of the new idea of rationalism, which was pioneered by Benjamin Franklin and the religious revival of the Great Awakening, which was led by George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards, Americans were ideologically prepared for war. During and after the Americans’ victory, the process of self government was formed, though minority groups such as women and slaves were left behind, but that would change in the eras to come. ↑View Previous Summary↑ ↑View Next Summary↑ Main Menu

21 BIG ISSUE: POLITICS AND POWERTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: French and Indian War US Revolution Proclamation of 1763 Treaty of Paris 1763 Treaty of Paris 1785 Thomas Paine “Common Sense” Albany Plan of Union (’64) Intolerable Acts Olive Branch Petition All the taxes 1 st and 2 nd Continental and Stamp Act Congress Peter Zenger Declaration of Independence TRENDS: Because of the French and Indian War, British started to tax colonies to pay back military debt, which led to colonial unity but Britain vs. Colonial disunity. These taxes raised problems in the colonies in terms of representation, and eventually led to the Olive Branch Petitions. King George III labeled the colonies as rebels and this eventually led to the Revolutionary War. EXCEPTIONS: Loyalists- still united with Britain 3% population left colonies to go back to Britain JUDGMENTS: Progress in terms of US and regression in terms of Great Britain; the average person was better off because the taxes were repealed. Independence changed the US in that it gave nationalism to the people. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

22 BIG ISSUE: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES AND/OR CONFLICTTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Across the Appalachian Mountains, to the west, from sea to shining sea. More British immigrants TN & KY Going all the way west, where the deer and the antelope play. TRENDS: After the end of the Revolutionary War, the colonists were allowed to migrate across the Appalachian Mountains, and a lot of colonists took wagons and went to places like North Carolina. EXCEPTIONS: Loyalists People who moved back to Britain (the 3%) Native Americans JUDGMENTS: Progression to the west (consensus) Regression in treatment of Natives (conflict) It changed the movement trend in the US to the west. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

23 BIG ISSUE: GENDER ISSUESTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: -Women like Abigail Adams (“remember the ladies”) -Phyllis Wheatley, who wrote -centered around religion (Protestant, French Catholic) -some women disguised as men during the war -towards the end, the advent of Republican Motherhood -New England Protestant man: Christian piety, household head ship, protect families, and faith TRENDS: Men have always been higher up in the social ladder than women due to their religious belief, and tradition, which dictated that men were superior and thus deserved more rights than men. However, this started changing as the Revolutionary War continued. Women began getting more and more ideas for women’s rights during this time as well. EXCEPTIONS: Education opportunities for women expanded to teach people how to be a good house keeper and how to raise the perfect, republican child. JUDGMENTS: This wasn’t really a time of progress or regression, because women didn’t really begin to have rights ideas until the end of this era. Thus, there could have been a bit of progress in that they had a heightened role during the war, but then again, it wasn’t really a regression either. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

24 BIG ISSUE: WORK, EXCHANGE, AND THE ECONOMYTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Mercantilism – economic policy where colonies provide for the mother country Taxation – Britain taxed the U.S. colonies in order to pay off the Seven Years War (stamp act, tea act, intolerable acts, etc). This started the idea of taxation without representation. Subsistence Farming – producing just enough to provide for one family Navigation Acts- passed by Britain to prevent smuggling. Slavery – emerges during this time period with triangular trade (slaves, rum, molasses). Also leads to the rise of the plantation system. TRENDS: During this period, Britain still maintained economic control over the American colonies with their policy of mercantilism. Though Britain desired exclusive trade, Americans began to smuggle goods. After the Seven years war, Britain taxed the colonies to pay for the war. The colonists disapproved of taxation without representation, and formed things such as the Stamp Act Congress to rebel. The American economy consisted of mostly subsistence farmers, with some industry (timber, shipbuilding, etc.) up north. EXCEPTIONS: While mercantilism was still in use, smugglers were an exception to following British rule. Another group who did not partake in the economic norm was the Native Americans. They did not partake in any American industry. JUDGMENTS: Progress was made because the Americans escaped the mercantilist control of England and gained economic freedom. They were then able to provide for themselves and have a thriving economy. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

25 BIG ISSUE: AMERICA IN THE WORLDTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: -issues with the French -not recognized as an independent nation -Mercantilism TRENDS: After the French and Indian War, the colonists had bad relations with the French, for obvious reasons. Then after the Revolutionary War, their relations with the British were strained. Also, the world as a whole didn’t really recognize them as an independent nation. EXCEPTIONS: There aren’t really any exceptions during this time period, because everyone was thinking the same thing. JUDGMENTS: -regression in international terms -progression within the United States ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

26 BIG ISSUE: GEOGRAPHY, TECHNOLOGY, & THE ENVIRONMENT TIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: -Appalachian Mts. (Proclamation of 1763) -Forests, Coasts -Large farms TRENDS: - North = fishing, shipping, industry -Middle = Breadbasket -South = Farms and plantations w/slaves -didn’t really have many technological innovations until the end of the 18 th century (and the Industrial Revolution) EXCEPTIONS: -It was illegal to settle west of the Appalachian Mts. -Native Americans are the exception, and took exception to white encroachment JUDGMENTS: -Consensus at this time because the citizens had to work together, but technology is leading up to improvements, so it is a time of progress. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

27 BIG ISSUE: IDEAS, BELIEFS, AND CULTURETIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Great Awakening- George Whitefield Westward Expansion Ben Franklin Natives’ Inferiority Enlightenment Jefferson: “unalienable rights” TRENDS: Ben Franklin pioneered rationalism during the Age of Enlightenment. This also led too the Great Awakening. The colonists also believed in the inferiority of the Native Americans. EXCEPTIONS: Puritans opposed rationalism because they had a different view of God. Puritanism ended, giving rise to rationalism JUDGMENTS: Overall, this was a period of progress because constructive thinking, and ideas, which led to the American Revolution, drove this time period. The average person was better off because ideas spread very quickly and many people were learning about new things. The ideas of this time period changed America by giving people ideas of independence and thoughts of revolution and westward expansion were also stirring. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

28 Summary of the period: Summary: ↑View Previous Summary↑ ↑View Next Summary↑ The Articles of Confederation helped set up a base for a new government but was very ineffective with the exception of organizing new states. National debt increased and the government could not pay off its debt because it had no power to levy taxes. Shay’s Rebellion demonstrated the governments weakness to raise an army. The Constitutional Convention called in 1787 established a new government which would be more effective in running the country. There were disagreements regarding the issue of slavery, the extent of federal power and individual protections of liberty. Two major factions, the Anti-Federalists and the Federalists emerged over the formation of the constitution. Eventually 9 out of the 13 states passed the constitution, with the guarantee of a Bill of Rights to ensure individuals’ rights. In 1789 George Washington was made president. Washington established many important precedents such as a two term presidency and the establishment of cabinet positions. Among his cabinet were two members of opposing ideologies; Alexander Hamilton the Federalist and Thomas Jefferson, who emerged later as a Democratic-Republican. As Secretary of Treasury Hamilton established a plan to revitalize the economy and get rid of the national debt from the war. The plan was very successful but drew divisions due to the question of the role of government, especially in the foundation of the national bank. The disagreements between Hamilton and Jefferson eventually led to the formation of the Democratic-Republican and Federalist parties. In 1796 John Adams ran against Thomas Jefferson for president and won. Adam’s presidency was focused on foreign affairs (the XYZ affair and conflicts between France and Britain). The Federalists were more supportive of Britain while the Democratic Republicans supported France. However, Adam’s chose to stay neutral in the conflicts which while costing him a second term kept the U.S. from any damaging wars which it was not ready to fight. Thomas Jefferson took office in 1800 in what was known as the Peaceful Revolution since it was the first time power was transferred peaceably from what party to another. Main Menu

29 BIG ISSUE: POLITICS AND POWERTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Articles of Confederation ( ) – emphasized states’ rights over central government, too weak to rule effectively Land Ordinance of 1785 – first acts to regard education, funded public education through the sale of lands Shays’ Rebellion ( ) – farmers unable to pay debts due to falling crop prices occupy MA court houses; crushed in 1787 Northwest Ordinance (1787) – set standards for admitting new states Constitution – ratified in 1788 George Washington – 1 st US president, crushed Whiskey Rebellion and wary of political parties and foreign alliances. John Adams – 2 nd US president, characterized by aggressive foreign policies against France TRENDS: Strict constructionism vs. loose constructionism State government vs. federal government – liberal and conservative government was constantly split in terms of interpretation of Constitution Political parties emerge Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans Tensions between Northern and Southern goals Liberty vs. Security EXCEPTIONS: George Washington spoke out against the danger of parties The AOC was mainly ineffective besides for the Northwest Ordinance and Land Ordinance JUDGMENTS: Constitutional Convention met to draft up a new set of rules Splits in ideology led to the first political parties George Washington and John Adams became the first presidents Constitution united the colonies and was made the supreme law of the land, with guidelines related to domestic and foreign policies. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

30 BIG ISSUE: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES AND/OR CONFLICTTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: New territory west of Mississippi River b/c of Treaty of Paris in 1783 Alien and Sedition Acts – increased requirement of citizenship from 5 to 14 years, gave president right to deport aliens in times of war Native Americans forced to move Impressment Northwest Ordinance (1787) – set standards for annexing territories into US U.S. had to respect land claims by Loyalists TRENDS: People migrating west to claim new lands from Treaty of Paris Nativism (Alien and Sedition Acts, Native American relocation) EXCEPTIONS: US had to honor land claims by Loyalists(still some hostility but had to deal w/ it) Not exactly nativist JUDGMENTS: Time period of progress for expansion (growing population and expanding west) Conflict w/ foreigners (French and British) Better off for Americans b/c they could move easily and get land, but had to deal w/ Native Americans Expanded size of US ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

31 BIG ISSUE: GENDER ISSUESTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Republican motherhood Abigail Adams (women’s property rights, education, “Remember the Ladies”) Martha Washington (attended to women when/since Washington couldn’t) TRENDS: Women’s roles significantly reduced Could not vote in elections Could not serve in army “Mr.” and “Mrs.” reserved for wealthy families Republican motherhood Republican women crucial to country’s survival Women were homemakers and mothers of the next generation EXCEPTIONS: New Jersey allowed women to vote in public elections in 1776 for a brief period of time Education for women increased (to raise future Republicans) Women pushed for divorce and business-owning rights JUDGMENTS: Leads to future women’s rights movements in the 19 th and 20 th centuries, but there were no real advancements made in this time period, women did not receive the same benefits from the Revolution that the men did. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

32 BIG ISSUE: WORK, EXCHANGE, AND THE ECONOMYTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Commerce Clause – regulation of interstate trade and ended tariffs between states Alexander Hamilton –first Secretary of Treasury Report on Public Credit- Federal gov’t would assume state debt Report on National Bank Report on Manufacturers- subsidies for industries; did not pass Pinckney’s Treaty (1783) – reopened New Orleans port “American School”- laissez-fair economy Revenue Act of established 8% tariffs on imports First Bank of the U.S. in 1791 TRENDS: Manufacturing North vs. Agricultural South Tensions with foreign countries over debts National debt rose under the AOC Trying to create strong economy under the Constitution Encourage exports to other countries Encouraged Laissez-fair economy EXCEPTIONS: Spain reopens New Orleans Hamilton wanted more government involvement with industry National Bank passed despite some saying it was an abuse of power and unconstitutional JUDGMENTS: Under the AOC the economy suffered with a weak federal government unable to control the tariffs established between states, an increasing debt, and a government unable to levy taxes to pay off the debt. The U.S. also suffered from increased imports from Great Britain and even more wealth left the country. The constitution allowed for a better economy and Hamilton’s plans helped to both revitalize the economy and to pay off the national debt. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

33 BIG ISSUE: AMERICA IN THE WORLDTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Proclamation of Neutrality (1793)- U.S. should avoid entangling alliances French Revolution – supported by Jefferson Indian resistance in NW territory Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794) Treaty of Greenville – ended NW Indian War Jay’s Treaty (1794)- adverted war with Britain; ensured America would pay debts to the British if British would leave forts in North America XYZ Affair- France wanted a bribe before they would talk to U.S. ambassadors Genet Affair- Genet tried to hire privateers for the French in America George Washington and John Adams- maintained neutrality, concerned with trade TRENDS: British vs. French – coincided w/ Feds. And D-Rs Isolation vs. Involvement Pushing west against Indians Trying to gain respect for the new nation Avoiding alliances with Europe Both concern and respect for French Revolution EXCEPTIONS: Quasi-War ( ) – naval fighting with France (ended with Treaty of Mortefontaine) Treaties with both Spain and Britain, but stayed out of any wars JUDGMENTS: America for the most part tried to stay out o war and involvement w/ Europe. This was smart because America was in no shape to fight a war. Both George Washington and Adams avoided the desire to side with either Britain and France and were more concerned with maintaining favorable trade for the U.S. while avoiding any costly wars, ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

34 BIG ISSUE: GEOGRAPHY, TECHNOLOGY, & THE ENVIRONMENT TIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Cotton gin – invented by Eli Whitney; extracted seeds from cotton Automatic flour mill – invented by Oliver Evans in 1787 Stopped at Mississippi River; could not trade or build ships there Northwest Ordinance (1787) – set standards for annexing territories into US Pinckney’s Treaty (1783) – reopened New Orleans port Land Ordinance of 1785 – public education funded by sale of lands TRENDS: More efficiency in farming and food Geography – people migrate west More trade using natural resources North was composed of rocky land, used better for ports and cities, the South better suited for farming End of Proclamation of 1764 meant more people could go past Appalachians. EXCEPTIONS: The West was still rather simple and did not have many of the innovations to use Settlers still contended with Native Americans in the land west of the Appalachians The U.S. would only become a industrial power much later in history JUDGMENTS: Many useful inventions emerged from this time period, but the U.S. was no where near technologically competitive with Europe. The period saw the beginning of expansion Westward. The environment itself would only become a problem with industrialization. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

35 BIG ISSUE: IDEAS, BELIEFS, AND CULTURETIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Many different Christian denominations: Baptists and Methodists in the South Presbyterians in the West Religious Participation: 75-80% of the population. Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom (1786)- Supported freedom of religion Limited literary movement: endorsed patriotism of the time Portraits of revolutionary leaders Noah Webster- first American dictionary TRENDS: General sense of individualism and patriotism Idealization of the American Revolution and its leaders Mistrust of strong government Strong belief in slavery in the South and growing dissidence in the North End of old inheritance laws (Primogeniture) EXCEPTIONS: The Contrast, a play made during the time period was a popular work but was an exception to America’s literary and artistic insignificance during the time period. JUDGMENTS: Many Christian denominations were in America. Religion became less important compared to the Puritan times due to national issues. Artistic and literary movements would not do well in America until the Romantic Era. The ratification of the constitution saw the beginnings of objection to slavery, but no real progress was made toward ending it. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

36 Summary of the period: Summary: In the scope of American history, Thomas Jefferson’s democracy held many innovations and successes, while simultaneously exposing previously unknown faults with the national and state governments. The defining issues of this time period grew out of past problems which had remained unresolved. For example, the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars shaped historians’ view of the then powerful Federalist Party. Their early support o the French revolution was criticized nationally as unconstitutional, considering the mass violence and tyranny which resulted in the European nation. An effect of the revolution was that Jefferson’s presidency was dominated with foreign policy issues. Key events include the conflict with Barbary pirates after Jefferson declared neutrality to Britain and France, which caused the US to have to pay tribute to the country of Tripoli in exchange for the safe passage of American ships. A domestic event of great importance was the court case of Marbury v. Madison, which argued over the authority to review legislation, which is today called judicial review, and while Supreme Court justice Marshall did not invent it, he claimed that power for the Supreme Court. The Lewis and Clark expedition also held great value for American history, as it opened up potential trade routes from the Pacific, as well as greater relations with Native Americans (with White Americans as the benefiting party).Also the major cause of the War of 1812 was impressment of American merchants by British ships, effectively repopulating their own Navy by force. There are several other issues which set the stage for the rest of this time period and American history as a whole, and the aforementioned events can only give a glimpses of the era. It is necessary to research all of the events after this era because they show the results of the early government upon the USA. ↑View Previous Summary↑ ↑View Next Summary↑ Main Menu

