CourtAt start of trial Minimum number Majorities allowed Crown Court12911-1, 10-2, 10-1, 9-1 High Court12911-1, 10-2, 10-1, 9-1 County Court877-1 Coroner's Court between 7 and 11 —Minority no more than 2
Reaching a Verdict Persuading a Jury Effect of order Pennington & Hastie Persuasion Loftus Inadmissible Evidence Pickle Witness Appeal Attractiveness Castellow/Dion Theory Witness Confidence Penrod & Cutler Shields and videotaping Ross Reaching a Verdict Decision making Hastie Majority Influence Asch Minority Influence Nemeth
Stages in decision-making 1.What are the key points during a trial where the jury can be heavily influenced: 2.Some of the influences include size of the jury, cognitive processes, pre-trial publicity, ethnicity, gender, individual differences, leadership and the social processes which influence decision making such as majority and minority influence. These can be divided up into three groups of factors:
Stages in Decision making Hastie et al (1983) Jury discussions go through the following stages: Orientation Period Open Confrontation Reconciliation
Stages in Decision making Hastie et al (1983) What outside factors might affect a jury’s decision making? Do you think confrontation is always necessary in order to come to a verdict? Is locking people in a room until they come to a unanimous (common) decision a good idea? What’s a problem with this theory?
Problem At the end of a trial the jury return to the courtroom to give their verdict. How do they reach that verdict? The problem for researchers is that juries are sworn to secrecy about the deliberations, which take place behind closed doors, even after the trial, they are prohibited by law from discussing it. This means that researchers have to rely on mock trials and reconstructions to investigate jury behaviour.
Why do people conform to the majority? Why do people conform to the minority?
Minority Influence Minority influence occurs when a minority rejects the established norm of the majority of group members and gets the majority to move to the position of the minority. Minority influence is the result of ‘INFORMATIONAL SOCIAL INFLUENCE’ – the desire to be right. » What characteristics are displayed when someone has the desire to be right? In contrast, majority influence might be due to public compliance – NORMATIVE SOCIAL INFLUENCE – this is just passively going along with the majority to fit in or it might be due to the desire to be right thus accepting the majority view.
Minority Influence Moscovici carried out a set of experiments to test the minority influence. He got groups of six participants (four naïve & 2 stooges) to make colour perception judgements about a series of slides which were all blue. In the first condition his stooges declared the slides were all green. In the second condition two-thirds of the slides were declared green. In the final condition, the stooges were completely inconsistent in their choices. Results showed that was a 32% conformity only in the first condition. Why?
Minority Influence Moscovici believes that it is the consistency of the minority which is persuasive. Consistency creates an impression of certainty and confidence, and its uncompromising attitude includes everyone else to take it seriously – in this case people were persuaded to see blue as green.
Evaluation of Majority Influence Asch Ethics: Deception: Distress:
Evaluation of Majority Influence Asch What does this study tell us about everyday life?
Evaluation of Majority Influence Asch Can the study be generalised?
Evaluation of Majority Influence Asch How is the study linked to situational/individual explanations of behaviour?
Evaluation of Minority Influence Nemeth & Wachtler: Investigation of the influence of perceived autonomy on minority influence Sample & Generalisability: Usefulness:
Evaluation of Minority Influence Nemeth & Wachtler: Investigation of the influence of perceived autonomy on minority influence Ethics: