2Structure and Function Parts of the KidneyStructure and FunctionkidneymedullaParts of the kidneysCortex-outer protective portionhilumMedulla-inner soft portioncortexHilum-a depression located in the middle of the concave side of the kidney where blood vessels, nerves, and the ureters enter and exit the kidneys
3Structure and Function The ureter (ureter/o), carries urine (urin/o) from the kidney (ren/o, nephro/o) to the urinary bladder (cyst/o).A person feels the urge to urinate (-uria) when the bladder has 1 cup of urine (urin/o)
4Structure and Function Flow of UrineFlow of UrineNephronglomerulusRenal arteryrenal tubulesRenal veinUreterrenal pelvisRenal medullaRenal capsuleRenal cortexrenal calicesFiltered blood exits the kidneys via the renal vein.uretersThe renal tubules carry urine to ducts in the renal cortex.
5Structure and Function Urine FlowBlood FlowGlomeruliBlood flows through the glomerulus at a constant rate.Each glomerulus is surrounded by a capsule known as Bowman’s capsule.Blood then passes into the renal tubules where some substances are reabsorbed and the remaining become urine.
6Structure and Function There are more than 1 million nephrons in each kidney (nephr/o, ren/o).Urine is produced by filtration of:watersaltssugarureacreatineuric acid
7Terms and Meanings Anuria: An without -uria urination Anuria means without urineDysuria: Dys difficult/painful-uria urine/urination
8Combining Forms and Abbreviations Meaningcali(o)cyst(o)glomerul(o)meatonephr(o)pyel(o)ren(o)Calix, cup like structurebladderglomerulusMeatus, openingkidneyrenal pelviskidney
9Combining Forms [trigon(o)] Combining Forms and AbbreviationsMeaningCombining Formstrigonetrigon(o)urin(o)ureter(o)urethr(o)vesic(o)urineureterurethrabladder
10Combining Forms and Abbreviations Combining Forms [ADH]Combining Forms and AbbreviationsMeaningAbbreviationADHA/GAGNARFATNBNOBUNantidiuretic hormonealbumin/globulinacute glomerulonephritisacute renal failureacute tubular nephrosisbladder neck obstructionblood urea nitrogen
11Combining Forms [CAPD] Combining Forms and AbbreviationsAbbreviationMeaningcontinuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysisCAPDCathClCRFcystoESRDESWLcatheterchlorinechronic renal failurecystoscopyend-stage renal diseaseextracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
12Combining Forms and Abbreviations Combining Forms [HD]Combining Forms and AbbreviationsMeaningAbbreviationHDIVPK+KUBNa+pHPKUhemodialysisintravenous pyelogrampotassiumkidney, ureter, bladdersodiumpower of hydrogen concentrationphenylketonuria
13Combining Forms and Abbreviations Combining Forms [RP]Combining Forms and AbbreviationsAbbreviationMeaningRPSGUAUTIVCUretrograde pyelogramspecific gravityurinalysisurinary tract infectionvoiding cystourethrogram
14Diagnostic, Procedural and Laboratory TermsBlood TestsBlood TestsBlood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)Creatinine Clearance TestThe presence of high amounts of urea or creatinine in the blood shows that the kidney is not properly filtering these substances.
15Diagnostic, Procedural and Laboratory TermsImaging TestsImaging TestsCystoscopy-tubular instrument used to examine the bladderIntravenous Pyelogram-x-rays of the urinary tract after a contrast medium is injected into the bloodstreamKUB-x-ray of three parts of the urinary tract (kidney, ureter, and bladder)Renal Scan-radioactive imaging used to diagnose kidney disorders
16Urinary Tract Procedures Diagnostic, Procedural andLaboratory TermsDialysis solutionUrinary Tract ProceduresDialysisHemodialysis-the process of filtering blood outside the body in an artificial kidney machine that returns the blood back to the body after filtering.Peritoneal dialysis (pictured)-the insertion and removal of a dialysis solution into the peritoneal cavity.Peritoneal cavitySolution draining outCatheterDrained solution
18Pathological Terms Pathological Terms anuresis polyuria Terms Used to Describe Difficulties in UrinationanuresispolyuriaNo urinary outputExcessive urinationincontinencedysuriaInvoluntary discharge of urine or fecesPainful urinationenuresisoliguriaLack of bladder controlScanty urination
19Surgical Terms Surgical Terms Nephrectomy- removal of a kidney Parts of the urinary system may be surgically removedNephrectomy- removal of a kidneyUreterectomy- removal of a ureterCystectomy- removal of the bladderSurgical repair proceduresPyeloplasty- repair of the renal pelvisCystoplasty- repair of the bladderUrethroplasty- repair of the urethraA urostomy is the creation of an artificial opening in the abdomen through which urine exits the body.
20Other Surgical Procedures Surgical TermsOther Surgical ProceduresOther Surgical ProceduresNephrolysisRemoval of an adhesion in the kidneyNephrolithotomyRemoval of a kidney stoneNephropexySurgical fixation of the kidneyNephrorrhaphySuturing of a damaged kidney