Christian Doppler (Ch. 14) Explained natural phenomena by math to train students.
Chris Langdon (Ch. 3) Used Biosphere -2 center to test the effects of verifying concentration of CO3 2- on the rate of calcification in the coral reef.
Gregor Mendel (Ch. 14) Discovered basic principles of heredity by breeding garden pea plants in experiments, developed a theory of inheritance several decades before chromosomes were observed under microscopes and the significance of their behaviors were understood.
Hermann Kolber (Ch. 4) Made the organic compound acetic acid from inorganic substances that could be prepared directly from pure substances.
Franklin Stahl (Chapter 16.2) Stahl conducted the famous Meselson-Stahl experiment showing that DNA is replicated by a semi conservative mechanism, meaning that each strand of the DNA serves as a template for production of a new strand.
Reiji Okazaki (Chapter 16.2) Okazaki fragments were originally discovered in 1966 by Kiwako Sakabe, and Reiji Okazaki during their research on DNA replication of Escherichia coli.
Carolus Linnaeus (Chapter 39.1) He discovered that plants opened their flowers at certain parts of the day, and these patterns can be used as a 12 hour clock face.
Dmitri Ivanovsky (Chapter 19.1) He was the first man to discover viruses (1892) and thus one of the founders of virology.
Frederick Griffith Studied a bacterium that causes pneumonia
Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty, Colin MacLeod Discovered the tranforming agent of DNA
Alfred Russel Wallace(Ch.22) Developed a hypothesis of natural selection similar to Darwin’s.
Candace Pert(Ch.48) Discovered endorphins as an outcome of their research on the biochemistry of behavior.
Earl W. Sutherland (Ch.24) Discovered that epinephrine stimulates the breakdown of glycogen within the liver cells and skeletal muscle cells.
Solomon Snyder(Ch.48) Provided the first demonstration that opiate receptors exist.
Hans Krebs (Ch. 9.3) Largely responsible for working out the pathway to discover the Krebs Cycle
Peter Mitchell (Ch. 9.4) Awarded Nobel Prize in 1978 for originally proposing the chemiosmotic model
Rudolf Virchow (Ch. 12) He’s a German Physician, known for his theory: “Where a cell exists, there must have been a preexisting cell, just as the animal arises only from an animal and the plant only from a plant.”
Van Niel hypothesized that plants split H2O as a source of electrons from hydrogen atoms, releasing O2 as a by- product. 20 years later it was confirmed. Cornelis Bernardus Van Niel
Melvin Calvin Discovered the second stage of photosynthesis, Calvin cycle. This stage incorporates CO2 into organic molecules.
Theodor W. Engelmann Used bacteria to measure rates of photosynthesis in filamentous algae. He was first to demonstrate the action spectrum.
Friedrich Wohler (Ch. 4) Made Urea from organic materials
Oliver Smithies (Ch. 13) Used Mice To Study Human Genetic Disorders.
Aristotle (Ch. 13) Noticed life-forms can be arranged on a scale in order of complexity.
Carolus Linnaeus (Ch. 13) Created Genus- species naming system.
Justin Scheer (Ch. 7) Screened nearly 8,000 compounds for their ability to bind to a possible allosteric binding site and inhibit the enzymes activity; his results turned out to support him..
Martin Evans (Ch. 21) Used molecular and genetic techniques to generate mice with any given gene disabled in order to study the role of the gene.
Mario Capecchi (Ch. 21) Used molecular and genetic techniques to generate mice with any given gene disabled in order to study the role of the gene.
Fredrick Sanger (Ch. 21) Came up with the Deoxyribonucleic Chain Termination Method, which determines the complete nucleotide sequence of a gene.
Richard Lenski (Ch. 27) Discovered and documented adaptive evolution
Hardy-Weinberg (Ch. 22) Came up with the solution for the question of how genetic diversity is maintained in a population.
Charles Darwin (Ch. 22) Came up with the theory of evolution that all species of life came from one source.
Robert Brown (Ch. 22 Helped discover that cells have a nucleus.
Charles Darwin Discoveries: -Darwin recognized that a population evolves through the differential reproductive success of its variant members.
Gregor Mendel Discoveries: - Mendel published a theory of inheritance that helps explain genetic variation, but his discoveries had no impact on biologists until 1900
Edwin Southern Discoveries: - Made up the method Sothern Blotting, which combines gel electrophoresis and nuclei acid hybridization, allowing detecting of bands that include parts of the B-globin gene.