Presentation on theme: "Article II of the Constitution"— Presentation transcript:
1Article II of the Constitution The Executive BranchArticle II of the Constitution
2The Executive BranchMost everything you need to know about the presidency may be located in Article 2 of the Constitution.
3The Executive Branch Qualifications: Must be 35 Birth by Land or Blood Must have lived in the Country for 14 consecutive years
4The Executive BranchMartin Van Buren was the first president to be born in what was actually the United States at the time.The youngest to be president was Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt.The youngest to be elected was John F. KennedyThe oldest was Ronald Reagan.
5The Executive Branch The Vice President Requirements for Vice-President are the same as President.In the 1790’s, the runner-up in the Presidential election became the Vice-President.There was no separate election until the 12th Amendment.This caused problems.Example: John Adams was Federalist – Thomas Jefferson was Vice-President and a Democratic-Republican.
6The Executive Branch A term for President is 4 years. Washington established precedent of serving two termsToday: 2 terms or 10 years (22nd Amendment)F.D.R. broke tradition and ran for 4 terms –reasons—Depression and WWIIHe died in fourth term
7The Executive BranchOne winning in November but is waiting inauguration is called the President Elect.One finishing out a term is called a Lame Duck.20th Amendment moved inauguration date to Jan. 20th.Inauguration—swearing in of President Elect. Incumbent—one running for re-election
8The Executive Branch Who officially elects the President? Electoral collegeThe President is the one receiving a majority of electoral votes.(270) a majority of for Washington D.C. (23rd Amendment)How does a state know how many electoral college votes it is entitles to?Add the number of Representatives + Senators. (minimum 3) Texas has 38 Votes.
9Hey, you’re too stupid to vote for President! The Executive BranchWhy do we have an electoral college?The founding fathers did not believe that the average citizen was intelligent enough to make such an important decision.Hey, you’re too stupid to vote for President!
10The Executive BranchThe electoral college votes are cast on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December. Mailed to the Senate. Counted on January 6th unless it falls on a Sunday.Electoral college electors are NOT required to vote the people’s will.Electoral college electors are chosen differently state to state.In Texas chosen by the winning party
11The Executive BranchOne who receives a Plurality of popular votes receives all of that state’s electoral college votes.A Plurality means the “most”.
12The Executive BranchWho chooses a President if no one receives a majority of electoral votes?House of Representatives (choose from top three candidates and each states is only allowed one vote)Who chooses the Vice-President if no one receives a majority of electoral votes?Senate (choose from top two candidates)
13The Executive BranchPresidential Elections — held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November of every fourth year beginning in 1788.Primaries/Caucuses – Elections used to eliminate party candidates.Iowa holds first caucus.First Primary was held in Wisconsin.National Conventions - Where candidates in November are selected.3rd Party Candidates – Often split votes. A sure way to kill a party. (Clinton 43 million Bush 38 million Perot 19 million.)
14The Executive BranchIt is possible to be the people’s choice and still lose the election?This has occurred 4 times out of the 44 presidents that we have had.1824—Andrew Jackson lost to John Quincy Adams1876—Rutherford B Hayes beat Samuel J Tilden1888—Cleveland lost to Harrison2000 – George W. Bush beat Al Gore
15The Executive Branch2 times the election went to the House of Representatives.Thomas JeffersonJohn Quincy Adams14 times the election went to the person with a plurality.9 times the college voted for someone other than their party’s nominee.
16The Executive BranchSome suggested ways of reforming the electoral college system:Direct Popular Election (most popular)Proportional Plan (electoral vote is proportional to election); no winner takes all
17The Executive BranchOnly 4 sitting presidents (incumbents) did not receive their party’s nominationTyler, Fillmore, Pierce and Arthur
18The Executive BranchMost have substantial background in public office.Largest numbers of Presidential candidates come from Governorships of large states.Senators are second largest.Most are Protestants - (JFK and Alfred Smith were Catholics)No Women so far (Technically)Must have good speaking abilityRonald Reagan was the only one to be divorced.
19Major reason most people don’t vote The Executive BranchMajor reason most people don’t voteAPATHY
20The Executive BranchPresidential Succession Act of 1947 legalized Presidential SuccessionVice-President Speaker President Pro-Tem Secretary of StateNot legal but done by tradition set by Tyler1840 Harrison (pneumonia) to Tyler1865 Lincoln (shot) to Johnson1881 Garfield to Arthur1900 McKinnley toT.R.1923 Harding to Coolidge1945 FDR to TrumanLegal1962 JFK to LBJ1974 Nixon (resigned) to Ford
21The Executive Branch 25th Amendment Presidential Succession Act of 1947Vice-Presidential vacancyPresidential disability- Incapable and knows it: Vice-President will act as President- Incapable and doesn’t know it: The Vice-President and a majority of the cabinet members may decide whether or not thePresident is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his officeFirst time it was used Agnew resigned and Ford replaced him. Nixon resigned under the pressure of Watergate and threatened impeachment. Ford became president without ever being elected to either office.
22The Executive BranchSalary: $400,000 + $50,000 a year expense account, 100,000 travel account and 19,000 entertainment132 room mansion on 18.3 acresoffice—staff—yacht—fleet of automobiles2 customized Boeing 707s—other planeshelicopter—resort hideaway (Camp David)medical—dentalpension—$97,500Gross Income—$30 million
23The Executive Branch Roles of the President: Chief of State—ceremonial head of the United StatesChief Executive—head of branch, enforces lawChief Administration—directs nearly 3 million civilian authoritiesChief Diplomat—directs American Foreign PolicyCommander in Chief—head of Armed ForcesChief Legislator—suggests, initiates, requests, supports, insists, demands Congress enact legislation.Chief of Party—top party memberChief Citizen—represents all the people