Presentation on theme: "Article II of the Constitution. The Executive Branch Most everything you need to know about the presidency may be located in Article 2 of the Constitution."— Presentation transcript:
Article II of the Constitution
The Executive Branch Most everything you need to know about the presidency may be located in Article 2 of the Constitution.
The Executive Branch Qualifications: Must be 35 Birth by Land or Blood Must have lived in the Country for 14 consecutive years
The Executive Branch Martin Van Buren was the first president to be born in what was actually the United States at the time. The youngest to be president was Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt. The youngest to be elected was John F. Kennedy The oldest was Ronald Reagan.
The Executive Branch The Vice President Requirements for Vice-President are the same as President. In the 1790’s, the runner-up in the Presidential election became the Vice-President. There was no separate election until the 12 th Amendment. This caused problems. Example: John Adams was Federalist – Thomas Jefferson was Vice-President and a Democratic- Republican.
The Executive Branch A term for President is 4 years. Washington established precedent of serving two terms Today: 2 terms or 10 years (22 nd Amendment) F.D.R. broke tradition and ran for 4 terms –reasons— Depression and WWII He died in fourth term
The Executive Branch One winning in November but is waiting inauguration is called the President Elect. One finishing out a term is called a Lame Duck. 20 th Amendment moved inauguration date to Jan. 20 th. Inauguration—swearing in of President Elect. Incumbent—one running for re-election
The Executive Branch Who officially elects the President? Electoral college The President is the one receiving a majority of electoral votes. (270) a majority of 535 + 3 for Washington D.C. (23 rd Amendment) How does a state know how many electoral college votes it is entitles to? Add the number of Representatives + Senators. (minimum 3) Texas has 38 Votes.
The Executive Branch Why do we have an electoral college? The founding fathers did not believe that the average citizen was intelligent enough to make such an important decision. Hey, you’re too stupid to vote for President!
The Executive Branch The electoral college votes are cast on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December. Mailed to the Senate. Counted on January 6 th unless it falls on a Sunday. Electoral college electors are NOT required to vote the people’s will. Electoral college electors are chosen differently state to state. In Texas chosen by the winning party
The Executive Branch One who receives a Plurality of popular votes receives all of that state’s electoral college votes. A Plurality means the “most”.
The Executive Branch Who chooses a President if no one receives a majority of electoral votes? House of Representatives (choose from top three candidates and each states is only allowed one vote) Who chooses the Vice-President if no one receives a majority of electoral votes? Senate (choose from top two candidates)
The Executive Branch Presidential Elections — held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November of every fourth year beginning in 1788. Primaries/Caucuses – Elections used to eliminate party candidates. Iowa holds first caucus. First Primary was held in Wisconsin. National Conventions - Where candidates in November are selected. 3 rd Party Candidates – Often split votes. A sure way to kill a party. (Clinton 43 million Bush 38 million Perot 19 million.)
The Executive Branch It is possible to be the people’s choice and still lose the election? This has occurred 4 times out of the 44 presidents that we have had. 1824—Andrew Jackson lost to John Quincy Adams 1876—Rutherford B Hayes beat Samuel J Tilden 1888—Cleveland lost to Harrison 2000 – George W. Bush beat Al Gore
The Executive Branch 2 times the election went to the House of Representatives. 1800 Thomas Jefferson 1824 John Quincy Adams 14 times the election went to the person with a plurality. 9 times the college voted for someone other than their party’s nominee.
The Executive Branch Some suggested ways of reforming the electoral college system: Direct Popular Election (most popular) Proportional Plan (electoral vote is proportional to election); no winner takes all
Only 4 sitting presidents (incumbents) did not receive their party’s nomination Tyler, Fillmore, Pierce and Arthur
The Executive Branch Most have substantial background in public office. Largest numbers of Presidential candidates come from Governorships of large states. Senators are second largest. Most are Protestants - (JFK and Alfred Smith were Catholics) No Women so far (Technically) Must have good speaking ability Ronald Reagan was the only one to be divorced.
The Executive Branch Major reason most people don’t vote APATHY
The Executive Branch Presidential Succession Act of 1947 legalized Presidential Succession Vice-President Speaker President Pro-Tem Secretary of State Not legal but done by tradition set by Tyler 1840 Harrison (pneumonia) to Tyler 1865 Lincoln (shot) to Johnson 1881 Garfield to Arthur 1900 McKinnley toT.R. 1923 Harding to Coolidge 1945 FDR to Truman Legal 1962 JFK to LBJ 1974 Nixon (resigned) to Ford
The Executive Branch 25 th Amendment Presidential Succession Act of 1947 Vice-Presidential vacancy Presidential disability - Incapable and knows it: Vice-President will act as President - Incapable and doesn’t know it: The Vice-President and a majority of the cabinet members may decide whether or not the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office First time it was used Agnew resigned and Ford replaced him. Nixon resigned under the pressure of Watergate and threatened impeachment. Ford became president without ever being elected to either office.
Salary: $400,000 + $50,000 a year expense account, 100,000 travel account and 19,000 entertainment 132 room mansion on 18.3 acres office—staff—yacht—fleet of automobiles 2 customized Boeing 707s—other planes helicopter—resort hideaway (Camp David) medical—dental pension—$97,500 Gross Income—$30 million
The Executive Branch Roles of the President: Chief of State—ceremonial head of the United States Chief Executive—head of branch, enforces law Chief Administration—directs nearly 3 million civilian authorities Chief Diplomat—directs American Foreign Policy Commander in Chief—head of Armed Forces Chief Legislator—suggests, initiates, requests, supports, insists, demands Congress enact legislation. Chief of Party—top party member Chief Citizen—represents all the people