Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 n The Molecular Basis of Inheritance. Searching for Genetic Material I n Mendel: modes of heredity in pea plants n Morgan: genes located on."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 16 n The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Searching for Genetic Material I n Mendel: modes of heredity in pea plants n Morgan: genes located on chromosomes n Griffith: bacterial work; transformation: change in genotype and phenotype due to assimilation of external substance (DNA) by a cell n Avery: transformation agent was DNA
Griffith From his experiment biologists inferred that genetic information could be transformed from one bacteria to another.
Avery and DNA
n Discovered that DNA is the nucleic acid that stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation of an organism to the next.
Searching for Genetic Material, II n Hershey and Chase bacteriophages (phages) DNA, not protein, is the hereditary material Expt: sulfur(S) is in protein, phosphorus (P) is in DNA; only P was found in host cell
Hershey and Chase n Found that genetic material of the bacteriophage was DNA.
DNA Structure n Chargaff ratio of nucleotide bases (A=T; C=G) n Watson & Crick (Wilkins, Franklin) n The Double Helix nucleotides: nitrogenous base (thymine, adenine, cytosine, guanine); sugar deoxyribose; phosphate group
DNA Bonding n Purines: A & G n Pyrimidines: C & T (Chargaff rules) n A H+ bonds (2) with T and C H+ bonds (3) with G n Van der Waals attractions between the stacked pairs
DNA Replication n Watson & Crick strands are complementary; nucleotides line up on template according to base pair rules (Watson) Meselson & Stahl replication is semiconservative; Expt: varying densities of radioactive nitrogen n Meselson & Stahl replication is semiconservative; Expt: varying densities of radioactive nitrogen
DNA Replication n 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
DNA Replication: a closer look n Origin of replication (bubbles): beginning of replication n Replication fork: Y-shaped region where new strands of DNA are elongating n Helicase:catalyzes the untwisting of the DNA at the replication fork n DNA polymerase:catalyzes the elongation of new DNA
DNA Replication, II n Antiparallel nature: sugar/phosphate backbone runs in opposite directions (Crick); n one strand runs 5 to 3, while the other runs 3 to 5; n DNA polymerase only adds nucleotides at the free 3 end, forming new DNA strands in the 5 to 3 direction only
DNA Replication, III n Leading strand: synthesis toward the replication fork (only in a 5 to 3 direction from the 3 to 5 master strand) n Lagging strand: synthesis away from the replication fork (Okazaki fragments); joined by DNA ligase (must wait for 3 end to open; again in a 5 to 3 direction) n Initiation: Primer (short RNA sequence~w/primase enzyme), begins the replication process
DNA Repair n Mismatch repair: DNA polymerase n Excision repair: Nuclease n Telomere ends: telomerase