37 BIG ISSUE: POLITICS AND POWERTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Peaceful Revolution of 1800 : change in political party in power without any violence War Hawks : Congressional representatives from the West and South that were in support of US expansion and opposed Great Britain. They were in favor of going to war in Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun were outspoken War Hawks Midnight appointments created by John Adams led to the case of Marbury v. Madison, which created the idea of judicial review Hartford Convention : led to the demise of the Federalist party after the War of 1812 Essex Junto : group of radical Federalists Quids : group of Democratic-Republicans that were opposed to the Louisiana Purchase because they believed it violated Republican principles TRENDS: new trend of peaceful transfer of party control, set scene for future elections and debates. While Federalists began with the power in 1800 with Jefferson’s election, by Madison’s time and 1816 they had ceased to exist Effects of French Revolution on USA  neutrality meant trade opportunities increased French and British Navy captured American shipping vessels,; impressment; continued trend of Americans vs. British Madison: Non Intercourse Act led to trade with all nations (May 1809-May 1811) War of 1812  result of Jefferson and Madison’s pursuit of neutral rights EXCEPTIONS: Jefferson always tried to avoid war but Barbary Pirates conflicted with his attempts Non Intercourse Act didn’t work  Macon’s Bill #2 which reopened trade with Britain and France, but threatened sanctions if necessary JUDGMENTS: PROGRESS! Set a precedent for peaceful revolution or party shifts without violence or upheaval In foreign policy, Jefferson pushed for all out neutrality Amended constitution for Louisiana Purchase ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

38 BIG ISSUE: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES AND/OR CONFLICTTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: 1808 – exporting of slaves banned Tecumseh – revival of Native American culture Battle of Tippacanoe – Shawnee Indians vs. Americans; after this battle, the concept of a Native American revolution basically dissolved Steamship – improved interstate commerce TRENDS: Religious skepticism Cotton supply led to increased textile industry Increased interstate commerce due to better transportation systems Many Europeans immigrated to the United States due to the Napoleonic wars and French revolution EXCEPTIONS: This Immigration slowed down during the War of 1812 because there was conflict. JUDGMENTS: Although the white man benefited more from the next time period, the white man prospered during this period more than any other race. Native Americans and blacks saw the most conflict and discrimination. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

39 BIG ISSUE: GENDER ISSUESTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: “Republican Motherhood” – mothers had an obligation to raise their sons to be virtuous citizens of the republic Abortion considered legal and acceptable in some states during first trimester Women lost legal and economic rights to husband when married Divorce was unacceptable Husband obligated to support woman/be responsible for her debt Cult of Domesticity – reinforced stereotype that women should stay in their domestic spheres and encouraged them to be subordinate to men TRENDS: Women subservient to men Republican motherhood continued throughout time periods, meaning that women were expected to have only enough education to raise successful, republican patriot children. EXCEPTIONS: In New Jersey, women were allowed to vote for a short period of time. As a whole very few changes occurred in the lives of women in this time period. JUDGMENTS: STATIC! Women’s rights saw no significant change during this time period, remained Republican mothers, and gained no new rights. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

40 BIG ISSUE: WORK, EXCHANGE, AND THE ECONOMYTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Tariff of 1816 – 1 st protective tariff, opposed by shipping and farming industries 2 nd National Bank Charter – would give economy stability (compared to instability of private banks due to inflation caused private banks handing out loans not backed by currency) American manufacturing spurred because of War of 1812 Jeffersonian Republicans opposed the Bank because it hurt their credit Macon’s Bill #2 and Non-Intercourse Act – hurt American economies because of trade restrictions TRENDS: growing disparity between culture/economy of West/East Increase in manufacturing and American industry because of post-war boom Economic stability EXCEPTIONS: unity between East and West because of the National Road (road that connected Maryland to Ohio) Farmers and bad creditors struggled compared to the relatively stable national economy JUDGMENTS: PROGRESS! Progression in industry and manufacturing, but extreme conflict over the Bank charter ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

41 BIG ISSUE: AMERICA IN THE WORLDTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: War of 1812 – caused by naval impressment of American ships by the French and British Barbary pirates – War in Tripoli ( ) Embargo Act (1807) : general embargo against Britain and France during the Napoleonic wars Non-Intercourse Act (1909) : all embargoes on American shipping lifted except those against Britain and France Macon’s Bill #2 (1810) : the US would trade with Britain or France, if either of them stopped impressing US ships European Cold War between French and English TRENDS: Internationalism Increasing regulation on trade Still politically isolated - no alliances EXCEPTIONS: The Embargo of 1807 was enacted against Britain and France during the Napoleonic wars, as a result of violations of naval law in the form of British impressment upon American soldiers. Intended to damage the economies of the two warring nations, the Act actually damaged the US economy, simply because the British were able to find loopholes to avoid the stipulations of the Act. In fact, British merchants were profiting because Us shippers had to give up lucrative trade routes. Demand even rose for English goods as a result. JUDGMENTS: Progress, but consensus. Americans acquired more land, but also acquired more debt. Plus, more embargos  more conflict. This was one of the first of many times when the American public’s faith in its government was shaken by its failures. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

42 BIG ISSUE: GEOGRAPHY, TECHNOLOGY, & THE ENVIRONMENT TIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Louisiana Purchase (1803) – doubled the size of U.S. for $15 million Lewis and Clark : expeditions, viability of land trail to Pacific, furthered Manifest Destiny, increased knowledge of plants and animals recorded Expansion of National Road from Maryland to Ohio TRENDS: Manifest Destiny Exploration and familiarization of the West EXCEPTIONS: Pike’s expedition in 1806 – he described the Great Plains as a desert and many ignored it JUDGMENTS: PROGRESS! Many were learning to explore and use the newly acquired land to their advantage. Accurate maps of the Louisiana territory and fur trade gained more popularity as hunters had more knowledge of the area. However, not many technological advances were made at this time. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

43 BIG ISSUE: IDEAS, BELIEFS, AND CULTURETIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Star Spangled Banner created Manifest destiny- westward expansion Nativism TRENDS: development of true nationalism Party separations expansionism Romanticism Beginnings of transcendentalism Racism EXCEPTIONS: Thomas Jefferson tried to ban slavery with laws preventing the US from engaging in the international slave trade JUDGMENTS: Progress and consensus. America, while struggling with foreign affairs, made great strides with internal gain. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

44 Summary of the period: Summary: This period was defined by the expanding American continent and the belief that Americans had a God-given right to expand Westward. Manifest Destiny in cooperation with the Ear of Good Feelings, economic success at the beginning part of the period, and the rise of federal power all helped lead to American unity and strong nationalism. While some aspects of American life, such as the status of women, did not encounter significant changes, life did ultimately improve. James Monroe led the nation through this time period with bold foreign policy, demanding that other nations remain out of the continent. His economic policies aimed to protect the people, and were fairly successful for this time period. Technological advancements also helped push economic successes forward. All in all, this was the first time in our history that people began to consider themselves “American,” and nationalism was prevalent everywhere. ↑View Previous Summary↑ ↑View Next Summary↑ Main Menu

45 BIG ISSUE: POLITICS AND POWERTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: James Monroe was elected president in Multiple important court cases took place during this period. Dartmouth College v. Woodward, which occurred in 1819, was a pivotal court case which stated that state governments could not interfere with private contracts. McCulloch v. Maryland took place in 1819 as well, and established that it was constitutionally allowed for Congress to establish the 2 nd Bank of the United States. Cohens v. Virginia was a pivotal court case that took place in 1821, and it established that Federal law was more important than State law, and any State law that went against Federal law was unconstitutional. Gibbons v. Ogden was the last major court case of the period, taking place in 1824, and established that only the Federal government could regulate trade, and it was unconstitutional for states to interfere in interstate trade. The Corrupt Bargain of 1824 was one of the first major examples of governmental corruption. What happened was that John Quincy Adams won the electoral votes, but Andrew Jackson won the popular election, so the election went to the House of Representatives. Adams used his friendship with speaker Henry Clay to win the House, thus winning the election. TRENDS: Era of Good Feelings: victory over Britain in war of 1812 caused large feelings of Nationality. The court cases of the time period gave the federal government more power than the state governments EXCEPTIONS: Madison vetoed the American System proposition to give federal money to state governments. This went against the idea that the US government was economically responsible for the states. JUDGMENTS: While there were many state v. federal power struggles, the Federal government ended up prevailing most of the time ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

46 BIG ISSUE: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES AND/OR CONFLICTTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Manifest Destiny Canals popularized/ steamboats Attempts to get the Native Americans to move west End of the War of 1812 Gradual Increase in immigration after the war 1812 TRENDS: Manifest destiny leads to the population moving west which results in Indian removal Immigration helped lead to a 20% population increase Steamboats helped people by facilitating transportation EXCEPTIONS: Native Americans were not included in the idea that the continent belonged to Americans, thus they were bullied and forced out of the way, a problem that would reiterate its self later on down the road. JUDGMENTS: This period was marked by a small increase in immigration after the War of Manifest Destiny played a significant role in the demographics of the time by shifting the population westward and increasing the sense of “we are Americans.” ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

47 BIG ISSUE: GENDER ISSUESTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Cult of Domesticity: now that things did not have to be made at home, women were expected to raise children to be proper citizens Women were allowed to manage property of the incapacity of their spouse (1821) Lowell system: labor model used in New England; Made it possible so textiles could be mass-produced; mill-girls who lived on site -Emma Willard founded the Troy Female Seminary- First college for women TRENDS: Cult of domesticity Lowell System No real progression in the women’s rights movement EXCEPTIONS: Emma Willard increased educational equality for women. JUDGMENTS: The only significant progression in women’s rights was the creation of Troy Female Seminary, but the had little effect on the progression of the movement. The Cult of Domesticity was the prevailing idea of the time period. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

48 BIG ISSUE: WORK, EXCHANGE, AND THE ECONOMYTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Erie Canal started in 1817, marks beginning of improved interstate trade Economic Panic of 1819: brought on by switching to more conservative credit policies First protective tariff in US history passed in 1816 Monroe put aside $1.5 million towards internal improvements (canals, roads etc.” Tariff of Abominations: passed to protect failing Northern industry First labor unions formed in 1820’s for 10 hour shifts American System: idea of Henry Clay, including protective tariffs, better banking system, and state governments receiving money form federal government for internal improvement TRENDS: More interstate trade occurred, technologies making it easier Protective tariffs appeared for the first time American System, first real American economic policy EXCEPTIONS: Monroe vetoed the part of the American Deal that allotted funds for states from federal government. Went against idea that federal government was economically responsible for states JUDGMENTS: This period was defined by overall economic growth through increased revenue, and protection of the American business and ultimately each citizen. Protective tariffs were a hotly debated topic, especially in later time periods, but were fairly successful for now. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

49 BIG ISSUE: AMERICA IN THE WORLDTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: First Seminole War: Chasing fugitive slaves into Florida, small war with Natives. Upset Spanish settlers Monroe Doctrine in 1823 established US as main power in Western Hemisphere Russo-America Treaty: 1824 added Alaska to US territory Rush-Bagot Treaty: 1817, America and Britain agreed that Britain would no longer hold troops in Great Lakes area Spain ceded Florida to US in 1819 TRENDS: Monroe doctrine established American dominance in the Western Hemisphere for the foreseeable future EXCEPTIONS: No real exceptions JUDGMENTS: America was not yet a large player in foreign affairs, there were interaction with large European countries. Because America defined its self as an independent nation not to me reckoned with in the Western Hemisphere, this helped improve and lead to our dominant status in world affairs in the future. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

50 BIG ISSUE: GEOGRAPHY, TECHNOLOGY, & THE ENVIRONMENT TIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Spain cedes Florida to the United States Missouri Compromise- 36’30” line Manifest Destiny Steamboats utilized- Savannah first to cross the Atlantic Ocean National Road TRENDS: Manifest Destiny led to the United States spreading westward and gaining territory. Technological advancements such as interchangeable parts and the steamboat led to industrial and manufacturing advancements. EXCEPTIONS: No exceptions. JUDGMENTS: was marked by an ultimate progression in technological advancements and territorial expansion for the nation. The population was benefitted by increased economic wealth as a result of technological improvements, and an increase in American spirit because of geographical acquisition. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

51 BIG ISSUE: IDEAS, BELIEFS, AND CULTURETIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Underground railroad begins. Slave v. free states (Missouri Compromise) Tallmadge Amendment: no more slaves should be brought into Missouri, and kids should gradually be emancipated. Not passed by Senate.(1819) Missouri Compromise(1820) Manifest Destiny- Idea of American “exceptionalism” and Indian Removal Romanticism: James Fennimore Cooper, Washington Irving TRENDS: Romanticism: PICMINE: Past Imagination Common Man Mystery and Supernatural Individualism Nature Emotion over Reason Manifest Destiny-it was this country’s God-given right to expand from “Sea to Shining Sea”; this led to Native American displacement and increased nationalism ‘Muricans loved ‘Muricuh EXCEPTIONS: No real exceptions JUDGMENTS: The Romantic culture idealized the American individual and led to an ultimate increase in American nationalism and unity. This helped progress American ideas and helped lead to advancements in several categories of American life. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

52 Summary of the period: Summary: The late 1820’s were a time of intense dynamism in America, which would come to be defined by the presidency of Andrew Jackson. Looser regulations on voting contributed to an increase in voter turn out that was unprecedented in previous elections. This phenomenon, together with the new image that Jackson gave the presidency, inspired what we know of today as “The Era of the Common Man.” Throughout American society, an increase in self-awareness, brought on by social reforms and the Second Great Awakening, also transformed the young nation. Economically, America was growing. New technologies, new markets, and the facilitation provided by advancements in transportation caused the economy to bloom. These developments, however, were checked by financial mismanagement under Jackson, a problem which his successors would prove ineffective at solving. Socially, a new wave of immigration flooded the economy with labor and contributed to the rise of cities. In the arts, the broad themes of Romanticism and Transcendentalism influenced artistic output, which was, for the first time, truly American. ↑View Previous Summary↑ ↑View Next Summary↑ Main Menu

53 BIG ISSUE: POLITICS AND POWER TIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: people Jackson Martin Vangurren Harrison John Tyler Jamees K. Pol Henry Clay Calhoun Daniel Webster Events Rise of Whig party in response to jackson (ppl mad at corrupt bargain) Trail of Tears Nullification crisis (tariff of abominations) Lonestar rebellion, Texas annexed Misc. 2 party system Spoils for supporters Time to campaign! Appeal to the people Free soil party, whig party TRENDS: Appeal to the common man More participation in vote Depiction of presidents as more common class First real campaign beigin EXCEPTIONS: Beginnings of the know-nothing party- against immigration JUDGMENTS: time of regression- building up tensions btwn N & S, evenutally lead up to civil war Conflict- over topics like the tariff Average person was better, as politics appeal to the people. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

