Presentation on theme: " Provide food for growing population. 1950s, easy control of insect pests Environmental harm Beluga whale carcass classified as hazardous waste."— Presentation transcript:
Provide food for growing population. 1950s, easy control of insect pests Environmental harm Beluga whale carcass classified as hazardous waste More weeds today than in 1940 Human health effects Inuit women suffer from pollutants 2,500 miles away 20,000 people die/year from pesticide poisoning Pesticides should be used only to prevent an economic loss and rarely should be used in a prophylactic manner.
Grows food in harmony with nature (pro article) Grows food in harmony with nature No GMOs No CAFOs No antibiotics for weight gain Requires more energy Yields are lower Can it feed 7 billion +? No says Robert PaarlbergNo says Robert Paarlberg
Conservation: Keep alive what is already there. Pesticides kill non-target species Classical Biological Control Uses natural enemies of pest. Parasites, predators, pathogens Augmentation This third type of biological control involves the supplemental release of natural enemies. Habitat manipulation: Many adult parasitoids and predators benefit from sources of nectar and the protection provided by refuges such as hedgerows, cover crops, and weedy borders. Genetic engineering
Predators are free-living species that consume a large number of prey during their lifetime. Cottony cushion scale: sucks phloem sap from plants Vedalia ladybird beetle native to Australia feeds on the scale 514 beetles released from November 1888 to March By 1890 all of the infestations of the cottony-cushion scale had been eliminated. Bio success Bio success
Purple loosestrife – Galerucella beetles 1. determine the origin of the introduced pest 2. natural enemy a rigorous quarantine process reared, ideally in large numbers, and released.
Pathogens are disease-causing organisms including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They kill or debilitate their host and are relatively specific to certain insect groups. Formulations of the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt, for example, are widely used by gardeners and commercial growers.
Parasitoids: Attack pest host and kill it slowly, slower than a predator of the host.Parasitoids: Life cycle of parasitoid is faster, more offspring Parasitoids are more susceptible to insecticides Parasitoid wasp Parasitoid wasp For example, hyperparasitoids are parasitoids of other parasitoids. In potatoes grown in Maine, 22 parasitoids of aphids were identified, yet these were attacked by 18 additional species of hyperparasitoids.
Male insects exposed to radiation become sterile Sterilized males, 10 – 100 above the number of normal insects in the population are released Females lay unfertilized eggs Worked well on screwwormsscrewworms
An ecologically based pest control strategy that relies heavily on natural mortality factors and seeks out control tactics that disrupt these pest resistant or tolerant plants, and cultural: Physical: Mechanical: Biological: AND THEN chemical control
Economic threshold The level of infestation or damage at which some action must be taken to prevent an economic loss. Cost of pesticide Crop value - damage
Economic threshold and sampling The level of infestation or damage at which some action must be taken to prevent an economic loss is referred to as the "" Action thresholds are available for many vegetable crops. Ideally, these thresholds adjust for changes in market prices, stage of crop growth, cost of pesticides, etc., but in reality most are based on fixed infestation or damage levels. To estimate the severity of pest infestations, the crop or garden must be sampled. Sampling may entail examining plants and recording the number of pests or amount of damage observed, or traps may be used to capture the pest species to estimate pest abundance
Pest-resistant crops Cultural Control Cultural Control Physical and Mechanical Control Physical and Mechanical Control Chemical Control Chemical Control
Examples include varieties of wheat which have tough stems that prevent development of the Hessian fly cucurbits (squash, cucumbers, melons) that have lower concentrations of feeding stimulants (cucurbitacins) for cucumber beetles
crop rotation : Colorado beetles overwinter in or near potato fields and they require potato or related plants for food when they emerge in the spring. With cool temperatures and no suitable food, the beetles will only crawl and be unable to fly. Planting potatoes well away from the previous year's crop prevents access to needed food and the beetles will starve. trap crops : planted to attract and hold pest insects where they can be managed more efficiently and prevent or reduce their movement onto valuable crops. Early planted potatoes can act as a trap crop for Colorado potato beetles emerging in the spring. Since the early potatoes are the only food source available, the beetles will congregate on these plants where they can more easily be controlled.
The use of physical barriers such as row covers or trenches prevents insects from reaching the crop. Plastic-lined trenches are effective in trapping large numbers of dispersing Colorado potato beetles in the spring and fall. Other methods include hand picking of pests, sticky boards or tapes for control of flying insects in greenhouses and various trapping techniques.
According to this method the major classes of insecticides are the organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and pyrethroids Others in this classification system include the biologicals (or microbials), botanicals, oils, and fumigants.
Crop residue: Leave some of last year’s crop on the field, reduces erosion & increases soil fertility Crop residue No till or reduced tillage.