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Urinary System Test Review

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Presentation on theme: "Urinary System Test Review"— Presentation transcript:

1 Urinary System Test Review
Medical Terminology

2 Structure and Function
Parts of the Kidney Structure and Function kidney medulla Parts of the kidneys Cortex -outer protective portion hilum Medulla -inner soft portion cortex Hilum -a depression located in the middle of the concave side of the kidney where blood vessels, nerves, and the ureters enter and exit the kidneys

3 Structure and Function
The ureter (ureter/o), carries urine (urin/o) from the kidney (ren/o, nephro/o) to the urinary bladder (cyst/o). A person feels the urge to urinate (-uria) when the bladder has 1 cup of urine (urin/o)

4 Structure and Function
Flow of Urine Flow of Urine Nephron glomerulus Renal artery renal tubules Renal vein Ureter renal pelvis Renal medulla Renal capsule Renal cortex renal calices Filtered blood exits the kidneys via the renal vein. ureters The renal tubules carry urine to ducts in the renal cortex.

5 Structure and Function
Urine Flow Blood Flow Glomeruli Blood flows through the glomerulus at a constant rate. Each glomerulus is surrounded by a capsule known as Bowman’s capsule. Blood then passes into the renal tubules where some substances are reabsorbed and the remaining become urine.

6 Structure and Function
There are more than 1 million nephrons in each kidney (nephr/o, ren/o). Urine is produced by filtration of: water salts sugar urea creatine uric acid

7 Terms and Meanings Anuria: An without -uria urination
Anuria means without urine Dysuria: Dys difficult/painful -uria urine/urination

8 Combining Forms and Abbreviations
Meaning cali(o) cyst(o) glomerul(o) meato nephr(o) pyel(o) ren(o) Calix, cup like structure bladder glomerulus Meatus, opening kidney renal pelvis kidney

9 Combining Forms [trigon(o)]
Combining Forms and Abbreviations Meaning Combining Forms trigone trigon(o) urin(o) ureter(o) urethr(o) vesic(o) urine ureter urethra bladder

10 Combining Forms and Abbreviations
Combining Forms [ADH] Combining Forms and Abbreviations Meaning Abbreviation ADH A/G AGN ARF ATN BNO BUN antidiuretic hormone albumin/globulin acute glomerulonephritis acute renal failure acute tubular nephrosis bladder neck obstruction blood urea nitrogen

11 Combining Forms [CAPD]
Combining Forms and Abbreviations Abbreviation Meaning continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis CAPD Cath Cl CRF cysto ESRD ESWL catheter chlorine chronic renal failure cystoscopy end-stage renal disease extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

12 Combining Forms and Abbreviations
Combining Forms [HD] Combining Forms and Abbreviations Meaning Abbreviation HD IVP K+ KUB Na+ pH PKU hemodialysis intravenous pyelogram potassium kidney, ureter, bladder sodium power of hydrogen concentration phenylketonuria

13 Combining Forms and Abbreviations
Combining Forms [RP] Combining Forms and Abbreviations Abbreviation Meaning RP SG UA UTI VCU retrograde pyelogram specific gravity urinalysis urinary tract infection voiding cystourethrogram

14 Diagnostic, Procedural and
Laboratory Terms Blood Tests Blood Tests Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Creatinine Clearance Test The presence of high amounts of urea or creatinine in the blood shows that the kidney is not properly filtering these substances.

15 Diagnostic, Procedural and
Laboratory Terms Imaging Tests Imaging Tests Cystoscopy -tubular instrument used to examine the bladder Intravenous Pyelogram -x-rays of the urinary tract after a contrast medium is injected into the bloodstream KUB -x-ray of three parts of the urinary tract (kidney, ureter, and bladder) Renal Scan -radioactive imaging used to diagnose kidney disorders

16 Urinary Tract Procedures
Diagnostic, Procedural and Laboratory Terms Dialysis solution Urinary Tract Procedures Dialysis Hemodialysis -the process of filtering blood outside the body in an artificial kidney machine that returns the blood back to the body after filtering. Peritoneal dialysis (pictured) -the insertion and removal of a dialysis solution into the peritoneal cavity. Peritoneal cavity Solution draining out Catheter Drained solution

17 Inflammatory & Infectious Disorders
Pathological Terms Urinary Tract Infection Glomerulonephritis Inflammatory & Infectious Disorders Nephritis Nephrosis Hydronephrosis Polycystic kidney disease Cystitis Nephroblastoma

18 Pathological Terms Pathological Terms anuresis polyuria
Terms Used to Describe Difficulties in Urination anuresis polyuria No urinary output Excessive urination incontinence dysuria Involuntary discharge of urine or feces Painful urination enuresis oliguria Lack of bladder control Scanty urination

19 Surgical Terms Surgical Terms Nephrectomy- removal of a kidney
Parts of the urinary system may be surgically removed Nephrectomy- removal of a kidney Ureterectomy- removal of a ureter Cystectomy- removal of the bladder Surgical repair procedures Pyeloplasty- repair of the renal pelvis Cystoplasty- repair of the bladder Urethroplasty- repair of the urethra A urostomy is the creation of an artificial opening in the abdomen through which urine exits the body.

20 Other Surgical Procedures
Surgical Terms Other Surgical Procedures Other Surgical Procedures Nephrolysis Removal of an adhesion in the kidney Nephrolithotomy Removal of a kidney stone Nephropexy Surgical fixation of the kidney Nephrorrhaphy Suturing of a damaged kidney

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