54 BIG ISSUE: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES AND/OR CONFLICT TIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Influx of immigrants- 1 st wave, Irish and Germans Irish- poorer immigrants in cities - >NINA Germans-> go out to mid west to own some property Led to nativism TRENDS: Lots of immigration, b/c of push factors at home, like the Irish potato famine Nativism, dislike immigrants EXCEPTIONS: Reforming poor cities JUDGMENTS: Regression b/c of discrimination Average man was worse off b/c of increased competition from immigrant workers ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

55 BIG ISSUE: GENDER ISSUESTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: women went to factory production Oberlin college opened to women 1848 Seneca falls convention Wrapped in cult of domesticity Some women working for more rights Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton TRENDS: Start for suffrage EXCEPTIONS: Cult of domesticity -> came back during 1950s Women's Role: Maintain the home Teach the children Be a moral guide for her children Women's Virtues: strong faith moral integrity obedience domesticity mainstream society JUDGMENTS: Progress, good start for feminism movement ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

56 BIG ISSUE: WORK, EXCHANGE, AND THE ECONOMY TIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: National road/ turnpike Canals, More railroads Pony riders in early part, start to die out B&O railroad Bank war Burry Biddle’s bank Cotton is king!! Planter aristocracy _> abolitionism Whiney ends fiber famine 1842 labor unions = legal Panic of Jackson destroyed bank, wildcat banks bad loans on frontier TRENDS: Big gov. = bad With the Industrial Revolution in its formative years in Europe, the United States was just beginning to embrace new technologies that would eventually drive America’s booming Industrial economy. New devices, such as the cotton gin and the mechanical reaper, as well as new concepts, such as the use of interchangeable parts, which would allow for the growth of the assembly line in later manufacturing, were spread across the country with aid of a growing network of transportation. Railroads, canals, and the first roads facilitated the spread of goods, ideas, and immigrants. The majority of Americans at this time still depended on agriculture and lived in rural areas, but big cities, or at least their smaller predecessors were on the rise as Northern and Western European immigrants migrated in droves. These new inhabitants helped to fuel the growth and expansion because of the labor that they provided, building the railroads that made the entire economy tick. EXCEPTIONS: Although the economy experienced growth in general during this time period, economic mismanagement also brought negative consequences. Andrew Jackson’s long personal vendetta against the Bank of the United States led him to dismantle it and establish “wildcat banks” on the periphery where money was loaned freely to farmers. Unfortunately, many farmers were unable to return these loans, which proved disastrous for the national economy. This phenomenon, coupled with other factors, ushered in the Panic of 1837, a time of economic stagnation for the United States which was left behind by Andrew Jackson for his successors to deal with. JUDGMENTS: Progress for transportation Regression for economy ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

57 BIG ISSUE: AMERICA IN THE WORLDTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Mexican-American war Treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo War of words w/ Britain Manifest destiny Oregon fever TRENDS: US is trying to show that it can stand up to other countries Isolationism, mostly EXCEPTIONS: JUDGMENTS: Forward, develop America more, become a stronger republic internally, Most of the time we didn’t have much foreign relations during this time though ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

58 BIG ISSUE: GEOGRAPHY, TECHNOLOGY, & THE ENVIRONMENT TIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: National road/ turnpike Canals cut through shortcuts, like Lake Erie More railroads Pony riders in early part, start to die out Steamboat Invention of mechanical reaper and mower+ sewing machine John deer steel plow, hour day for federal employees Panic of Jackson destroyed bank, wildcat banks bad loans on frontier Samuel Morse invention of telegraph TRENDS: Increased transportation led to increased interstate trade and high urbanization. EXCEPTIONS: Maysville road veto- part of clay’s american system- jackson vetoed a bill which would allow the Federal government to purchase stock in the Maysville JUDGMENTS: Progress for transportation The advancement of transport in the north in this era + infrastructure development would be a later deciding factor during the civil war ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

59 BIG ISSUE: IDEAS, BELIEFS, AND CULTURE TIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Edgar Allen Poe Thoreau and Emerson Transcendentalism and romanticism Hudson river school 2 nd great awakening Mormons & joseph smith Life of Frederick Douglas Begin of gold rush Utopias- Brook Farm & Oneida Susan B. Anthony Spare the rod->spoil the child Drop land requirement to vote Higher Education Learning Reforms Criminal codes soften Dorothea Dix Prohibition of rum TRENDS: Large transmission of idea through text Many of these reforms and ideas branched off from the 2 nd great awakening Romanticism Past Imagination Common folk Mystery/supernatural Indivudaulism Nature as a teacher Emotion over reason EXCEPTIONS: Putting down slaves who were inspired to demand freedom- after nat turner uprising, stricter laws passed, ban learning to read, stricter enforcements of their meetings JUDGMENTS: Mostly progress, many reforms were beneficial to the common man during this time. Large consensus in religion fervor, ppl were swept with the movement. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

60 Summary of the period: ROAD TO DISUNION Summary: American during the time period of was a time of expansion and disunion. The idea of Manifest Destiny, stating that America’s God given mission was to expand Westward, fueled the Mexican-American War; the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo (Feb 2, 1848) that ended that war resulted in the acquisition of the Mexican Cession (Texas north of the Rio Grande, New Mexico, and California), for a payment of $15 million to Mexico. With this expansion and general demographic shifts to the West came controversy over whether or now slavery would be allowed in the new territories. For example, the influx of “forty-niners” in search of gold in California resulted in President Zachary Taylor allowing it to enter the union as a nonslave state. This caused significant tension, as California included land above and below the Missouri Compromise line. In an effort to ameliorate conflict, Henry Clay authored the Compromise of 1850; it’s provisions allowed California to enter as a free state, the elimination of slavery in Washington, D.C., and the toughening of the Fugitive Slave Act (this in turn still angered abolitionists like Harriet Beecher Stowe, who wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin and Frederick Douglas’s The Liberator). Continuing down the road to disunion, the Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed in order to allow popular sovereignty to decide whether the two states would enter as a slave or free state. Unfortunately, this caused much corruption, as settlers flooded into Kansas and Nebraska in an effort to swing the vote, and violence, like “Bleeding Kansas” and John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry. Another important event was the Dred Scott case, which ruled that slaves were property, protected under property rights (aka they get no rights themselves). Finally, Lincoln’s election (1860) eventually antagonized the South enough to cause South Carolina and other states to secede. During this period, reformers were prominent. For example, the women’s rights movement in the effort to gain suffrage resulted in the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848; important figures included Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Other ideas, such as nativism and transcendentalism were important. ↑View Previous Summary↑ ↑View Next Summary↑ Main Menu

61 BIG ISSUE: POLITICS AND POWERTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: during Polk presidency, ended Mexican American War, resulted in Mexican Cession (parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, Colorado) from Mexico for $15 million, Texas border at Rio Grande, pay off Mexican debts to USA and assumed al claims of Americans against Mexican government, increased tensions (some thought the war was unnecessary) 1850 Compromise of 1850: by Henry Clay, CA added as a free state, abolition of slavery in D.C., Utah and New Mexico- slavery decided by residents, Fugitive Slave Act toughened (judges in North determine fate of escaped slaves) 1850 Daniel Webster’s 7 th of March Speech: against antislavery, response to Henry Clay’s Compromise of under president Franklin Pierce (pro-expansionist): sent Commodore Matthew Perry to open Japan to American trade and diplomatic contact 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act: existence of slavery decided by a vote resulted in pro and anti slavery settlers “moving” to these states 1854 Emergence of Republican Party (combination of antislavery, Whigs, modernizers, former free soldiers, Know Nothing Party) 1854 Ostend Manifesto: urged Spain to offer Cuba for $120 million, North angered because Cuba would be slave island 1856 Brooks Sumner Incident: fight in Congress over Kansas Nebraska Act 1856 Bleeding Kansas: free soil settlement attacked, abolitionist John Brown killed proslavery settlers 1858 Lincoln Douglas Debates: Republican Lincoln, debate over slavery and new territories 1859 John Brown and radical abolitionist group raids Harper’s Ferry, wanted to incite slave uprising, Brown was hanged 1860 Election: elected Abraham Lincoln, Southerners view election as insult, virtually ensured that some Southern states would leave the union, 1860 South Carolina is the first state to secede 1856 Dred Scott Decision ruled that slaves had no legal right to sue in federal court and slaves were private property and therefore the government had no right to grant Dred Scott freedom TRENDS: Road to Disunion Attempts to keep balance, but eventual conflict between slavery and antislavery views Disagreement turns to violence Increased tensions between North and South EXCEPTIONS: Some attempts at compromise (ex. Compromise of 1850) only ultimately cause increased tension. JUDGMENTS: Time of initial progress but ultimately regression. Several attempts at compromise only end in inevitable clash between North and South, forecasted by violent turn of events leading up to the Civil War. Conflict over slavery in new territories Average person is worse off Trends led to Civil War ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

62 BIG ISSUE: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES AND/OR CONFLICTTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: 1848: Discovery of gold in California -Horde of Adventures -Overwhelmed government with lawless men and virtue-less women -Outburst of crime when gold mines did not supply as much as promised -People came from Mexico, South America, China, Australia, and Europe move to America : Underground Railroad -Escaping slaves from South (usually to Canada) 1853: Gadsden Purchase -Pacific Railroad bought for 15 million 1848: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo -With Mexican war victory land opened up and stimulated Manifest Destiny TRENDS: North and South were locked into a battle for Western expansion because they wanted to remain equal in the senate The demographic shift towards the west North was primarily the populist party -Immigrants would come for economic opportunity which they found in the North, therefore no need to migrate to the South EXCEPTIONS: While a majority ventured west to seek new lands and livelihood, some stayed at their original positions JUDGMENTS: Overall, the actions of this time period led to the Civil War Manifest Destiny brought to question, “Would slavery expand with Manifest Destiny?” -Which led to greater conflicts ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

63 BIG ISSUE: GENDER ISSUESTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Women were left household duties and finances while men worked due to the rise in technology Seneca Falls Convention, 1848: “Social, Civil, and Religious Condition of Woman” Lucretia Mott: Only nationally known woman speaker at Seneca Falls Elizabeth Cady Stanton: Main author of the Declaration of Sentiments 1850’s Women’s Rights Movement in Salem, Ohio Susan B. Anthony: Naional Woman Suffrage Association Sojourner Truth: Spoke for women as well as slaves TRENDS: Feminist movement forged a way for schooling and professions Suffrage=main focus First wave of feminism: Started by Seneca Falls Convention Supported abolitionist movement as well EXCEPTIONS: Perception of women remained somewhat the same, until around the mid 1900’s Women did not receive suffrage until 1913 JUDGMENTS: As a majority, women somewhat made progress through the antebellum time period Women became educated in the same manner that men did towards the end of the time period Women were able to take over some of the men’s household duties They campaigned for married women’s property rights, equal custody rights, right to keep their own wages, and the right to divorce ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

64 BIG ISSUE: WORK, EXCHANGE, AND THE ECONOMYTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Panic of 1857: -Caused by embezzlement in the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company -Caused by the fact that European market of goods declined -Caused by collapse of land speculation Railroad, Factory Systems, and Machines: -Part of the national economy -Caused both growth and conflict , The Gold Rush: -Caused huge influx of immigrants -Helped the economy Huge difference between economic interest between the North and the South TRENDS: Road to Disunion Increased tensions between the North and the South The Gold Rush “Rush” Panic of 1857 EXCEPTIONS: Regional economies switched to national economy and ironically caused more conflict than integration JUDGMENTS: Period of progress until around 1857 with the financial crash People in the Great Lakes region were effected more strongly by the Panic of 1857 ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

65 BIG ISSUE: AMERICA IN THE WORLDTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Mexican War ends in 1848 Immigration Slavery had already been abolished in many other countries Crimean War -Depended on South’s Agriculture 1848, Treat of Guadalupe Hidalgo -Received a huge chunk of land ranging from Texas to California TRENDS: The Gold Rush: The world seemed to be migrating to California Decline of European market for goods, Crimean War, and over speculation led to The Panic of This largely effected America’s economic and industrial position in the world Immigration because of factory and railroad jobs Manifest Destiny EXCEPTIONS: There were no major backlashes, but there was conflict over whether slavery should spread throughout America along with Manifest Destiny JUDGMENTS: Competitions for jobs increased because of immigration, so it created conflict for the average American ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

66 BIG ISSUE: GEOGRAPHY, TECHNOLOGY, & THE ENVIRONMENT TIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: 1848: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1853: Gadsden Purchase Emergence of the railroad industry Textile Mills/Plants North became more industrialized Agricultural south TRENDS: United States turned more towards an economic focus as opposed to fighting wars Manifest Destiny increases the amount of new land for trade opportunity The railroad would help to populate the newer regions EXCEPTIONS: The Gadsden Purchase had a good amount of opposition that held several debates over whether it was really needed There was no real backlash after the Gadsden Purchase Small minority of farmers who were against the expansion of the railroad as it would take several acres of farmland Tensions increased after the expansion JUDGMENTS: The nation progressed quite fast with several economic developments aiding the movement of product into the newly acquired land The people had several conflicts between the North and the South as a result of railroad expansion The average American was better off due to increased trade opportunities The tensions from the conflict would help to set the stage for the Civil War ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

67 BIG ISSUE: IDEAS, BELIEFS, AND CULTURETIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Abolitionists: Frederick Douglas, Harriet Beecher Stowe “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” by Harriet Beecher Stowe was very influential at this time Radical Abolitionists: John Brown, William Lloyd Garrison Fire Eaters: Radical southern nationalists in favor of secession Nativism Temperance Women’s Rights Movement Transcendentalism: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau TRENDS: Reform Extreme Conservatism vs. Extreme Liberalism American Nationalism vs. Southern Nationalism Anti- foreignism EXCEPTIONS: Even though many Americans in the South were against immigration, the antebellum period still experienced a great influx of immigrants, mainly from Germany JUDGMENTS: “Stalemate” between Progression and Regression Wasn’t much improvement in the life of an average American Tensions at this time led to the Civil War, which destroyed Southern way of life ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

68 Summary of the period: Summary: was a time of great domestic change. With the election of Lincoln, and many other factors, South Carolina seceded from the Union and was soon followed by many others. Despite the fact that both sides thought the war would be brief and have few casualties, it turned out to be and extremely bloody conflict. This can be attributed to the advancement of war technologies such as the repeating rifle and poor medical conditions on the battle field. As the war continued, it put a strain on the economies of both the Union and the Confederacy (headed by Jefferson Davis). Also, the Union was worried that the Confederacy would appeal to foreign powers for help, so they tried to isolate the Confederacy from the rest of the world. Eventually, the North’s superior number of men and technology lead them to victory, where the South general Robert Lee surrendered to Union general Grant at Appomattox court house. Lincoln wanted to ensure that there was no animosity towards the South during reconstruction, so he ensured that the state’s re entry process was relatively simple. Unfortunately, Lincoln was assassinated and others abused the South during reconstruction and essentially left it in shambles that would not be put back together completely until World War II. Finally, Southern racists found ways to ensure blacks had a lower position in society by enacting Jim Crow lays and Black codes. ↑View Previous Summary↑ ↑View Next Summary↑ Main Menu

