Presentation on theme: "Introduction Last presentation we talked about the Industrial Revolution. It was discussed that at the end of the War of 1812, the United States realized."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction Last presentation we talked about the Industrial Revolution. It was discussed that at the end of the War of 1812, the United States realized that they needed to become more self sufficient. They needed to break all ties with England and become more independent. The US had the population needs. They had the natural resources and they had the manpower to move into an industrial state.
Introduction The technology which had been evolving in Europe moved across the Atlantic. Factories began to develop in the North which created a demand for cotton which was grown in the south. All of this led to a need for improved transportation and communication. Thus the development of the steam engine, in the shipping industry, the railway and the telegraph.
Regionalism Throughout history, people from cultures around the world had been coming to America seeking a new life or a change from their current conditions. These people came from a various areas of Europe, yet there was distinct individuality about certain groups. Although they all migrated from the same European region, they each had a distinct set of standards and a set culture that they brought with them. Therefore, as life in the colonies progressed, certain regions of America developed distinct characteristics and each had its own unique niche.
Regionalism Perspective A New England Perspective The Reasons for settlement were: People were coming to America to escaping religious persecution These people sought religious freedom These people sought religious tolerance They were mostly Puritans The Middle Colonies Perspective The Reasons for settlement: Expansion They sought to a grow their trade business They (Quakers) also sought religious freedom in some instances tolerance form the Puritans The Southern Colonies Perspective The Reasons for settlement: Gold Religious freedom Land expansion that created more farming opportunities New start with legal protection for debtors
Sectionalism After the War of 1812 there was a change in the way people lived and worked. The factory system began in New England and people transitioned from working in their homes to working in factories. As the North developed its industry, the South strictly continued on with the plantation system in which Cotton was the primary crop. The North and South developed such an opposite perspective in their values and ways of life that sectionalism simply developed because there was not much common ground anymore as they had when they were colonists fighting for the same cause. The North valued industry, commerce, and federal rights, while the South focused on agriculture (of tobacco and cotton), a slower way of life and states rights.
The Sectional Dilemma There were many issues that created this sectional conflict. Slavery - first and foremost the most important difference between the north and south was slavery. For the most part most northerners really didn't care about slavery in the beginning but as time went on slavery, the existence of it as well as the extension of slavery into the western territories, became the central issue. Representation - The North and South each wanted power to pass laws that would benefit their section. This meant that the more states that became "free" or "slave" meant more votes, both in the House, Senate and Electoral College, for that section. The issue of representation is played out as we expand westward and decisions must be made about each state.
The Sectional Dilemma States’ Rights - This issue is a direct outgrowth of the South's fear that the North would pass laws that would hurt its lifestyle. Some examples would be tariffs and laws to restrict or abolish slavery. The South again claimed they had the right of nullification. Tariffs - The South resented all tariffs as they relied on British imports for more of their everyday goods. They also needed other nations to purchase cotton form their farms. As the North supported tariffs to protect their growing industries the south became increasingly angered. This tension eventually led to the passage of what South Carolina called "the Tariff of Abominations." The South then argued they had the right of nullification.
The Missouri Compromise Anti-slavery leaders were afraid that allowing another slave state would upset what was then a delicate balance between slave states and free states. Because both sides were on opposite sides of the issue, both sides couldn't be satisfied by the same outcome. So Congress gave both sides something: Each side got a new state. Maine applied for statehood about the same time, and both were eventually admitted to the Union, Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. When Missouri applied to become a state, in 1819, the Union had 22 states, 11 allowing slavery and 11 outlawing it. Missouri wanted to become a slave state.
Missouri Compromise Details Missouri was admitted as a slave state Maine was admitted as a free state. Slavery was forbidden north of the 36 degree latitude mark, the southern boundary of Missouri. People in the North were encouraged to return runaway slaves to their masters. Slavery was not prohibited anywhere, not even in the free territories.
Missouri Compromise Details The Missouri Compromise was criticized by many southerners because it established the principle that Congress could make laws regarding slavery.. On the other hand, the North condemned the expansion of slavery even though it was only south of the compromise line). Three years later, the Supreme Court declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, on the ground that Congress was prohibited from depriving individuals of private property without due process of law.
The Effects of the Missouri Compromise The Missouri Compromise was very important at the time of its passage. It saved the United States from dealing with the divisive issue of. The slave states and southerners were in favor of the compromise because it did not forbid prospective states that were not in the Louisiana Purchase from becoming slave states. Northerners were relieved because slavery would be contained in the southern part of the nation. Further, the balance between free and slave states remained the same as before the compromise. However, as would become obvious throughout the coming decades, the issues of slavery and sectionalism would not go away.