Presentation on theme: "ACORN WORKSHOP Cliff Sadof, Bob O’Neil and Farah Heraux Purdue University Department of Entomology Rob Wiedenmann Illinois Natural History Survey Spring."— Presentation transcript:
ACORN WORKSHOP Cliff Sadof, Bob O’Neil and Farah Heraux Purdue University Department of Entomology Rob Wiedenmann Illinois Natural History Survey Spring 2003 ACORN workshopACORN workshop
Schedule 0:00 Introduction to Workshop/ Biological Control 0:15 Know the Natural Enemies 1:30 Break/Demonstrations 2:00 Why Plant Flowers? 2:15 Alternative Pesticides 2:30 Using ACORN to Implement Biological Control in Your Landscape 2:45 Discover Biological Control at Home 3:00 Workshop Ends Schedule
ACORN objectives Reduce pesticide usage. Design gardens to minimize pest problems. Use tactics that enhance and don’t disrupt pest control. Learn by doing. AC OR N obje ctiv es
ACORN is a growing network of Master Gardeners, Extension Educators and University Researchers interested in reducing pesticide use in home gardens. What is ACORN? What is ACORN?What is ACORN?
Why should we look at alternatives to pesticides? Per acre pesticide use in home gardens exceeds that of many major agricultural commodities. Application, storage and disposal issues challenge many home gardeners. Why should we look at alternatives to pesticides?
Section 1 Outline What Is Biological Control? Know the Natural Enemies Predators Parasites Pathogens Section 1 outline
What is biological control? The use of living organisms to control pest insects, weeds or diseases. Typically involves some human activity. What is biological control?
What Are Natural Enemies? Natural enemies are living organisms that: Kill pests Decrease pest reproductive potential Compete with pest organisms for use of your plants. What are natural enemies?
Biological control How Is It Implemented? Use what you have (Conservation). Add what you need (Augmentation). Who kills Pests? Predators Parasites Pathogens Biological control
Predators Adults and immature stages kill and consume many prey. Generally larger and faster than prey. 200,000 species! Males, females, immatures and adults may be predatory. Remove the evidence. Predators
Soldier beetle R. Wiedenman
Minute pirate bug J.R. Ruberson
Lacewing B. Christine F. Heraux
Yellow jacket wasp
Spider M. E. Bagley
Lady beetle adult B. O’Neil
Who Am I? Lady beetle larva D. Shetlar
Large grasping jaws! Ground beetle
Hover fly D. Shetlar R. E. Berry Oregon State University
Hover fly versus yellow jacket wasp Number of wings Waist Shape of antenna Eyes E-44 E-92 R. E. Berry D. Sheltar
Predatory mite Spider mite Predatory mites versus spider mite
A stinger or ovipositor??? A parasite
Parasites Specialized in choice of host. Develop from eggs laid in or on a host (the original “Alien”). Certain kinds of wasps and flies. Could be up to 1 million species! Smaller than host (stealth pays). Only the female searches for host. Leave a trail. Parasites
Ovipositor A parasite in action M. E. Bagley
Eggs or Pupae??? Eggs or Pupae? A parasitized tomato hornworm J. L. Obermeyer
Parasitized insect was cut open to show the parasites. Parasitized insect cut open
Example of Parasite Lifecycle Egg Larva Adult Pupa Parasite lifecycle Statewide Integrated Pest Management Project: U. of California
Holes where parasite escaped Aphid mummy
Pathogens Kill, reduce reproduction, slow growth, shorten life of pest. May take several days to provide control. Usually very specific. Leave a trail. Pathogens
Insect Mummy covered with Fungal Spores Insect covered with fungal spores
Infected Larva Viral fluid Virus infected larva D. Mc Cullough
Virus infected larva D. Harns
Infective Juveniles Adults Infected Host Grub killed by a nematode
Nematode Used to Control Different Pests Ornamentals Root weevils, H. bacteriophora and H. megidis; Wood borers, S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora; Fungus gnats, S. feltiae; Turf Scarabs, H. bacteriophora; Mole crickets, S. riobravis and S. scapterisci; Billbugs-H. bacteriophora and S. carpocapsae; Armyworm, Cutworm, Webworm- S. carpocapsae Nematode used to control different pests
Lifecycle of a parasitic nematode Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 331, AK Ag. Exp. Stn., Fayetteville, AK 72701
Predators: bigger, fewer, faster, big mouthparts. Parasites: small size, not easily seen by gardeners. - many flies and wasps. Pathogens: cause disease in insects, not harmful to other organisms. Know the Natural Enemies Take-home points Know the natural enemies
Where can you learn to identify more natural enemies? Where can you learn to identify more natural enemies?