69 BIG ISSUE: POLITICS AND POWERTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Abraham Lincoln was the President of the Union, Jefferson Davis was the president of the Confederacy. Lincoln’s election was one of the primary causes of South Carolina’s secession. Initially, Lincoln main goal was to keep the United States together and did not want to completely abolish slavery. Upon entrance to the war, Lincoln used the Anaconda Plan. Its goal was to blockade the South and separate it into different segments. He went through a slew of generals, but in the end, he kept a general named Ulysses S. Grant. The southern army was commanded by Robert E Lee. The north had better transportation and more industry along with more people. The South had a rural lifestyle that favored hunting, thus they had good soldiers. The first battle of the war occurred at Bull Run. The critical battle of the war was at Antietam. The Copperheads were a Northern faction that did not favor war with the south. The South eventually lost. Both Lincoln and Johnson favored a moderate Reconstruction. However, the radical republicans wanted to punish the South. The Reconstruction Acts required a new constitution and the ratification of the 14 th amendment. The thirteenth amendment abolished slavery. The fourteenth amendment led to equal citizenship and due process of law. The fifteenth amendment gave voting rights to former slaves. Abraham Lincoln was eventually assassinated and Andrew Johnson took over. He pushed for a lenient Presidential Reconstruction. He was eventually impeached for violating the Tenure of Office Act however was acquitted. His power waned after this. TRENDS: Radical republicans grew more powerful. The growth of the KKK. African Americans began to vote Republicans. EXCEPTIONS: The Copperheads did not want war with the South. Johnson purchased Alaska in JUDGMENTS: It was a time of progress because it was a step towards racial equality and resolved the issue of slavery. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

70 BIG ISSUE: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES AND/OR CONFLICTTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Technology: Various advances in technology such as the repeating rifle, submarine, improvements in railroads, the telegraph, and iron clad warships occurred because of the Civil War. Geography: Both the war and Reconstruction primarily took place in the South. Environment: Not much emphasis was put on the environment during this time, but the health environment was pretty significant in that more soldiers died of disease than from gunfire wounds. TRENDS: Generally, the Union had greater access to technology, communication, and transportation. The war was primarily fought in the South, thus the southerners had the home field advantage of familiar terrain. Technological advances occurred primarily during the Civil War rather than during the Reconstruction period. EXCEPTIONS: The Confederacy had a submarine fleet that they used against the Union iron clad warships. Also, there were few case in which antibiotics (i.e. penicillin) were distributed to wounded soldiers. One exception to the trend of battles being fought in the South is Gettysburg, which was one of the only major battles fought in the North. JUDGMENTS: Overall, technology progressed because of the Civil War. However in terms of geography and environment, the United States remained relatively stagnate. The average person in America was better off because of the technology and communication advancements, but it could be argued that they were worse off because of the advancements in military machinery. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

71 BIG ISSUE: GENDER ISSUESTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: There were still no woman voters. Women were active in the abolition movement. TRENDS: Women took over jobs when the men left. They had take care of the farms and new responsibilities. EXCEPTIONS: Men returned, they lost opportunities. 13 th, 14 th 15 th amendments were detrimental to women’s moral. They don’t get any share in the new rights. JUDGMENTS: Overall, things stayed the same. There was a period of progression followed by regression. It created social unrest. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

72 BIG ISSUE: WORK, EXCHANGE, AND THE ECONOMYTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: The Northern economy was more stable during the Civil War. During this time period the first income tax was enacted. The sale of war bonds also became popular. The National Banking Acts of 1863 and 1864 were two United States federal banking acts that established a system of national banks for banks, and created the United States National Banking System. They encouraged development of a national currency. Heavy taxes were levied on the South. The northern blockade also cut trade to the South. Many Northern businessmen became wealthy due to the war. Sewing machines became popular because many soldiers needed uniforms. There was a large amount of inflation in the south, over 9000% which is known as runaway inflation. The South had to print worthless new money. The overall cost of the war was 15 billion dollars. After the war, the South’s economy was in shambles. The South lost the slaves who were the workforce of the plantations. Slaves were also sources of wealth and they disappeared. Carpetbaggers become villains in the South. They supposedly took advantage of the South, buying plantations manipulating the political system. The “Era of Good Stealing” began to emerge during this time with the Cred Mobilier Scandals and Boss Tweed. Economic depression struck the country in It had a variety of causes including speculation. TRENDS: The South suffered significantly while the North prospered. EXCEPTIONS: The slaves were now able to pursue economic freedom however many Southern people were still prejudiced. Sharecropping became popular where blacks leased lands and gave the landowners half the crops. JUDGMENTS: It was a time of progress for the North. It was a regression for the South. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

73 BIG ISSUE: AMERICA IN THE WORLDTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: The Confederacy relied on Britain to recognize them and aide them during the civil war, because the south was one of the main producers of cotton in the world, and supplied a lot of Britain's grains as well. The south basically used their cotton as black mail. The North was pretty isolationist, while the south tried to send diplomats to Britain to receive recognition, until intercepted by Charles Wilkes, a union officer. This began the Trent Affair/ Mason- Slidell Affair. Confederate diplomats were aboard the British Mail ship “Trent”, and were taken hostage by the union as contraband. This angered Britain, and to ease tension, Lincoln released the hostages to avoid war. The diplomats resumed their voyage but did not end up getting recognition from the British. TRENDS: Europeans mostly stayed neutral during this time period, and trade did not change. The issue of slavery kept the anti-slavery nations of Europe from intervening on the South's part. The south was depending on recognition from Europe, but never received it. Because of other preoccupying things going on in Europe (Bismarck in Germany and Napoleon everywhere) Britain and France could not spend time invested into the civil war era. Britain's policy toward America is shaped by its past strategic and economic policy. There is a lot of tension, and war is seen as a stalemate. Many abroad American ministers fear that Europeans wish for the fall of America. EXCEPTIONS: Britain supplied 2 of the confederate warships, but paid for damages to the union. After the Trent affair, Britain backed up troops in Atlantic and Canada, with plans to strike New York City if war is needed. Battle was never carried out. JUDGMENTS: Foreign relations are pretty stagnant, due to a couple key factors. -The south loses its cotton monopoly, due to production and trade in Egypt and India. -Trent affair increased tensions -However the north begins to industrialize, and export manufactured goods, leading into the beginning of industrial revolution and gilded age. - Reconstruction brings the railroad to the south, and (kind of) helps the south recover. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

74 BIG ISSUE: GEOGRAPHY, TECHNOLOGY, & THE ENVIRONMENT TIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Slaves obtained more civil rights, with the addition of the 13th-15th amendments. At the same time, however, they still faced discrimination with black codes which were created as a response to the three amendments. Even though freed African Americans were promised ‘forty acres and a mule’ with their new freedom, they often remained in a low social status and were forced to sharecrop. Some whites also experienced a demographic change, as carpetbaggers gave up their jobs in the North and headed south to exploit the South during Reconstruction. TRENDS: At the beginning of the war, the North and South were entirely split—while the North mainly relied on technology and their established urban culture, the South, contrarily, was an agricultural center that depended on slavery to produce an income. Towards the end of the Civil War, abolition sprung up as a new controversy between the North and the South. This added to the hostility between the two, although Reconstruction was being initiated as a sort of forgiveness to the devastated South. The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) caused even more violence as all races other than whites were being ‘hunted’. Civil rights were enacted for blacks; they were assimilated more into society, but this did not entirely fix the discrimination problem. EXCEPTIONS: Although the South was rejoining the Union after the war, many opposed and even rejected the offer of help from the North. Hostile feelings still contributed to a cold environment throughout Reconstruction. Moreover, the creation of Black Codes counteracted the amendments that gave freed slaves their new rights. JUDGMENTS: Progression is evident throughout this time period—the status of slaves evolved significantly. Conflict, however, defines the Civil War and Reconstruction. Numerous disagreements engulfed both sides for almost two decades, and the South was especially scarred. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

75 BIG ISSUE: IDEAS, BELIEFS, AND CULTURETIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: 13 th, 14 th, 15 th Amendments KKK Idea of white supremacy Freedmen’s Bureau Aftermath of Emancipation Proclamation Dominican Republic Plan TRENDS: Black culture in society gained some pride after slavery. Southern states experienced a large influx of free men. Secret terrorist organizations such as KKK were formed, which are primarily made up of confederate army veterans. Economy of south crashes. Racial tension. EXCEPTIONS: Radical republicans didn’t want the southern U.S states back into senate because of black codes and other laws. Southerners complained that the North was changing too much, while they were staying true to republican values. JUDGMENTS: Time of progress in terms of freedom for the slaves but a period of regression since the economy of south was practically destroyed. Racial tensions and resentment form towards the former slaves and new conflicts emerge from this war. The average person was worse off after than during the war because of the reconstruction proses and the and the new laws, tariffs that they had to adjust to because of the cost of the war. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

76 Summary of the period: Summary: ↑View Previous Summary↑ ↑View Next Summary↑ The Gilded Age was a period of unusual greed and corruption opposite the founding ideal the founding fathers had for the United States. The Republicans held the majority of political power, and the democrats were able to do very little in light of this. However there was still some political agitation during the Gilded Age, small third parties like the Greenbacks and Populists raised the voice of the opposition, although achieving very little, as only one democratic president served during the Gilded Age. However the Gilded Age set great precedents for the U.S.’s growth as a major industrial and economic superpower, despite the tariffs that isolated the economy of the U.S. from the world. The massive political neglect and corruption allowed for outrageous conditions within factories and left little room for poor farmers who were exploited by monopolies. The backlash to these atrocities was quick and began to form even as the Gilded Age was ending, and led up to many social and political movements that dominated the 20 th century. Immigration was another huge issue of the era, millions of people streamed into the U.S. providing cheap competitive labor, which many established workers resented. Unions began forming to negotiate better working conditions, but were largely unable to do anything great because of political opposition and brutal policies by industrialists. Later however their voices were heard, and the rights protested then were often the rights gained during the reforms of the 20 th century. In conclusion the time period was the emergence of America as a world power, and the origins of many of the social and economic reform movements which the abused people the era wanted. Main Menu

77 BIG ISSUE: POLITICS AND POWERTIME PERIOD: The Gilded Age IMPORTANT DETAILS: *FORGETTABLE PRESIDENTS Hayes v. Tillman (Hayes won to end reconstruction) James Garfield (the best thing he did for his country was die) William Jennings Bryan v. William McKinley (McKinley wins) Whigs (Republicans) Democrats Political Machines Boss Tweed TRENDS: Forgettable Presidents – no major political figures stood out during this period Equality between Democrats and Whigs – led to no political progress. Was the dividing line between the North Preference of government towards Big Business Political Machines – dominated northern elections, kept Republicans in power EXCEPTIONS: Grover Cleveland – only Democrat of the time to be President Greenback and Populist Parties – worked to expand women’s rights (?!) Western Communities – tended to be against Big Business which damaged their production JUDGMENTS: Regression and conflict, and corruption in politics led to nearly nothing being accomplished. This would lead to the presidents of the time period to be known as the Forgettable Presidents. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

78 BIG ISSUE: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES AND/OR CONFLICTTIME PERIOD: The Gilded Age IMPORTANT DETAILS: 2 nd Wave of Immigration: Immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe Irish Outcasts (We don’t like you, Catholics!) Homestead Act Great Chicago Fire TRENDS: Immigrants enter the country by boat into growing and crowded cities, which are often along water sources (Ellis Island) City Planning and Expansion Upwards Widespread distrust and discrimination of new Catholic, Eastern European, and Chinese immigrants Ethnic neighborhoods within cities EXCEPTIONS: Movement to the Great Plains of the West by families, few stayed longer than a few years. *Backlash to the movement urbanization, back to Jerffersonian Republican ideals. (Despite this agriculture is not that viable) JUDGMENTS: The Gilded Age was the flowering of US Industry, indicative of the global economic strength the US would possess in the 20 th Century. BUT, for the average worker this prosperity was only possible if they kept their crummy jobs. The social regression on the brink of world economic preeminence would foreshadow later progressive movements and ultimately better quality of life. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

79 BIG ISSUE: GENDER ISSUESTIME PERIOD: The Gilded Age IMPORTANT DETAILS: WOMEN TO KNOW: Susan B. Anthony Carrie Chapman Catt Jane Addams Alice Paul NAWSA – National American Women’s Suffrage Association New York State Woman’s Temperance Society Hull House – a home created by Jane Addams to house lower class people TRENDS: Women were given the opportunity to work in factories yet for a fraction of the pay and with more work. They were mistreated in places such as the Lowell Factories Women mostly worked with the Temperance Movement and were given a voice through that Women attempted to gain their own rights, but failed. EXCEPTIONS: In 1895 Utah gave women the right to vote In 1896 Idaho gave women the right to vote JUDGMENTS: Not much progress was made for women during the time. Men’s status did not elevate much either, but they were still held to a much higher accord than women. However, women gained enough momentum to gain their right to vote in the next time period. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

80 BIG ISSUE: WORK, EXCHANGE, AND THE ECONOMYTIME PERIOD: The Gilded Age IMPORTANT DETAILS: Coxey’s Army Women and Economics Yellow Dog Contract Haymarket Riots The Great Strike of 1877 Muckrakers Transcontinental Railroad Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Accident Panic of 1893 TRENDS: BIG BUSINESS – Carnegie, Rockefeller, and Morgan (own monopolies and gain most money of Americans to date) Railroads – cause more interstate commerce Cheap Labor – from immigrants, unions conflict over poor conditions Improvements – technology and industry to increase productivity Conflict – Between Unions and Legally (do you or don’t you support big business?) The West - Exploration of natural resources EXCEPTIONS: The South benefits little from the increase in industry Unskilled labor is less represented by unions than skilled labor, less negotiation leverage JUDGMENTS: While the trend did foreshadow America’s economic strength of the 20 th Century, it was also a period of conflict with the workers. The policies also promoted monopolies and trusts that chocked out competition and fair prices and wages for the common workers. However, the development of big business was a great precedent for further economic expansion. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

81 BIG ISSUE: AMERICA IN THE WORLDTIME PERIOD: The Gilded Age IMPORTANT DETAILS: Yellow Press Alfred Thayer Mahan Pan-American Conference McKinley Tariff Queen Liliuokalani Maine explosion Anti-Imperialist League Manila Battle George Dewey Emilio Aguinaldo TRENDS: Growing American sense of power Need for overseas market Social Darwinism Desire to spread Christianity Expanding Military Prowess Willingness to go to war Wanted influence over Latin America EXCEPTIONS: Cleveland hesitant over annexing Hawaii (used arbitration to avoid most wars) Cleveland initially unwilling to help Cuban rebellion House Speaker Reed resigns to protest Imperialism JUDGMENTS: America made progress in becoming a world power. General consensus is that most Americans supported Imperialism, but a significant minority opposed it. America was left better off as international prestige and influence because we finally entered international affairs. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Rough Riders Theodore Roosevelt Capture of Guam Acquisition of Puerto Rico Treaty of Paris Insular Cases Platt Amendment Teller Amendment Main Menu

82 BIG ISSUE: GEOGRAPHY, TECHNOLOGY, & THE ENVIRONMENT TIME PERIOD: The Gilded Age IMPORTANT DETAILS: Railroad Carnegie Telephones Edison-electricity Homestead Act of 1862 Vanderbilt Skyscrapers TRENDS: Railroads vastly expanded; funded by gov. Nation was geographically united Industry booms- Natural resources of coal, oil and iron Cash register, typewriter, refrigerator and car Consumerism grows w/industry New communication and technology increases business efficiency Buffalo slaughtered Urbanization EXCEPTIONS: People believed that laws shouldn’t be given to corporations for free Wesley Powell of 1974 Geological survey warns farmers not to move past 100 th meridian JUDGMENTS: This was definitely a time of huge economic and technological progress, and the average man’s lifestyle rose significantly. These advances also increased the income gap and particularly hurt farmers and factory workers who would backlash in the populist movement. It united America physically and greatly increased its world power economically. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

