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ACORN WORKSHOP Cliff Sadof, Bob O’Neil and Farah Heraux Purdue University Department of Entomology Rob Wiedenmann Illinois Natural History Survey Spring.

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Presentation on theme: "ACORN WORKSHOP Cliff Sadof, Bob O’Neil and Farah Heraux Purdue University Department of Entomology Rob Wiedenmann Illinois Natural History Survey Spring."— Presentation transcript:

1 ACORN WORKSHOP Cliff Sadof, Bob O’Neil and Farah Heraux Purdue University Department of Entomology Rob Wiedenmann Illinois Natural History Survey Spring 2003 ACORN workshopACORN workshop

2 Schedule 0:00 Introduction to Workshop/ Biological Control 0:15 Know the Natural Enemies 1:30 Break/Demonstrations 2:00 Why Plant Flowers? 2:15 Alternative Pesticides 2:30 Using ACORN to Implement Biological Control in Your Landscape 2:45 Discover Biological Control at Home 3:00 Workshop Ends Schedule

3 ACORN objectives Reduce pesticide usage. Design gardens to minimize pest problems. Use tactics that enhance and don’t disrupt pest control. Learn by doing. AC OR N obje ctiv es

4 ACORN is a growing network of Master Gardeners, Extension Educators and University Researchers interested in reducing pesticide use in home gardens. What is ACORN? What is ACORN?What is ACORN?

5 Why should we look at alternatives to pesticides? Per acre pesticide use in home gardens exceeds that of many major agricultural commodities. Application, storage and disposal issues challenge many home gardeners. Why should we look at alternatives to pesticides?

6 Section 1 Outline  What Is Biological Control?  Know the Natural Enemies  Predators  Parasites  Pathogens Section 1 outline

7 What is biological control? The use of living organisms to control pest insects, weeds or diseases. Typically involves some human activity. What is biological control?

8 What Are Natural Enemies? Natural enemies are living organisms that:  Kill pests  Decrease pest reproductive potential  Compete with pest organisms for use of your plants. What are natural enemies?

9 Biological control How Is It Implemented?  Use what you have (Conservation).  Add what you need (Augmentation). Who kills Pests?  Predators  Parasites  Pathogens Biological control

10 Predators Adults and immature stages kill and consume many prey. Generally larger and faster than prey. 200,000 species! Males, females, immatures and adults may be predatory. Remove the evidence. Predators

11 Praying mantis

12 Soldier beetle R. Wiedenman

13 Minute pirate bug J.R. Ruberson

14 Lacewing B. Christine F. Heraux

15 Yellow jacket wasp

16 Spider M. E. Bagley

17 Lady beetle adult B. O’Neil

18 Who Am I? Lady beetle larva D. Shetlar

19 Large grasping jaws! Ground beetle

20 Hover fly D. Shetlar R. E. Berry Oregon State University

21 Hover fly versus yellow jacket wasp Number of wings Waist Shape of antenna Eyes E-44 E-92 R. E. Berry D. Sheltar

22 Predatory mite Spider mite Predatory mites versus spider mite

23 A stinger or ovipositor??? A parasite

24 Parasites Specialized in choice of host. Develop from eggs laid in or on a host (the original “Alien”). Certain kinds of wasps and flies. Could be up to 1 million species! Smaller than host (stealth pays). Only the female searches for host. Leave a trail. Parasites

25 Ovipositor A parasite in action M. E. Bagley

26 Eggs or Pupae??? Eggs or Pupae? A parasitized tomato hornworm J. L. Obermeyer

27 Parasitized insect was cut open to show the parasites. Parasitized insect cut open

28 Example of Parasite Lifecycle Egg Larva Adult Pupa Parasite lifecycle Statewide Integrated Pest Management Project: U. of California

29 Holes where parasite escaped Aphid mummy

30 Pathogens Kill, reduce reproduction, slow growth, shorten life of pest. May take several days to provide control. Usually very specific. Leave a trail. Pathogens

31 Insect Pathogens Fungi, example: Beauvaria bassiana Bacteria, example: Bt. Nematodes Viruses and protozoans Insect pathogens

32 Insect Mummy covered with Fungal Spores Insect covered with fungal spores

33 Infected Larva Viral fluid Virus infected larva D. Mc Cullough

34 Virus infected larva D. Harns

35 Infective Juveniles Adults Infected Host Grub killed by a nematode

36 Nematode Used to Control Different Pests Ornamentals Root weevils, H. bacteriophora and H. megidis; Wood borers, S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora; Fungus gnats, S. feltiae; Turf Scarabs, H. bacteriophora; Mole crickets, S. riobravis and S. scapterisci; Billbugs-H. bacteriophora and S. carpocapsae; Armyworm, Cutworm, Webworm- S. carpocapsae Nematode used to control different pests

37 Lifecycle of a parasitic nematode Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 331, AK Ag. Exp. Stn., Fayetteville, AK 72701

38  Predators: bigger, fewer, faster, big mouthparts.  Parasites: small size, not easily seen by gardeners. - many flies and wasps.  Pathogens: cause disease in insects, not harmful to other organisms. Know the Natural Enemies Take-home points Know the natural enemies

39 Where can you learn to identify more natural enemies? Where can you learn to identify more natural enemies?

40 Break Please Visit our Demonstrations Books Alternative pesticides Natural enemies collections Live ones! More collections

41 Section 2 Outline  Why plant flowers in your landscape and garden  Tips for purchasing natural enemies  Alternative insecticides  Using ACORN Alternative Control Guide to:  plan your vegetable garden  find biological control agents in your backyard  Discovering biological control at home Section 2 outline

42 Why Plant Flowers? To attract natural enemies. To provide shelter/shade. To produce pollen and nectar. Why plant flowers?