Break Please Visit our Demonstrations Books Alternative pesticides Natural enemies collections Live ones! More collections
Section 2 Outline Why plant flowers in your landscape and garden Tips for purchasing natural enemies Alternative insecticides Using ACORN Alternative Control Guide to: plan your vegetable garden find biological control agents in your backyard Discovering biological control at home Section 2 outline
Why Plant Flowers? To attract natural enemies. To provide shelter/shade. To produce pollen and nectar. Why plant flowers?
Euonymus scale in Indiana 2 generations/ year Scale sampling coincides with crawler emergence and estimates parasitism of the parent generation C. Sadof
Coreopsis Goldenrod White clover Euonymus Flowering spurge Research plotResearch plot E. Rebek
Density of live female euonymus scale Mean Number of Live Female Scales per cm of Stem per Plot ± S.E.M. Means with the same letter are not significantly different (Fisher’s Protected LSD, p < 0.05).
Encarsia citrina A B C Larva Pupa Emergence Hole Adult D Photos by E. Rebek
Natural enemy abundance in Euonymus fortunei (Sticky Cards 2001) Mean Number of Natural Enemies per Plot ± S.E.M. Means with the same letter are not significantly different (Fisher’s Protected LSD, p < 0.05).
Where can you learn more about flowers that attract natural enemies? Where can you learn more about flowers that attract natural enemies?
Add what you need Tips for Purchasing and Using Natural Enemies: Identify the pest. Determine which natural enemy could work. Order from a reputable supplier. Check the quality. Follow directions. Evaluate. Did it work? Give the supplier & Extension feedback. Add what you need
Where to purchase the good guys
Some pesticides kill more pests than natural enemies Use pesticides that are compatible with biological control: Microbials Botanicals Insect growth regulators Others Some pesticides kill more pests than natural enemies
Microbial insecticides Commercially prepared products that contain active insect-pathogenic microorganisms Usually specific Microbial insecticides C. Sadof
Botanical insecticides Naturally occurring toxic materials derived from plants Usually non-specific, with short residual activity Botanical insecticides C. Sadof
For more information on Neem visit In Newsletter #5 on ACORN, you will obtain more product knowledge about Neem. _____________________________________ For more information
Other insecticides Oils smother the insects. Nonspecific Insecticidal soaps pass through the insect cuticle and poison it. Nonspecific, but little residual activity. Other insecticides C. Sadof
For more information on insecticidal soaps, visit the ACORN website at In Newsletter #6 on ACORN, you will obtain more product knowledge about Insecticidal soaps. _____________________________________ For more information
Other insecticides Spares most natural enemies of spider mites and aphids Kills bees and wasps Does not kill borers Spinosad kills caterpillars, leafminers and thrips. Other insecticides F. Heraux
For more information on insecticidal soaps, visit the ACORN website at In Newsletter #7 on ACORN, you will obtain more product knowledge about Spinosad. _____________________________________ For more information
Using ACORN Alternative Control Guide Use the ACG to: Identify pest and their natural enemies (NE) on your landscape and garden plants. Find alternative control tactics you can try. Plan your vegetable garden. Find flowers to feed and protect NE in your garden. Using ACORN Alternative Control Guide (ACG)
Pest Profile NE List Photo, Name, Vulnerable Stage of Pest, Effectiveness Alternative Controls Crop Profile Susceptibility to Insect Pests, Pests, Photo, Active Months, Damage Description, Generation/Year Natural Enemy Profile Type, Life Stage Attacked Commercially Available Food and Shelter Flowering Plant Profile Scientific Name, Bloom Time Family Source of State Specific Information Suppliers of NE Organization of the Alternative Control Guide
ACG- Search page
ACG- Vegetable page with lists of potential pests
ACG- Alternative controls
ACG- A pest
ACG- A natural enemy
ACG- A flower
Insect tendency to damage crops Never or RarelySometimesUsually or Always CarrotAsparagusBroccoli Green onionBeanCabbage LettucePepperCantaloupe PeasSpinachCauliflower RadishTomatoCucumber Eggplant Potato Squash Sweet Corn Insect tendency to damage crops
Discover Biological Control at Home Be an insect detective, find NE at home. Need help identifying the NE? Use the ACORN Alternative Control Guide (ACG): - Picture - Hints about location (e.g., food and shelter) Monthly reminder via . Discover biological control at home
Lady Beetle NE-slide
Flower or Hover or Syrphid Fly NE-slide
Predatory mite Spider mite NE-slide
Eggs or Pupae??? NE- slid e
Insect Mummy covered with Fungal Spores NE-slide
Infected Larva Viral fluid NE-slide
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