83 BIG ISSUE: IDEAS, BELIEFS, AND CULTURETIME PERIOD: The Gilded Age IMPORTANT DETAILS: Social Darwinism Laissez-Faire Capitalism “Low Brow” Culture Gospel of Wealth Progressives Socialism, Anarchism, and Communism TRENDS: The Rise of Industry in America led to a greater demand for education. This led to a more literate population and a greater diversity in literature (see 3 rd bullet) Popular magazines with short fiction serials provided the opportunity for the “Low Brow Culture” to connect to literature Literature shifted: romanticism  realism, idealization  real depiction of the common man (eventually led to naturalism) EXCEPTIONS: High Brow Culture – sought to rectify the old ways, didn’t like the ideas of “Low Brow” literature. Tried to influence political ideas JUDGMENTS: The common man was better off as a result, due to increases in literature and education directed towards them. This era allowed the lower classes to feel more a part of the society as a whole. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

84 Summary of the period: Summary: The period started off with the end of President McKinley’s term and ended just after World War I. Through the presidencies of McKinley, Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson, these were the defining issues: rise of reform movements, a form of American imperialism, and American involvement in WWI. Remember all the social reform occurring in this time period: a rise of women’s rights movement with Margaret Sanger becoming an advocate for contraception, an attack on the food production industry leading to legislation like the Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act, increased environmental awareness because of Roosevelt, and more. America became involved in the Philippines early in this period because of “moral diplomacy;” they felt that democracy was superior to all other forms of government and wanted to impose it on the islands. America showed interest in Panama, primarily for economic gain. The government funded the building of a canal through Panama to increase the image of being a world power. The US was affected by World War I, but not as badly as the rest of the world. Although the war began in 1914, the US tried to remain neutral while still assisting the Allies in some ways – for example, the Lend-Lease Act. After Germany provoked the US enough, America entered the war. Afterward, Wilson tried to stress the need for international peace and unity with his 14 Points. The major ideas of the period were a need for social reform and an awareness of social conditions. ↑View Previous Summary↑ ↑View Next Summary↑ Main Menu

85 BIG ISSUE: POLITICS AND POWERTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: McKinley ( ) – Open Door policy Roosevelt ( ) – Big Stick Diplomacy, “Square Deal,” environmental awareness Taft ( ) – Dollar Diplomacy 17 th Amendment, 1913 – direct election of senators 19 th Amendment, 1919 – female suffrage Wilson ( ) – “progressive democrat,” Federal Reserve Act, Clayton Anti-Trust Act, 14 Points, desire for a League of Nations Sedition Act, 1918 TRENDS: Idealistic presidents wanted change and to fix the country. The government focused on the economy and foreign policy, trying to help workers and consumers at home and to increase trade abroad. Economic reforms favored middle-class, urban workers. With the passage of the 17 th and 19 th Amendments, the people had more of a say in government. Wilson supported the 19 th Amendment and condemned lynching, small victories for women and African-Americans. EXCEPTIONS: Wilson was more idealistic and focused in peace instead of money. African-Americans were still discriminated against – they were forced into ghettos and low- paying jobs, even after gaining some recognition. JUDGMENTS: Consumers and workers benefitted, and women gained more political power. The economy was spurred before World War I. African-Americans, though, didn’t gain much, living in poor areas of town and working low-paying jobs. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

86 BIG ISSUE: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES AND/OR CONFLICTTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Heavy Japanese migration to California Gentlemen’s Agreement with Japan – stop sending Japanese people to the US Second-Wave Immigrations – mostly from Eastern Europe, immigrants settled in tenant houses, held on to home countries’ cultural values Hull House – Jane Addams Greater hostility towards immigrants TRENDS: All migrations from other countries into the United States were caused by internal affairs in the other countries, such as economic depressions and political changes. They were also based heavily on the influence of other people in the home countries. EXCEPTIONS: Trends didn’t apply to the higher classes or central states; coastal states were affected the most by large migrations. JUDGMENTS: Progress for Americans and regression for others, because the immigrants came for America’s opportunities. Because of an increase in opportunities, there was more variety and diversity. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

87 BIG ISSUE: GENDER ISSUESTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Carrie Chapman Catt – National American Women Suffrage Association Alice Paul – National Women’s Party Women’s Christian Temperance Union Margaret Sanger – contraceptive supporter Ida Tarbell – muckraking journalist Great push for right to vote and equal pay Jane Addams Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire 19 th Amendment, 1919 – women’s suffrage (League of Women Voters) TRENDS: The ideas of equality for women, such as equal pay, education, voting, and working rights really came to light in this period and gained enormous momentum in Congress. As the Progressive Era developed, many of the issues brought up by earlier feminists – such as the Seneca Falls Convention – earned merit. Occurrences like the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire and suffragette protests made the public look more openly on women’s rights. EXCEPTIONS: While improvements in women’s working rights did much to improve the status of immigrants and low-class industrial workers, the gain of the vote in 1919 didn’t do much for them; many were uneducated and did not speak English well. JUDGMENTS: This trend led to suffrage for women and was a defining moment for women. Despite facing conflict with other women, men, political leaders, and certain religious organizations, it led to a general consensus for women’s suffrage. The average woman, for the most part, was better off in the end, although many of the migrant and uneducated lower classes earned little during this time. However, this trend has led to major improvements for women overall, and helped bring women better education and turned them into a major part of the US workforce. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

88 BIG ISSUE: WORK, EXCHANGE, AND THE ECONOMYTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Minimum wage law in Oregon, 1913 Federal Reserve Act Workmen’s Compensation – compensation for wages lost due to work injuries Federal Trade Commission, 1914 – protects the consumer, eliminates what regulators see as harmful anti-competitive businesses practices Robber barons: Carnegie, Rockefeller Rise of labor unions Roosevelt’s “Square Deal” – control of corporations, consumer protection, conservation of natural resources TRENDS: Problems grew during the movement from the Industrial Revolution causing the government to intervene. Many issues sparked reforms that tended to try and clean up the economy or protect workers. The big idea was the fact that America had become and industry that couldn’t function within itself; seemed that capitalism was failing. EXCEPTIONS: Most acts, bills, and amendments were continuations of previous laws, clarifying and expanding acts from the past. JUDGMENTS: This was a crucial time. New industries caused a need for new laws to be passed in order to protect consumers, businesses, and workers. It caused expansion in business and opened up monopolies and trusts. This period helped America in a se4nse of experience and create foundations needed for a successful nation. It caused change and improvement through reforms. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

89 BIG ISSUE: AMERICA IN THE WORLDTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Open Door Policy Platt Amendment – leave Cuba alone Big Stick Diplomacy – Teddy Roosevelt Dollar Diplomacy – Taft (bankers put money in areas of “strategic concern”) Great White Fleet Honduras & Nicaragua – Us intervened to stabilize government (Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine) White Man’s Burden Panama Canal Zone WWI – Wilson states 14 Points TRENDS: The US slowly became like the world police – keeping peace and spreading democratic ideals. There were attempts to unite the world in favor of peace. America became a growing superpower; they were the only ones not to suffer huge losses from WWI. Nationalism rose. EXCEPTIONS: America was reluctant to join World War I, preferring neutrality. JUDGMENTS: America developed into a world superpower; the average person was better off in comparison to the rest of the world. Other countries recognized America as a powerful nation. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

90 BIG ISSUE: GEOGRAPHY, TECHNOLOGY, & THE ENVIRONMENT TIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Teddy Roosevelt Yosemite – 1 st national Park: 1890 – also first protected wilderness in America John Muir National Parks System (1916) Resurgence of hunting for sport and not for food TRENDS: Conservationism- said that the laissez-faire approach to saving resources was too wasteful and inefficient. The best course of action, they argued, was a long-term plan devised by national experts to maximize the long-term economic benefits of natural resources. – Teddy Roosevelt Environmentalism- John Muir : preached that nature was sacred and humans are intruders who should look but not develop. Allows for limited tourism, but opposed automobiles in national parks. It strenuously opposed timber cutting on most public lands, and vehemently denounced the dams that Roosevelt supported for water supplies, electricity and flood control. EXCEPTIONS: Laissez-faire- position held that owners of private property—including lumber and mining companies, should be allowed to do anything they wished for their property JUDGMENTS: Environment benefitted most predominantly in the west; although with passage of The National Parks Service, the areas designated were preserved for future generations of Americans. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

91 BIG ISSUE: IDEAS, BELIEFS, AND CULTURETIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Muckrakers – exposed evil of American industry Lincoln Steffen’s “The Shame of the Cities” – corrupt alliance between big business and municipal government Ida Tarbell – muckraker who exposed Standard Oil Company Upton Sinclair – The Jungle Environmental conservation spread under Roosevelt – led to literary works like Jack London’s Call of the Wild TRENDS: Ideas and literary works revolved around the legislation and supported the Progressive Movement – in some cases, the literary worked helped pass legislation to help a cause; other times, they spread awareness of the truth about many things that had been kept hidden. EXCEPTIONS: Big business owners, targeted by muckrakers, disliked the muckrakers. The businesses didn’t want their secrets exposed to the public. JUDGMENTS: The average person became more aware of the true conditions of their country because of these trends. While some things may have been unpleasant to hear, the painful truth was vital to America’s development. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

92 Summary of the period: Summary: The era from the 1920’s to the 1940’s was characterized by a big boom in the form of the Roaring Twenties, followed by the big bust of the Great Depression. This time period encompassed new technologies, such as the automobile and small appliances, and new entertainment in the form of movies, the radio, and Jazz. The illusion of affluence was shattered by the stock market crash of ‘29 and the following depression. ↑View Previous Summary↑ ↑View Next Summary↑ Main Menu

93 BIG ISSUE: POLITICS AND POWERTIME PERIOD: Boom and Bust ( ) IMPORTANT DETAILS: J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI Palmer Raids and abandonment of civil liberties Pro-business Republicans (Harding, Coolidge, Hoover) Tea Pot Dome Scandal Welfare capitalism: benefits to workers  no unions W.H. Harding: Republican president, opposed league of nations, supported return to normalcy, pro-civil rights TRENDS: Closer ties between politics, power, and money  led to decrease in regulations, and an increase in business friendly policies During Theodore Roosevelt’s election, African Americans began voting Democratic instead of Republican Corruption in government affairs EXCEPTIONS: JUDGMENTS: ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

94 BIG ISSUE: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES AND/OR CONFLICTTIME PERIOD: Boom and Bust ( ) IMPORTANT DETAILS: Anti-immigration: i.e. Sacco and Venzetti Home-ground prosperity  standard of living went up Hoover towns and Suburbs Emergency quota act of 1921 Immigration Act 1924 &1929 Roaring twenties  Great Depression  Normalcy TRENDS: Isolationism Denounced un-Americans  Red Scare Anti civil rights Return to normalcy Farmers migrated west because of Dust Bowl EXCEPTIONS: Women in the working world Harlem Renaissance JUDGMENTS: Regression: wanted to return to pre-WWI ideals ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

95 BIG ISSUE: GENDER ISSUESTIME PERIOD: Boom and Bust ( ) IMPORTANT DETAILS: Flappers = risque Pink color jobs (20% of workforce was women) College enrollment for women matched men Women’s suffrage: 19 th amendment was ratified in 1920 Women’s Christian Temperance Union TRENDS: Women gain placement in workforce and education Women supported and led the prohibition movement Women returned from their jobs to domesticity after men came home from WWI EXCEPTIONS: Flappers displayed open sexuality, smoked cigarettes, bobbed their hair, and wore shorter dresses JUDGMENTS: When the economy was booming, change was more acceptable, went the economy went downhill, anything other than conformity was frowned upon ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

96 BIG ISSUE: WORK, EXCHANGE, AND THE ECONOMYTIME PERIOD: Boom and Bust ( ) IMPORTANT DETAILS: Before 1929= Boom; economic prosperity Causes of Great Depression : Weak economy/unbalanced banking system Poor distribution of purchasing power Dust Bowl Internal debt/international debt Unregulated stock speculation Banking crisis FDR- New Deal Programs Civilian Conservation Crops (CCC)- assist the young unemployed (reforestation, fire fighting, flood control, etc) National Industrial Recovery (NIRA)- “Put people back to work”; stimulate recovery of labor + business Public Works Administration (PWA)-boost economy and stimulate industrial recovery; civilian and military construction projects Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAAA)- help farmers pay mortgage; preserve soil quality and land resources for farming/ranching Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)- improve/preserve confidence in banks; protect supply of money (insurance for bank deposits) Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)-money for direct dole payment or wages on work projects Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)- harness power of Tennessee River to make electricity; hydroelectric power, distribution of fertilizers, reforestation, restore soil Securities Exchange Commission (SEC)- protect public against fraud, deception, etc. of stock markets Social Security Act- public welfare system; old age benefits, material + child welfare, unemployment compensation Fair Labor Standards Act – established minimum wage; fair labor standards, established max hours; no child labor Works Progress Administration (WPA)- create jobs for unemployed; programs to help preserve skills; support culture + arts Federal Housing Administration (FHA)- improve housing standards + conditions; provide adequate home financing system; insurance through mortgage loans Early 1920s – rise in automobile industry = new jobs TRENDS: = general prosperity and “Boom” = depression and “Bust” Consumerism  overproduction Decrease in need for manual labor EXCEPTIONS: JUDGMENTS: In the beginning of the 1920s, the boom in the automobile industry led to a huge increase in jobs, leading the nation into what seemed to be an era of prosperity. However, the new and efficient production techniques and the unsustainability of the automobile industry led to overproduction which helped lead to the Great Depression. During the 1930s, much of the economy under Roosevelt was focused on relief, recovery, and reform programs to help boost the nation out of depression. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

97 BIG ISSUE: AMERICA IN THE WORLDTIME PERIOD: Boom and Bust ( ) IMPORTANT DETAILS: Isolationist America -Emergency Quota Act of 1921  3% of people of their nationality since Immigration Act of 1924  2% of people of their nationality since 1890Post-war cynicism Red Scare (anti-foreign sentiments) -Sacco-Vanzetti= Italian s convicted of murder  executed Wilson proposed League of Nations  America did not join Kellogg-Briand Pact- Outlawed war Separate peace treaties with central powers ended dispute Japanese relations- - Immigration Act of 1924= NO Japanese Japan disregarded 9 Power Treaty and invaded China -Japanese internment camps Stimson doctrine- condemned any nation gaining territory by force U.S.= post WW1 creditor -Hawley-Smoot Tariff Decay of dollar diplomacy in Latin America - Cuba released from Platt amendment (American involvement in Cuba + Guantanamo Bay) Lend-lease TRENDS: American isolationism Anti-foreign Red Scare EXCEPTIONS: More people from Eastern/ Southern Europe Latin Americans + Canadians still allowed to immigrate JUDGMENTS: America during this time period was mostly isolationist in its foreign policy as a result of WWI. Many sought a return to normalcy, and thus were against the interference in foreign affairs that led to WWI. However, towards the end of the 1940s, foreign policies of trade such as lend-lease led to American relations with Allied nations and thus involvement in the Second World War in ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

98 BIG ISSUE: GEOGRAPHY, TECHNOLOGY, & THE ENVIRONMENT TIME PERIOD: Boom and Bust ( ) IMPORTANT DETAILS: 1 st National Parks Dust Bowl (1933)] - Dry farming techniques (steam tractor + disk plow)= more torn up Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)= - Hydroelectric power from Tennessee River - abundant nitrates, reforestation, restore eroded soil Cars, radios, washing machines Printing Commercial aviation Advertising TRENDS: Personal appliances Shift from steam power to electric power Assembly line Degrading environment EXCEPTIONS: New Deal Programs (TVA, AAA) to improve degrading environment Agricultural declined Unsustainability of automobile industry JUDGMENTS: Much of the focus on the environment and geography during this era was a result of New Deal programs to create new jobs or power sources to aid in recovery. However, new technology was a result of the economic and industrial boom during the early 1920s. Overall, this was an era of regression due to the decline in economy and increase in unemployment during the Great Depression. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

