Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

AP Biology 2006-2007 DNA The Genetic Material AP Biology Scientific History  The march to understanding that DNA is the genetic material  T.H. Morgan.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "AP Biology 2006-2007 DNA The Genetic Material AP Biology Scientific History  The march to understanding that DNA is the genetic material  T.H. Morgan."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 AP Biology DNA The Genetic Material

3 AP Biology Scientific History  The march to understanding that DNA is the genetic material  T.H. Morgan (1908)  Frederick Griffith (1928)  Avery, McCarty & MacLeod (1944)  Hershey & Chase (1952)  Watson & Crick (1953)  Meselson & Stahl (1958)

4 AP Biology Genes are on chromosomes  T.H. Morgan  working with Drosophila (fruit flies)  genes are on chromosomes  but is it the protein or the DNA of the chromosomes that are the genes?  through 1940 proteins were thought to be genetic material… Why? 1908 | 1933 What ’ s so impressive about proteins?!

5 AP Biology The “Transforming Factor” 1928  Frederick Griffith  Streptococcus pneumonia bacteria  was working to find cure for pneumonia  harmless live bacteria mixed with heat-killed infectious bacteria causes disease in mice  substance passed from dead bacteria to live bacteria = “Transforming Factor”

6 AP Biology The “Transforming Factor” Transformation? something in heat-killed bacteria could still transmit disease-causing properties live pathogenic strain of bacteria live non-pathogenic strain of bacteria mice diemice live heat-killed pathogenic bacteria mix heat-killed pathogenic & non-pathogenic bacteria mice livemice die A.B. C. D.

7 AP Biology DNA is the “Transforming Factor”  Avery, McCarty & MacLeod  purified both DNA & proteins from Streptococcus pneumonia bacteria  which will transform non-pathogenic bacteria?  injected protein into bacteria  no effect  injected DNA into bacteria  transformed harmless bacteria into virulent bacteria 1944 What ’ s the conclusion?

8 AP Biology Avery, McCarty & MacLeod Oswald Avery Maclyn McCarty Colin MacLeod 1944

9 AP Biology Confirmation of DNA  Hershey & Chase  classic “blender” experiment  worked with bacteriophage  viruses that infect bacteria  grew phage viruses in 2 media, radioactively labeled with either  35 S in their proteins  32 P in their DNA  infected bacteria with labeled phages 1952 | 1969 Hershey Why use S ulfur vs. P hosphorus?

10 AP Biology Protein coat labeled with 35 S DNA labeled with 32 P bacteriophages infect bacterial cells T2 bacteriophages are labeled with radioactive isotopes S vs. P bacterial cells are agitated to remove viral protein coats 35 S radioactivity found in the medium 32 P radioactivity found in the bacterial cells Which radioactive marker is found inside the cell? Which molecule carries viral genetic info? Hershey & Chase

11 AP Biology

12 Blender experiment  Radioactive phage & bacteria in blender  35 S phage  radioactive proteins stayed in supernatant  therefore protein did NOT enter bacteria  32 P phage  radioactive DNA stayed in pellet  therefore DNA did enter bacteria  Confirmed DNA is “transforming factor” Taaa-Daaa!

13 AP Biology Hershey & Chase Alfred HersheyMartha Chase 1952 | 1969 Hershey

14 AP Biology Chargaff  DNA composition: “Chargaff’s rules”  varies from species to species  all 4 bases not in equal quantity  bases present in characteristic ratio  humans: A = 30.9% T = 29.4% G = 19.9% C = 19.8% 1947 That ’ s interesting! What do you notice?

15 AP Biology Structure of DNA  Watson & Crick  developed double helix model of DNA  other scientists working on question:  Rosalind Franklin  Maurice Wilkins  Linus Pauling 1953 | 1962 Franklin WilkinsPauling

16 AP Biology Watson and Crick 1953 article in Nature CrickWatson

17 AP Biology Rosalind Franklin ( )

18 AP Biology Copying DNA  Replication of DNA  base pairing allows each strand to serve as a template for a new strand

19 AP Biology Models of DNA Replication  Alternative models  so how is DNA copied? conservativesemiconservative Can you design a nifty experiment to verify? dispersive

20 AP Biology Semi-conservative replication  Meselson & Stahl  label “parent” nucleotides in DNA strands with heavy nitrogen = 15 N  label new nucleotides with lighter isotope = 14 N “The Most Beautiful Experiment in Biology” 1958 parentreplication Make predictions …

21 AP Biology Semi-conservative replication  Make predictions…  15 N strands replicated in 14 N medium  1st round of replication?  2nd round? 1958 where should the bands be?

22 AP Biology Franklin Stahl Matthew Meselson Franklin Stahl Meselson & Stahl

23 AP Biology proteinRNA The “Central Dogma” DNA transcriptiontranslation replication  Flow of genetic information in a cell

24 AP Biology Science …. Fun Party Time! Any Questions??


Download ppt "AP Biology 2006-2007 DNA The Genetic Material AP Biology Scientific History  The march to understanding that DNA is the genetic material  T.H. Morgan."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google