43 Euonymus scale in Indiana  2 generations/ year  Scale sampling coincides with crawler emergence and estimates parasitism of the parent generation C. Sadof

44 Coreopsis Goldenrod White clover Euonymus Flowering spurge Research plotResearch plot E. Rebek

45 Density of live female euonymus scale Mean Number of Live Female Scales per cm of Stem per Plot ± S.E.M. Means with the same letter are not significantly different (Fisher’s Protected LSD, p < 0.05).

46 Encarsia citrina A B C Larva Pupa Emergence Hole Adult D Photos by E. Rebek

47 Natural enemy abundance in Euonymus fortunei (Sticky Cards 2001) Mean Number of Natural Enemies per Plot ± S.E.M. Means with the same letter are not significantly different (Fisher’s Protected LSD, p < 0.05).

48 Where can you learn more about flowers that attract natural enemies? Where can you learn more about flowers that attract natural enemies?

49 Add what you need Tips for Purchasing and Using Natural Enemies:  Identify the pest.  Determine which natural enemy could work.  Order from a reputable supplier.  Check the quality.  Follow directions.  Evaluate. Did it work?  Give the supplier & Extension feedback. Add what you need

50 Where to purchase the good guys

51 Some pesticides kill more pests than natural enemies Use pesticides that are compatible with biological control: Microbials Botanicals Insect growth regulators Others Some pesticides kill more pests than natural enemies

52 Microbial insecticides Commercially prepared products that contain active insect-pathogenic microorganisms Usually specific Microbial insecticides C. Sadof

53 Botanical insecticides Naturally occurring toxic materials derived from plants Usually non-specific, with short residual activity Botanical insecticides C. Sadof

54 For more information on Neem visit In Newsletter #5 on ACORN, you will obtain more product knowledge about Neem. _____________________________________ For more information

55 Other insecticides Oils smother the insects. Nonspecific Insecticidal soaps pass through the insect cuticle and poison it. Nonspecific, but little residual activity. Other insecticides C. Sadof

56 For more information on insecticidal soaps, visit the ACORN website at In Newsletter #6 on ACORN, you will obtain more product knowledge about Insecticidal soaps. _____________________________________ For more information

57 Other insecticides  Spares most natural enemies of spider mites and aphids  Kills bees and wasps  Does not kill borers Spinosad kills caterpillars, leafminers and thrips. Other insecticides F. Heraux

58 For more information on insecticidal soaps, visit the ACORN website at In Newsletter #7 on ACORN, you will obtain more product knowledge about Spinosad. _____________________________________ For more information

59 Using ACORN Alternative Control Guide Use the ACG to: Identify pest and their natural enemies (NE) on your landscape and garden plants. Find alternative control tactics you can try. Plan your vegetable garden. Find flowers to feed and protect NE in your garden. Using ACORN Alternative Control Guide (ACG)

60 Pest Profile NE List Photo, Name, Vulnerable Stage of Pest, Effectiveness Alternative Controls Crop Profile Susceptibility to Insect Pests, Pests, Photo, Active Months, Damage Description, Generation/Year Natural Enemy Profile Type, Life Stage Attacked Commercially Available Food and Shelter Flowering Plant Profile Scientific Name, Bloom Time Family Source of State Specific Information Suppliers of NE Organization of the Alternative Control Guide

61 ACG- Search page

62 ACG- Vegetable page with lists of potential pests

63 ACG- Alternative controls

64 ACG- A pest

65 ACG- A natural enemy

66 ACG- A flower

67 Insect tendency to damage crops Never or RarelySometimesUsually or Always CarrotAsparagusBroccoli Green onionBeanCabbage LettucePepperCantaloupe PeasSpinachCauliflower RadishTomatoCucumber Eggplant Potato Squash Sweet Corn Insect tendency to damage crops

68 Discover Biological Control at Home  Be an insect detective, find NE at home.  Need help identifying the NE? Use the ACORN Alternative Control Guide (ACG): - Picture - Hints about location (e.g., food and shelter)  Monthly reminder via . Discover biological control at home

69 NE-slide

70 Lady Beetle NE-slide

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75 Flower or Hover or Syrphid Fly NE-slide

76 Predatory mite Spider mite NE-slide

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79 Eggs or Pupae??? NE- slid e

80 Insect Mummy covered with Fungal Spores NE-slide

81 Infected Larva Viral fluid NE-slide

82 To contact us: Visit our web site at or The End


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