99 BIG ISSUE: IDEAS, BELIEFS, AND CULTURETIME PERIOD: Boom and Bust ( ) IMPORTANT DETAILS: Roaring 20’s - Flappers - Jazz Mass-Consumption Economy Cars -Henry Ford + River Rouge Plant Radio (local = long distance broadcasting) Hollywood Harlem Renaissance - Langston Hughes- ‘Poet Laureate of Harlem’ Charles A. Lindbergh- first solo flight of Atlantic F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, William Faulkner, Ezra Pound TRENDS: Roaring 20’s Prosperity (until Great Depression) Jazz Mass culture Science Abundance “New Culture” Great Depression (30’s) Unemployment Pessimism EXCEPTIONS: Flappers and Harlem Renaissance – went against return to normalcy JUDGMENTS: The rise in consumerism and prosperity during the 1920s led to a society of mass consumption that is still alive and criticized to this day. It also led to a sort of counterculture, which consisted of the jazz music of the Harlem Renaissance and “flapper” girls, which caused conflict among people who sought the return to normalcy. New technology also helped create a new culture of consumerists and helped lead the nation into WWII. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

100 Summary of the period: Summary: This time period was dominated by World War II, and all facets of American society revolved around the conflict. The 40s showed huge growth in industries geared towards the war effort, and as men went off to war, many responsibilities were taken up by women on the home front. The war caused an economic boom, leading to long- term American prosperity, and an eventual post-war culture of consumerism and leisure. Once the soldiers came home from the war, the baby boom began and the movement away from cities towards suburbs began at the end of this period. Post-war distrust of the USSR and communism arose as the 50s began, an attitude which led to involvement in the Korean War. Overall, this period was a time of prosperity for most Americans. While America was almost continuously involved in international conflict, the country was internally united. ↑View Previous Summary↑ ↑View Next Summary↑ Main Menu

101 BIG ISSUE: POLITICS AND POWERTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: President: Franklin Delano Roosevelt was president, and won a third and fourth term because the country did not want to change leaders in the middle of a war. Truman took over after FDR’s death but was inhibited by the Do Nothing Congress of During FDR’s presidency, they war department had enormous amounts of national power. After victory in World War II, the Red scare determined the direction of congress with the creation of the House Committee of Un-American Activities in 1948., who prosecuted attorney Alger Hiss on charges of Espionage. TRENDS: Democratic Control: FDR maintained control of the White House because the public wanted him to see out the war. Truman continues democratic control of the presidency. US Becomes Military Power: after winning World War II, the US becomes a major military superpower, deciding the fate of post-war Europe during the Yalta Conference of Anti-Communism- The United States plans all policies around a hunt for Communists. HUAC searches for communists, Executive Order 9835 requires a loyalty oath in government positions. Cold War: The United States shows support for the West with the Marshall plan of 1948, and the Berlin Airlift in The United States also starts NATO to be closer to its allies. Tensions escalate with first Soviet A-Bomb in EXCEPTIONS: By the 1952 election, the democrats had lost control of congress and Truman had lost most of his popularity. Conservative power would rise with the election of republican Eisenhower in JUDGMENTS: This would be a time of progress for United States power across the world because of victories during World War II. However, politics became extreme durrng the Red Scare, and they regressed to fear and intimidation. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

102 BIG ISSUE: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES AND/OR CONFLICTTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Baby Boom at end of World War II led to spike in population and birthrate Great Migration still in progress at this time, blacks continuing to move to the North from the South Because most jobs are in war industries, people moved to the cities for more work opportunities Japanese Internment causes a large concentration of Asians on the West Coast TRENDS: Racial tensions rise during WW2 Movement towards urbanization and larger cities during WW2- towards war industries Transition period between rural flight of 1930s and suburban boom Boom in population, due to the end of WW2 EXCEPTIONS: After WW2, emergence of suburban development. As Baby Boom happened, geared movement away from cities. JUDGMENTS: Progress- War industry helped to spur movement to suburban cities- getting away from big crowded cities, but still needing to be near them because of the job opportunities one might find in those cities People were mostly better off because their dedication and work towards the war effort paid off as the economy boomed following the war This movement changed the idea of a good American life- living in a nice suburban home but going to the job in the city ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

103 BIG ISSUE: GENDER ISSUESTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Many replace men in the factories during World War II. Executive Order 8802, enacted by FDR, allowed for equal employment in factories in the war industry, leading to the increased employment of minority women in the workplace. Women were also expected to run the home front, dealing with rationing of food, gasoline, and other supplies. Women accepted more responsibility, filling in many roles left vacant by the men fighting overseas. Many women discovered the nonmaterial benefits of working including new skills, and contribution to the public good. At the beginning of the war 1/4 (12,000,000) of the workforce was made up of women and towards the end this number increased to 1/3 (18,000,000). TRENDS: Women’s Work: Most propaganda was geared toward women on the home front, encouraging them to create quality war products. Male Expectations: Propaganda promoted the idea of the strong man who would fight for his country. Marriage Rate: Skyrockets after World War II ends, leads to the Baby Boom. Resurgence of Traditional Values: Soldiers coming back from war wanted to settle down and form families with traditional family values. This leads to the trends of domesticity throughout the 1950’s. EXCEPTIONS: After the war, women were relegated back to their domestic roles as men returned home. This domesticity led to the resurgence of traditional values and would lead to the domestic culture of the 1950’s. JUDGMENTS: Initially, women gained many rights in the absence of men, but the return of many soldiers caused women to regress back to their traditional roles in the household and society. The role was accepted consensually by most women glad for a time of peace and prosperity. This trend would continue into the 1950’s. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

104 BIG ISSUE: WORK, EXCHANGE, AND THE ECONOMYTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: The 1940’s was a pivotal decade in the development of American business. The economy had rebounded from the Great Depression; big businesses recovered and had become stronger from wartime production; wages and earnings reached new heights; production of consumer goods and military hardware developed the consumerist culture. Close cooperation between the government and labor unions led to s stable domestic climate for business. Businesses and the government also worked to build up international markets and trade overseas. As the Cold War unfolded in the decade and a half after WWII, the U.S. experienced phenomenal economic growth. The war brought the return of prosperity, and in the postwar period, the U.S. consolidated its position as the world's richest country. Gross national product (measure of all goods and services produced in the U.S.) jumped from about $200 thousand-million in 1940 to $300 thousand-million in More and more Americans considered themselves part of the 'middle class.' TRENDS: Economic Growth: International Business: Consumerist Economy: Housing Boom: Mortgages became more affordable. More Defense Spending: Major Corporations: EXCEPTIONS: In the 1940’s, basic commodities (sugar, gasoline) were rationed to support the war -- military bases sprang up in rural areas. It was also the end of the horse-drawn era of farming, tractors. Many family owned farms went out of business. This time period was the 'Best and worst' of times for farmers. Farm numbers shrunk; farmers who were able to stay aware making good money (sophisticated machines) although there were better crops and better pesticides. JUDGMENTS: The economy made huge strides during the 1940’s. America became an economic superpower as well as a military one. All Americans were pleased with this progress, so the boom was definitely consensual. The average person was better off because of the availability of education, jobs, and higher wages. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

105 BIG ISSUE: AMERICA IN THE WORLDTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: For World War II, the United States allied itself with Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union. Initially, American support was through material programs like the Lend-Lease Act, but after Pearl Harbor, the United States became engaged militarily. It was during World War II that the US became a nuclear superpower. a The US and the Soviet Union began the Cold War after the reorganization of Europe that followed World War II. Internationally, the United States allied itself with pro- democracy nations, forming NATO with democratic West Europe. The US also began to utilize the forum of discussion in the United Nations. America also flexed its military muscle in the Korean war in 1950, attempting to contain the spread of communism. It was this drive for containment that would dictate US policy for years to come. TRENDS: Containment: US policy for decades would be based on George F Kennan’s idea that if one country fell to communism, every country around it would fall to communism. Monolithic Communism: This concept became the face of evil for the United States. Internationalist Policies: America begins to act in all world affairs in order to contain the spread of communism. Treaty Organizations: Started between the allies in World War II, the United States would continue to participate in treaty organizations like NATO. EXCEPTIONS: The policies of the US would change from fighting the tyranny of Nazi Germany to stopping the communist advance led by the Soviet Union. The United States would also go back on its alliance with the Soviet Union once the Axis powers were defeated. JUDGMENTS: This decade was progress for American Foreign Policy, leaving behind earlier ideas of isolation. It became a superpower wielding Nuclear weapons, and was the driving force of the Democratic movement throughout the world. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

106 BIG ISSUE: GEOGRAPHY, TECHNOLOGY, & THE ENVIRONMENT TIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Atomic bomb was developed under the Manhattan Project, gave countries ability to wipeout entire cities. American involvement in World War II led to the redrawing of borders in Europe and Asia. Napalm was developed during World War II but was effectively used for the first time in the Korean War. Improved manufacturing technology led to a consumerist culture in the United States. TRENDS: Technology: Weaponry had been improved for the needs of World War II and continued to be updated during the arms race with the Soviet Union. Geography: America helped negotiate border changes in Europe, and balanced political polarization of the continent. North American boundaries remained static. Environment: Environmental issue s took a back seat to technological innovation. New nuclear technology cause d issues with radiation. Increased production during this time period took a toll on the environment. EXCEPTIONS: There was little deviation from the established trends. Consumerism continued through the time period, creating bigger and better manufacturing technology. Military innovation continued to be fueled by the Soviet threat and the Korean War. JUDGMENTS: Technologically, the United States made huge bounds, especially in manufacturing, weapons, and nuclear technology. However, pollution due to this advances increased, and many of the new military innovations made killing only easier. These determents were overlooked, and many went along consensually while the innovations fueled international conflict. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

107 BIG ISSUE: IDEAS, BELIEFS, AND CULTURETIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: The Baby Boom leads to a rise in a family centered culture. Experts, like Dr. Spock, begin writing literature about family care. College education increases because of new demands in the post-war workforce and the availability of funds for tuition provided by the GI Bill. Rationing curbs the consumerism of the early ‘40’s, but resumes in the productive post war economy. Film industry begins gaining ground in new consumerist culture. The advent of TV at the end of this time period fuels more growth in Hollywood. Baseball and boxing continue to gain popularity across the nation. In the literary world, writers like Hemmingway, Miller, Orwell, and Vonnegut gain popularity by writing in the Modernist and Post-Modernist style. Jazz continues to maintain its popularity among the general public, led by stars like Louis Armstrong. The beginnings of the Red Scare instill fear and suspicion amongst the general public. This fear was directed towards immigrants and others suspected of espionage. TRENDS: Changes in Family Structure: Many Americans want to settle down after the tumultuous times of World War II and the Great Depression. Birth rates and number of marriages skyrockets. Music and Entertainment: The media industry gained support from a public wanting distraction from war. Film, music, and television make strides towards the end of the decade. Patriotism: After the successes of World War II, both on the front lines and back home, Americans developed a sense of pride in their new found international standing. This feeling was also heightened during the Red Scare. Civil Rights: Gains support during this time period. A. Phillip Randolph leads movement for desegregated factories, approved by Executive Order Military becomes desegregated. Religious Revival: Comes with traditionalist resurgence. Integrated into culture with family values. EXCEPTIONS: The conservative South opposed gains in civil rights and gender equality. Most gender gains were lost when men returned from war, leading to traditional domestic roles for women. The beginnings of Rock began to replace Jazz at the start of the 1950’s. JUDGMENTS: This time period was progress from American culture because of the new-felt sense of Patriotism. Quality of life increased because of a growing economy as well as the starts of equality movements. Most Americans accepted the consensus of the new culture with the exception of the extra-traditionalist South. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

108 Summary of the period: The 50s Summary: During the 1950s, America experience great progression within social elements and economic status. American politics during this period largely revolved around cold war and its beginnings. Politics during this time period consisted of American ideology of containment and empowering against continued communist influences. During this period, the US was still experience the after effects of WWII and the Korean war especially within economic status. During the mid 1950s, with rise in consumerism and governmental actions from Eisenhower, the economy deviated away from inflation and deficit held from past events. This economic rise and the beginning of consumerism eventually led to the economic boom within the 60s. The most important progression within American society in this time period is the changes within Social progress of American citizens. The rise of suburbia greatly influenced the family dynamics and increased the popularity of the idea of a nuclear family. People also began moving towards the sunbelt. The social culture within American people greatly changed due to rise in conformity and uniformity. Elvis Presley posed as the key into unlocking the new culture boasted by Americans from here on out. This new culture posed as the new rebellious, conforming society that influenced American stability into the future. ↑View Previous Summary↑ ↑View Next Summary↑ Main Menu

109 BIG ISSUE: POLITICS AND POWERTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: 1953 – 1961 Eisenhower is president. -Negotiating from military strength, he tried to reduce the strains of the Cold War. -In domestic policy the President pursued a middle course, continuing most of the New Deal and Fair Deal programs, emphasizing a balanced budget –the federal highway act is signed, marking the beginning of work on the interstate highway system. -Eisenhower: By the late 1930s, the pressure for construction of transcontinental superhighways was building. It even reached the White House, where President Franklin D. Roosevelt repeatedly expressed interest in construction of a network of toll superhighways as a way of providing more jobs for people out of work McCarthy begins televised hearings into alleged Communists in the army. Beginning in 1950, McCarthy became the most visible public face of a period in which cold war tensions fueled fears of widespread communism. He was noted for making claims that there were large numbers of Communists and soviet spies and sympathizers inside the United States federal government and elsewhere. Ultimately, McCarthy's tactics and his inability to substantiate his claims led him to be censured by the United States Senate. The term McCarthyism, coined in 1950 in reference to McCarthy's practices, was soon applied to similar anti communist activities. TRENDS: In the past half century, armed conflicts, mainly internal conflicts, increased continuously from 1950 EXCEPTIONS: The election of 1952 was the first time that the campaign truly used the women behind the candidates with buttons of the two spouses and appearances by both for election support with each relatively unknown at the start but national celebrities by election time. The American public was still looking for stability after WWII and these two families was just that. The Eisenhower campaign still held to the traditional ideas of home and family. People against old time tradition. JUDGMENTS:The issue in the 1950s was not civil rights as the nation moved from the domestic-oriented politics of the 30s and 40s to a new politics centered on communism, corruption, and Korea. The public thus concerned itself with issues of national security, and the administrations of Truman and Eisenhower based most of its policy formation on taking the [questionably] necessary steps to assure the public that America would remain dominant and purely democratic. General Dwight D. Eisenhower took office in 1953 with the knowledge that his new title would serve to reinforce beliefs obtained from his military career: the importance of teamwork, the need for clear lines of authority, and the abhorrence of partisanship. Eisenhower's ideas recalled those of Herbert Hoover, who during the 1920s extolled the virtues of a corporate economy and declared that the federal government should concentrate on promoting cooperation among private interests for the common good. REGRESSION: The waging of the Cold war changed when Eisenhower became president. He focused on using massive retaliation to resolve disputes. Summit meetings between Eisenhower and Khrushchev lessened tensions. Eisenhower's policy also employed covert action in several nations as Eisenhower feared a domino effect of communism. When his term ended, Eisenhower left office warning against the growing military-industrial complex. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

