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DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES www.nt.gov.au Deanna Chin and Haidee Brown, Entomology, Diagnostic Services Mango IPM - Pests, beneficials.

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Presentation on theme: "DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES www.nt.gov.au Deanna Chin and Haidee Brown, Entomology, Diagnostic Services Mango IPM - Pests, beneficials."— Presentation transcript:

1 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Deanna Chin and Haidee Brown, Entomology, Diagnostic Services Mango IPM - Pests, beneficials and biological control

2 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Mango tip borers Flower caterpillars Mango stem miner Swarming beetles Longicorn borer Mango seed weevil Giant termite Chewing Insects

3 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Mature larvae: 25 mm Life cycle: about 35 days (larval dev 8-10 days) Larvae feed at night Large mango tip borer

4 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Mature larvae: up to 15 mm Life cycle: 3-4 weeks Flower caterpillars

5 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Larval length: a few mm Life cycle: 3-4 weeks Mango stem miner

6 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Monolepta sp. Rhyparida sp. Geloptera sp. Various swarming beetles: 3-6 mm in length Swarming beetles

7 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES ● Mature larvae: up to 40 mm ● Adult length: mm ● One generation per year Longicorn borer

8 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Adult length 10 mm 1 generation per year Fruit are infested when they are 30 mm in diametre Feeding damage to fruit Mango seed weevil

9 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Workers and soldiers: mm Life cycle: up to 1 year Giant termite

10 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Mealybugs and fluted scales Mango scale Pink wax scale Mango leafhopper Mango planthopper (flatids) Fruit spotting bug Tea mosquito bug Graptostethus Dimpling bug Redbanded thrips Flower thrips (these are also pollinators) Sap feeding insects

11 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Adult: 4-5 mm in length Complete life cycle: days Mango leafhopper

12 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Adult length: mm Complete life cycle:12-16 days Mango planthopper

13 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Adult: 15 mm in length About 5 generations per year Fruit spotting bug

14 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Adult length: 6-7 mm Life cycle: 4 weeks Tea mosquito bug

15 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Adult length: 7-9 mm Life cycle period unknown Graptostethus

16 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Adult length: 2.5 mm Life cycle: 2 weeks Dimpling bug

17 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Adult length: 1.3 mm Life cycle: 2-3 weeks Redbanded thrips

18 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Adult length: about 1 mm Life cycle: about 21 days Scirtothrips

19 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Adult length varies according to species e.g. Fluted scales 3-8 mm Mealybugs Fluted scales Fluted scales and mealybugs

20 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Adult length: 1-2 mm 5 generations per year Mango scale

21 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Adult length: 3-4 mm Pink wax scale

22 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Adult length: mm Life cycle: about 3-4 weeks Sting mark on fruit Fruit fly larva Bactrocera jarvisi Bactrocera tryoni Fruit flies

23 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Other eriophyid mites are associated with silvery-white wax on leaves Adult length: 0.25 mm Life cycle: 6 days Mango bud mite

24 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Mango pulp weevil Larvae tunnel into pulp Present in SE Asia Mango pulp weevil Mango seed weevil Quarantine pests

25 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Red banded mango caterpillar Larvae tunnel through flesh and skin and feed on seed Detected in the Torres Strait & the tip of Cape York Quarantine pests

26 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Mango gall midge Damages fruit and leaves Many species Present in the Torres Strait Major pest in some Asian countries Quarantine pests

27 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Philippines fruit fly Mediterranean fruit fly Exotic fruit flies Various detections over the years Quarantine pests

28 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Praying mantises Spiders Wasp parasites Insect pathogens e.g. fungal infections, viruses and bacteria Pollinators Ladybird beetles Hoverfly larvae Lacewings Epipyropid moth Native beneficial insects

29 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Bush bee Honey bee Bush fly Hover fly Blowfly Pollinators

30 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Praying mantis Captures and feeds on a large range of insects. General Predator

31 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Captures and feeds on a large range of insects. Spiders - General Predators

32 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Fungal pathogen Epipyropid moth and pupa Natural enemies of planthoppers

33 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Hover fly larva feeding on mango scale Hoverfly larva

34 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Cryptolaemus adult and larvaCryptolaemus adults The following predators have been released and observed in mango orchards in the NT: Mealybug ladybird, Cryptolaemus montrouzeri -this species is also native to the NT. The beetle can become well established (if orchard is suitable) and is effective in controlling mealybugs. Commercially produced beneficials

35 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Green lacewing larvae, Mallada signata general predator, feeds on small insects or eggs e.g. scales, mealybugs, moth eggs and caterpillars. May be difficult to monitor after release. Check leaves for eggs on stalks. Commercially produced beneficials

36 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Available from the supplier: Bugs for Bugs Before releasing predators: Determine if your orchard has suitable habitats for the predators to establish e.g. does it have shade and access to water. Orchards 5 years or older are generally more suitable than younger orchards. Also the rate of release needs to be discussed with the supplier. Commercially produced beneficials

37 DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Are they pests or beneficials? Ants


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