110 BIG ISSUE: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES AND/OR CONFLICTTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (McCarren-Walter Act) restricts and regulates immigration to the United States. Second Great Migration continues through this time period. “The White Flight” – Whites begin to de-urbanize and leave urban areas due to a fear of the immigrants moving to the cities. Brown v. The Board of Education was also a minor factor in the “White Flight” because white parents disliked the idea of their kids going to integrated schools. Migration to the Sunbelt starts in the 1960’s due to: -Air Conditioning makes more urban living in the sunbelt possible and more desirable -Interstate Highway Act (Federal Aid Highway Act) connects the nation for more easy travel to the Sunbelt -Less need for manufacturing  More service industries, which can be operated from anywhere. Suburbs become more common as skyscrapers become more popular and downtown areas become more exclusively business related, forcing people to live in suburbs. The Post-WWII baby-boom also contributes to the rise of suburbia as the idea of a nuclear family becomes increasingly popular. TRENDS: Rise of Suburbia Migration to the Sunbelt Increased Ease of Transportation EXCEPTIONS: Many people still move to urban areas over suburbs because of the availability of jobs. JUDGMENTS: This time period is marked by vast demographic progress. People begin moving and inhabiting almost all parts of America, and the rise of suburbia increase civic efficiency. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

111 BIG ISSUE: GENDER ISSUESTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Women stay at home; men are the breadwinners -This was glorified past WWII because women had to work during the war while men were gone – they pushed to return to normalcy (and sometimes went too far, ex. Consumerism, but that’s a different issue) Baby Boom  influence/telling of emphasis on family life Think of the families of ‘50s TV Betty Friedan’s Feminine Mystique also influenced women to be in the workplace TRENDS: 1.Women’s Rights Movement -Feminine Mystique: There’s something more than being a wife and mother -More women went back to work after WWII -Most of the ideology planted in the ‘50s wasn’t fully acted upon until the 60’s 2.Emphasis on Family Life -Baby boom -Degree of desire to return to normalcy where women don’t work and want to bake pies and such -TV shows of the 1950s (June Cleaver) -Media EXCEPTIONS: Women’s Rights Movement: -Not a lot of opposition due to lack of action throughout this time: many still felt they balanced family and career/education well Family Life: -Feminists JUDGMENTS: Progress with the introduction of Feminine Mystique and putting the ideology in place for it to be developed in the 1960s ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

112 BIG ISSUE: WORK, EXCHANGE, AND THE ECONOMYTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Continuing and developing economic deficit and inflation from WWII and Korean War coming into and the beginning of the 50s. Eisenhower’s presidency tried to follow the “fiscal responsibilities” of the government by trying to promote economic growth through government actions. Rise of TV and Radio. Rise in economy in 1955, drop in 1957, rise again leading into 60s boom. Middle Class expansion Strong labor unions (large majority of workforce in unions) New Loans and credit programs. Industrial and business boom leading to 60s. TRENDS: Consumerism- promoted by rise in new products and consumer necessity (especially from Middle class expansion and rise in suburbs). Promotion of consumer products using T.V and Radios expanded consumption. New loans and credit opportunity greatly promoted consumption of products as it provided immediate possession of products for consumer. Rise and Consumerism within 50s led to US economic peak in the 60s. Movement of Economy away form WWII and Korean War deficit- with rise in consumer supply and demand and government promotion economic growth, US started deviating out of deficit and inflation created from WWII and Korean War. This new movement in economy in the 50s eventually led to economic peak in the 60s. EXCEPTIONS: Conforming of Americans to consumerism- David Reisman postulated movements to suburbs and conformity of Americans to consumerism. JUDGMENTS: Consumerism promoted widespread economic growth within US, especially to deviate out of War inflation. It promoted a healthy economic rise that led to boom in 60s. Great progression for US economy, a necessary progression, coming out of WWII and Korean War. American lifestyle rose extensively, in both economic and social progression, due to consumer values and better economy. Consumerism grew throughout the 50s and hit its peak within the 60s allowing the US economic boom in the 60s. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

113 BIG ISSUE: AMERICA IN THE WORLDTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Korean War: 1950 – Korea was already divided by outside powers, and the governments of the north (communist) and south (democratic) fought for dominance. What started as a civil war evolved in to a proxy war between the capitalists (led by the U.S. and its allies, aiding the south) and communists (China and the U.S.S.R. aiding the north). After regaining Seoul, General MacArthur had plans for a full scale invasion of China, but president Truman ordered him to back down. Suez Crisis: Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser attempts to nationalize the Suez canal, which upsets the U.K., France and Israel. The U.K. calls for millitary intervention, andlooks to the U.S. for support, but the Eisenhower and the U.S. oppose mthe use of military force, and support Nasser. This event marks the beginning of the end of colonialism, and waning European power. Cuban Missile Crisis: Soviets placed nukes in Cuba TRENDS Brinkmanship: keeping things on the brink of disaster, in order to achieve the most advantageous outcome. (U.S. wielding nukes and covert intelligence) Mutually Assured Destruction: full-scale use of high-yield weapons of mass destruction by two opposing sides would effectively result in the complete, utter and irrevocable annihilation of both the attacker and the defender. (fear of this concept kept the U.S. and U.S.S.R. from ever deploying such an attack) Nonviolent Competition: the U.S. also engaged in nonviolent means of competition with the U.S.S.R. in areas like sports, culture, and technology (space race). EXCEPTIONS: The U.S. and U.S.S.R. were united in the opposition of military force concerning the Suez Crisis. JUDGMENTS: The U.S. neither progressed nor regressed much during this time period, as it was largely a stalemate between the capitalists and communists. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

114 BIG ISSUE: GEOGRAPHY, TECHNOLOGY, & THE ENVIRONMENT TIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Inventions such as the television and transistor radio made communication easier, and in the process helped spread information and culture throughout America. The United States was in a vicious arms race with the Soviet Union, leading to military innovations and powerful weapons such as the H-bomb. The drop in prices and increased availability of electronics made commercial technological appliances very popular to the American public. Innovations in household appliances gave Americans more leisure time. The first computer was sold commercially in America, but was rarely used as it was complicated, heavy, and unpractical. TRENDS: 1.How Technology Shrunk America: Television: Television became widely available providing an easy way to spread information and culture to even the most isolated parts of America. On top of this television provided a subject almost every American could talk about, creating a ‘national dialogue’ about events that had been televised. Transistor radio: In 1952 Raytheon, along with Texas Instruments, produced the commercial transistor radios. Though at first unpopular because of the high price, as prices dropped more and more people bought them, creating an easy and convenient information pipeline for America. 2.Cold War innovations The H-Bomb: Even before it was invented, the possibility of the hydrogen bomb was controversial. However, with the Soviet Union looming President Truman decided to authorize research on a bomb that would be about seven hundred times the power of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima. In 1952 Edward Teller and a team of scientists tested the first hydrogen bomb in Operation Castle on Bikini atoll. In the process, they vaporized the island and produced the United State’s largest explosion ever. EXCEPTIONS: 1.Harvest technology- While most of the technology in the 50s was targeted to urban Americans, farmers also benefitted from innovations such as the self- propelled wheat combine, which became popular during this time period. Though this made agricultural labor easier, many argue that it lead to the end of America’s agricultural industry by reducing the need for labor (and in effect destroying the economies of rural towns), lead to less diversified crops, and decreased the number of farms (though increasing the remaining few in size), JUDGMENTS: Progression: The 1950’s was definitely progressive technologically, and geographically became a smaller knit community. Conflict: Scientists were divided over the issue of the hydrogen bomb. Consensus: By making communication easier than ever, the spread of technology in the 50s helped create a more unified American culture. For Average Americans: The 50s lead to more leisure time by making chores and other work easier and faster. This leisure time was devoted to other types of technology that kept them informed politically and culturally while also entertaining them. America was better off: Through technology, Americans were able to connect to others regardless of geographical location, helping unify the United States. Changes in America: America began to shift into a more service-oriented economy. The inventions in the 50s also provided a base from which other communication based technologies could build up from. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

115 BIG ISSUE: IDEAS, BELIEFS, AND CULTURETIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Sense of Uniformity Baby Boom Racial segregation ruled unconstitutional in school in 1954 TRENDS: Conformity/ Uniformity- Television provided old and young with shared experience reflecting accepted social patterns. - Mechanized and Industrialized culture - Men  breadwinners Women  housewives Rebellion (music and arts) - Elvis Presley- changed music and American culture forever into being more rockin’. (especially because his swagin’ hips and blue suede shoes) EXCEPTIONS: Beat Generation -non conformists - stressed spontaneity and spirituality - intuition over reason and eastern mysticism over western institutionalized religion JUDGMENTS: -Increased integration of races in culture -Progress in civil rights -Experience great progression within culture and social elements ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

116 : The Era of Changing Values Summary: This time period saw two presidencies end in tatters as the result of many social changes. In 1964, Lyndon B. Johnson defeated Barry Goldwater and proceeded to push the American agenda in Vietnam and civil rights reform. The landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964 prevented discrimination in public against African Americans. However, the war dragged on for his whole presidency, causing much economic and social commotion. An economic slump resulted, exacerbated by Johnson’s insistence on continuing his Great Society programs, aimed at America’s poor. In addition, members of the “counterculture,” such as hippies, protested against the war, and the gay right movement emerged for the first time. American voters, tired of this turmoil, elected Richard Nixon in 1968, who appealed to the “silent majority” to re-stabilize America. Though the war continued for the next 4 years, Nixon had domestic success with environmental legislation, such as the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency in However, these gains were overshadowed in 1973, as a result of an oil embargo placed on the US by OPEC, and the Watergate scandal, in which Nixon lied about knowing of a break-in at Democratic election headquarters. As a result, Nixon resigned his office, and Gerald Ford was named president in Overall, the 60s were a time of great social change as many oppressed minorities attempted to make their voices heard and were successful to varying degrees. However, after the debacles of Vietnam and Watergate, Americans also grew more cynical, as their reputation on the world scene fell, right at the cusp of the modern era. ↑View Previous Summary↑ ↑View Next Summary↑ Main Menu

117 BIG ISSUE: POLITICS AND POWERTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: President: Election of 1964: LBJ v Goldwater, Election of 1968: Nixon v Humphrey v Wallace, Election of 1972: McGovern v Nixon, Nixon resigns 1974->Ford becomes President Policies: Tonkin Gulf resolution->War Powers Act of 1973, Civil Rights Act, Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, Voting Rights Act of 1965, creation of EPA and OSHA-> Clean Air Act and Endangered Species Act, 26 th Amendment, Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, Philadelphia Plan of 1969, EEOC LBJ: The Great Society and War on Poverty, Department of Housing And Urban Development, Medicare and Medicaid Nixon: CREEP-> Watergate Court: Warren Court-> Griswold v Connecticut (1965), Escobedo (1964) and Miranda (1966), NYT v Sullivan (1964), Reynolds v Sims (1964), Roe v Wade (1973), Griggs v Duke Power Co. (1971). TRENDS: Presidents: The election of LBJ ushered in an era of liberalism in America as evident by the numerous Great Society and “War on Poverty” programs,. The era of Nixon ushered in more conservatism and less progressivism than the previous decade. Courts: The Warren Court was a time when the Supreme Court used Judicial activism, meaning the court perused liberal policies. It was one of the few times in history when the Court was liberal. Foreign Policy: The 1960s started out with extreme optimism about the war abroad. As the decade progressed, the war become more and more controversial and less liked. Protest Movements: The protest movements defined this decade. EXCEPTIONS: There was a plethora of conservative backlash against Johnson’s “War on Poverty” because it created a welfare class There was conservative backlash towards the Civil Rights policies, epitomized by George Wallace There was a lot of anti-war protest to Vietnam war policies The 1968 Chicago riot at the DNC The assassination of civil rights leaders (MLK and Malcolm X) JUDGMENTS: This time was a period of both progress and regress in the political world Civil Rights-> The progress of Civil Rights in not debatable. However, due to the assassination of MLK in 1968, there were more forceful proponents to Civil Rights policies (i.e. Black Power Movement and violent minority groups). “War On Poverty”- Aided the poor workers in America (progress). Created a welfare class (regress). ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

118 BIG ISSUE: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES AND/OR CONFLICTTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: 1969 Stonewall Inn riots represented the beginning of the gay rights movement Volunteers in Service in America (VISTA) created by LBJ’s Economic Opportunities Act 1965 Housing and Urban Development (HUD) created as part of Great Society 1964 Legal Services Corporation created to ensure equal justice for all with legal assistance Ku Klux Klan continues to terrorize cities and countryside 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act promotes education 1965 Immigration Act 1965 Malcolm X killed, represents a detraction in civil rights and black power TRENDS: This time period was exceptional in that it created headway with civil rights, more so than any other time in American history. In addition, the Great Society was an attempt, successful at first, to better the standards of living for all average Americans, but it eventually got bogged down in financial issues created by the Vietnam War Finally, especially under Johnson, this time period showed a reinvigoration of the interventionist tendencies of the federal government, which, despite some cutbacks later on, caused more Americans to become dependencies than ever before EXCEPTIONS: Social conservatives, as usual, provided a backlash against the demographic initiatives of this time period, but through the vigorous leadership of Johnson, his programs, both for blacks and whites, were made permanent parts of American society Older leaders of the Civil Rights movement were disappointed that these new legislations were mainly passed by white legislators, instead of spearheaded by the idealists in their own camp Finally, fiscal conservatives disagreed with The Great Society because it provided a source of major debt for the government JUDGMENTS: This time period had much demographic change in terms of the major minority in America, African Americans, who were finally legally given the same rights as all Americans. Despite these actions, a new thorn in the side of white Americans, affirmative action, soon took over as a major social issue in America, so even though one problem was solved for the time being, another soon followed in its wake, making such demographic change seem controversial over the next 25 years or so. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

119 BIG ISSUE: GENDER ISSUESTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Betty Friedan and The Feminine Mystique The “Sexual Revolution” (gays, lesbians, and feminists), Stonewall Inn riots Counterculture Opposed traditional values Women in men’s clothing Burger Court Roe vs. Wade, 1973, legalized abortion Reed vs. Reed, ended sex discrimination in employment Title IX, mandated women's’ sports programs in universities Equal Rights Amendment failed, but goal was full equality TRENDS: Equality in jobs mandated by legislation, as well as in pay and job opportunities Women began to protest as a group again for the first largely successful time, hand-in-hand with the Civil Rights Movement Rejection of the traditional ideas of a woman’s role, as well as sexual standards, in a general rebellion against “authority,” in conjunct with the counterculture Education opportunities continued to grow, including in sports and activities EXCEPTIONS: Reverse discrimination (backlash by straight males against these trends) Phyllis Schlafly and the anti-ERA campaign; successful, but embittered many women 1972, Nixon vetoes nationwide daycare Older generation appalled by these actions, including remnants of housewifery and domesticity of the 50s Social conservatives vetoed legislations JUDGMENTS: Overall, huge progress was made toward sexual liberation for women and those of alternative lifestyles, but it was met by huge, but mainly unsuccessful opposition (the exception being the death of the ERA) In general, America was better off in this aspect during this time period, as for the first time, a LARGE amount of legislation was passed that guaranteed the rights of women, paving the way for their success, but other parts of the movement, such as gay rights, are still controversial today ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

120 BIG ISSUE: WORK, EXCHANGE, AND THE ECONOMYTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: LBJ insisted on fighting war in Vietnam and manage Great Society Programs at home. Vietnam War drained tax dollars from education, manufacturing, etc. Labor force grew increasingly unskilled. Shift from manufacturing to services. Nixon got 90 day wage and price freeze in 1971 to curb inflation Nixon also took America off of the Gold Standard. Oil embargo- America’s policy of backing Israel caused Arab nations to hold oil from America in Energy Crisis- American business recession and mounted for heavier use in coal and nuclear power. TRENDS: War and Great Society programs without a tax increase caused inflation. Productivity was slow in an effect of the shift from manufacturing to service industry. -military and welfare spending in absence of tax collections caused too much money to circulate without increasing the amount of goods. Oil prices rose in an effect of the oil embargo by Arab nations Overall, cost of living more than tripled and America was in the longest and steepest inflationary cycle in America Nation’s economy started falling as German and Japanese built most up-to-date technologies Germany and Japan dominated steel, automobile, and electronic industries. EXCEPTIONS: Nixon taking America off of Gold Standard caused fluctuation of money Positive backlash from energy crisis - American realization that they could not dominate international trade in post WW2 decades. - improve energy conservation JUDGMENTS: REGRESSION American reaction= frustration as a result of the energy crisis and increasing inflation. Bad time period for citizens- high cost of living, low production rate, and drained tax dollars. Realization of Americans- energy conservation - no more policy of economic isolation - more dependence on foreign trade (27% of GNP in foreign trade) ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

121 BIG ISSUE: AMERICA IN THE WORLDTIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Continuation of the Cold War Vietnam War continues under LBJ Tet Offensive SALT I Treaty reduces US-Soviet tensions Non-Proliferation Treaty Space Race continues Gemini Program Apollo Program Apollo 11 Nixon visits China (Détente) Middle East tensions rise Six-Day (Yom Kippur) War of 1967 Arab Oil Embargo (rise of OPEC) TRENDS: The continuation of the Cold War led to the onset of various events concerning the Vietnam War, The Space Race, and reduction/limitation of Nuclear Weapons. The outcome Kennedy’s ‘New Frontier’ resulted in the progression of the Space race to its inevitable climax; Apollo 11 and placing men on the moon. The Vietnam War began and ended in this period. Relations with Communist nations improved through Nixon’s program of Détente. EXCEPTIONS: The Six-Day War and oil embargo do not fit in; however, while the Six-Day War was not a result of any U.S. action, the Oil Embargo resulted because of our backing of Israel. JUDGMENTS: It was a period of progress, disregarding the Vietnam War. America won the Space Race, decreased the threat of nuclear war, and significantly increased relations with communist nations through Détente. These trends changed America by decreasing fears of nuclear war, uplifting National Pride through the endeavors of the Space Race however the pride was harmed by the loss of the Vietnam War. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

122 BIG ISSUE: GEOGRAPHY, TECHNOLOGY, & THE ENVIRONMENT TIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: United States had long since been “filled in,” so geography was no longer a major factor in the lives of Americans In 1969, the US unofficially “won” the space race by being the first country to put a man on the moon, Neil Armstrong in Apollo 11 The Apollo Program continued through the early seventies, ending with Apollo 17, and averted a disaster with Apollo 13. New warfare technology, specifically new types of chemical warfare, was used during the Vietnam War, having devastating biological consequences, both on people and the environment Nixon’s biggest legacy was his establishment of several environmental initiatives, such as: The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), protects environmental health through Congressional legislation OSHA (Occupational Health and Safety Administration), placed environmental restrictions on workplaces Clean Air Act of 1970Endagered Species Act of 1973 The above actions were partly inspired by the publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson in 1962, which revealed the negative impacts of pesticides TRENDS: The end of the Vietnam War and the Space Race signified a shift away from the militaristic and anti-Communist bent in technological development However, the personal technological revolution would not come about until the eighties, with the advent of the personal computer And, Reagan would later reverse this de-escalatory trend in the 80s Under Nixon, the first major environmental conservation movement began, and these agencies still exist today In addition, environmental issues such as air and water pollution became more widely known by average Americans, who began to take up such issues as personal rallying points, supporting the new government agencies in their fight for environmental legislation. EXCEPTIONS: In opposition to the minor de-escalation of America’s huge military buildup were the manufacturers of such military supplies, as well as conservatives who took an extreme anti-Soviet an pro-Vietnam stance Other industrial manufacturers were initially opposed to Nixon’s environmental policies, but eventually warmed to such restrictions due to consumer demand for such changes, as they risked losing profit JUDGMENTS: Though at this time, the slight move away from militaristic, anti-Communist technology, as exemplified by the SALT nuclear talks, were viewed as dubious, in hindsight they were actually prescient examples of attempting to de-escalate the tensions between the Soviet Union and the US Overall, America was better off during this time period in environmental and technological aspects, as there was a shift towards a decreased technological militarism and the beginnings of the still-extant environmental government agencies ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

123 BIG ISSUE: IDEAS, BELIEFS, AND CULTURETIME PERIOD: IMPORTANT DETAILS: Counterculture represents a rebellion of youth against America’s unskilled handling of the Vietnam War. Hippies/yippies Woodstock concerts Gideon vs. Wainwright – enhances criminal rights Miranda vs. Arizona – criminal right to remain silent Civil Rights (see Demographics) Great Society TRENDS: Civil rights gained ground overall, for blacks, women, and even criminals. The Warren court cases made liberal decisions despite Warren’s conservative nature. Cultural declination against mainstream, and opposition against the government, as represented by counterculture. Revival of Social Security. EXCEPTIONS: Even though the minorities were gaining rights, hippies and yippies of the counterculture were still pitted against the government. This represented a backlash against the government decision in the Vietnam War. JUDGMENTS: Overall, the 60s and early 70s was a time of progress, as minorities’ rights improved. However, there was some conflict between the drugged, counterculture hippies and yippies and the traditional government involved in Vietnam. Still, for the most part, this period was a time of consensus. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

124 Summary of the period: Modern Era Summary: This time period is marked with the increasing role of the USA in global affairs. The Soviet Union was on it's way to collapsing, which left America was the only notable superpower. defining issues include American involvement in foreign affairs and rapidly changing economic situations, The USA was especially involved in the Middle East due to its dependence on oil. The economy globalized and more free trade was encouraged, but there were plenty of recessions and economic downturns at home that led to more outsourcing. This period developed in our role in the world today, as the so called police of the world. It also shaped the modern practices of government positions and campaign practices. ↑View Previous Summary↑ Main Menu

125 BIG ISSUE: POLITICS AND POWERTIME PERIOD: Modern Era IMPORTANT DETAILS: Nixon resigns due to Watergate scandal Ford’s Helsinki Accords Carter wins ‘76 election due to a strong connection with the American people Camp David Accords Iran Hostage Crisis Self determination of Panama Canal Reagan is sworn in right when American hostages are released Iran-Contra scandal Decline of USSR, negotiations with Gorbachev Reagononmics Persian Gulf War Yugoslavia conflict semi-resolves through Dayton Accords Clinton tries to keep overall world peace Somalia crisis Rising terrorism in and against United States Early parts of era, young adults lost touch with politics Becoming a superpower TRENDS: The overall trend of politics and power in this time period is the increasing involvement of the USA in various foreign affairs –regardless if the results turn out to be favorable or questionable- reflected by an economy fluctuating over various presidencies. Much of the effort put into foreign affairs meant the rise in defense spending. Additionally, domestic affairs were placed on the back-burner as crisis throughout the eastern hemisphere started to manifest. The era is also marked by a general mistrust and weariness of the government, starting with Nixon and including Clinton. EXCEPTIONS: It is interesting to note that in the beginning of the ear, young adults lost touch with politics after Vietnam and the tragedies of Although government- controlled national economy generated unfavorable conditions, Bush managed to maintain an adequate economy and Clinton instituted a program of welfare/work reform, focusing on some domestic affairs. Reagan's trickle-down economy did stimulate the economy, but very slowly and with faults. The exception to the great mistrust would be Carter, Reagan and Bush. Though the general sentiment was there from some citizens, these three were not involved in great scandals. None of this is considered backlash. JUDGMENTS: Following WWII, Vietnam War and the decline of the USSR, America needed to assert its superiority, globally. Despite the trouble heavy participation in world affairs would bring (acts of terrorism in the early 21 st century), it was necessary in order to establish America as a world power. The average American would have been better off with this trend, because it gives Americans a higher status across the globe. It’s nothing we aren’t dealing with curently. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

126 BIG ISSUE: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES AND/OR CONFLICTTIME PERIOD: Modern Era IMPORTANT DETAILS: The Chicano Movement (César Chávez, Dolores Huerta) The American Indian Movement (Leonard Peltier, Russell Means, Dennis Banks, Clyde Bellecourt) The Women’s Rights Movement (Betty Friedan, Gloria Steinem) The Gay Rights Movement (Harvey Milk, Barney Frank) Widening Income gap between upper and lower classes due to Reagan’s economic policy Increase of immigration from Latin America Iran Hostage Crisis Republican vs. Democrats (varying views from the people) Moral Majority TRENDS: Major racial rights changes, due to the movements listed above and their leaders Some movements (Chicano, AIM)had to resort to somewhat violent tactics Others (Women’s Rights, Gay Rights) utilized non-violent demonstrations Many races were fed up with how they were treated in American society, especially in the economic world. This time period was full of revolutions that tried to stay away from violence. EXCEPTIONS: Phyllis Schlafly helped get the Equal Rights Amendment rejected The Chicano movement turned very violent when many of their ideas were completely rejected The Moral Majority was against many of these movements, especially the Feminist movement and the Gay Rights movement. JUDGMENTS: All in all, from a demographic standpoint, there were a number of advances for their causes during this time period. Through their efforts, different societies that originated in the Seventies were able to work towards the goals that they were fighting so hard to achieve. Such as Roe v. Wade for the Feminist Movement, and the election of people like Harvey Milk and Barney Frank for the Gay Rights movement, each demographic made it very clear that they were not going to stand for the oppression that they were suffering at the time. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

127 BIG ISSUE: GENDER ISSUESTIME PERIOD: Modern Era IMPORTANT DETAILS: Feminism: Abortion, Roe vs Wade, ERA, Equal Pay. Title IX, Betty Friedan and Phyllis Schlafly, N.O.W TRENDS: An overall trend viewed in the 1970’s with gender issues would be the growth of women rights. Key events such as N.O.W (National Organization for Women), ERA (Equal Rights Amendments), and Title IX (against sex discrimination) contributed to the strength of this trend. Along with these key events Roe vs. Wade (right for abortion) showed that women were able to push this social trend and gain new rights. EXCEPTIONS: Certain groups such as the Moral Majority a group that advocated for traditional gender roles and other roles associated with Christianity opposed the ERA because of their conservative views. Another backlashing with this trend was conservative and activist Phyllis Schlafly who viewed that women didn’t need full protection of rights under the law. JUDGMENTS: The time period was great progress for women due to the establishment of new social rights and the push of equality amongst genders. The overall consensus was that was support for the movement. The general public was better off with this movement because it further established push for equality amongst all demographics. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

128 BIG ISSUE: WORK, EXCHANGE, AND THE ECONOMYTIME PERIOD: Modern Era IMPORTANT DETAILS: Science based industry More powerful and greater dependence on China Reagonomics- trickle down eceonomics Bush- raises taxes even though he said he wouldn't OPEC Ford's stagflation Greater public debt with Reagan Average standard of living increased Decreased inflation, increased wages NAFTA TRENDS: globalization of economy increased international competition and relations deregulation od economy (lowered tariffs) "fixing" the economy widening income gap (Reaganomics) economy is more service based Work conditions and the economic situation improved from 1974 to the current day. as minimum wage increased and inflation remained low overall, the standard of living improved for most people. The economy became more globalized as international competition and relations increased, and the government increasingly pushed for deregulation of the economy. The economy became fore service based as the leader of America attempted to "fix" the economy. EXCEPTIONS: Chicano movement protests inequality in economy Clinton does reform to improve conditions of the poor (raises minimum wage, allows sick leave, etc.) Dot Com boom- online sites are not very dependable yet George H. W. Bush-raised taxes JUDGMENTS: progress -begins in an unstable state of economy -high oil prices, unemployment/high interest, widening income gap improves -deregulation, lowered tariffs -Clinton: Welfare reform, raised minimum wage, sick leave, lower unemployment/inflation, trade organizations Overall, the economy progressed during this time period. At the beginning of 1974, the rising inflation and massive deficits caused the economy to become unstable, with the value of the American dollar decreasing. However, through a combination of deregulation, lowered tariffs, Clinton's welfare reforms, and the formation of trade unions such as NAFTA, unemployment and inflation decreased and the economy improved. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

129 BIG ISSUE: AMERICA IN THE WORLDTIME PERIOD: Modern Era IMPORTANT DETAILS: World police Superpower Internationalism UN, NATO Persian Gulf War Somalia Protecting Israel – Camp David Accords Intervention in the Middle East Iran Hostage Crisis -see Politics and Power- TRENDS: Disgrace of Americans from fiascos (Vietnam, Iran Contra, Hostage Crisis) Outrunning the Soviets through defense spending Continuing containment Use of USA military EXCEPTIONS: Unilateralism shown through Persian Gulf War SALT II Clinton’s foreign policy, unsure of place in world because of the end of the USSR JUDGMENTS: The shadow of the Cold War led to American uncertainty in direction, after a long period of rivalry with USSR. This led to increase internationalism. The average American was better off with these trends and relocation of defense spending to domestic affairs towards the end of the era. It became less about foreign conflicts than it was about maintaining order at home. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

130 BIG ISSUE: GEOGRAPHY, TECHNOLOGY, & THE ENVIRONMENT TIME PERIOD: Modern Era IMPORTANT DETAILS: EPA regulates ecological reforms with Clean Air and Water Acts, Endangered Species Act Kyoto Climate Conference 1997 signed by Bill Clinton Three Mile Island Rachel Carson Endangered Species Act Green Movement Alternate resources – water, solar Internet and the World Wide Web PC, computers Cloning Cell phones Neutrality of Panama Canal TRENDS: Reforming the environment Awareness of the world we’re living in Progressing in leaps and bounds into the world of technology Advancement, advancement, go, go, go! EXCEPTIONS: Three Mile Island meltdown – antinuclear, anti-alternate energy Cloning – controversial technology JUDGMENTS: There was an overall transition towards more climate-friendly environment. Most agree that it was necessary for America. It led to conservation of resources and awareness of the destruction that overuse of energy was causing to the environment. This was a time period of intellectual progress as well, creating a smaller world in such an expansive place. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu

131 BIG ISSUE: IDEAS, BELIEFS, AND CULTURETIME PERIOD: Modern Era IMPORTANT DETAILS: Gay Rights: Sodomy laws in Bowers v. Hardwick reversed in 1998 Election of Harvey Milk and Barney Frank Election of Bill Clinton (Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell) Romer v. Evans- end discrimination, gay pride, Moral Majority retaliation American Indian Movement: Red Power, Alcatraz, Wounded Knee, Trail of Broken Treaties Chicano Movement: Radical movement coming to a close, more conservative approach stressing cultural pride Art: Minimalism, Pop Art, Op Art, Abstract Expressionism Mistrust of Government: Carter- Iranian Hostage Crisis Reagan- Iran-Contra Affair Clinton- Monica Lewinsky TRENDS: Although the American public grew more cynical towards the United States government following the Vietnam War, people began to become more open to new ideas and beliefs like gay rights, equal rights for all races, and new frames of art. This time period was a time of growing public acceptance of different ideas in culture and led to the formation and independence of many new types of cultural and social groups. EXCEPTIONS: The main opponent of many of the social movements of this time period was the Moral Majority. This group of traditionalists and conservatives had a narrow mindset concerning cultural diversity and cultural movements promoting gays and different ethnic groups, who were generally looked down upon by the Moral Majority. JUDGMENTS: Overall this was a time period for progress. There were large strides made for cultural and social equality for all and there was an increased acceptance for others. Conflict did occur because of opposition from traditionalists, but there was a trend in favor of liberal legislation as the younger generation influenced the government. The average person was better off because they were less likely to face persecution and there was greater cultural awarness. This trend shaped America into what it is today and although there are still improvements to be made, American is one of a select few countries were most social groups can gather without fear of widespread social persecution. ↑Continue This Theme↑ Main Menu


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