Presentation on theme: "Intertestamental Period. Events between Malachi and Matthew Judaism survived and prospered. It was changed by the surrounding cultures. Judaism."— Presentation transcript:
Events between Malachi and Matthew Judaism survived and prospered. It was changed by the surrounding cultures. Judaism became more personalized. Widespread apocalyptic and messianic expectations Greek culture influenced Judaism - Hellinization The Hebrew Scriptures were translated into Greek (LXX = Septuagint)
External Circumstances = Change 1. Jews under the rule of the Persians until the time of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.E.) 2. Judaism became a world religion. 3. Palestinian Jews defined Judaism in the narrower terms of Ezra and Nehemiah while those outside Palestine tended to be more liberal and inclusive.
External Circumstances = Change 4. Palestinian Judaism was less affected by outside cultural influences. 5. Hellenization influenced all of Judaism and, for a brief moment, threatened to extinguish it 6. Palestinian Judaism achieved a brief period of self-rule ( BCE) 7. Palestine became a protectorate of the Roman Empire in 63 BCE
External Circumstances = Change 8. Judaism was a religion of the book, without living prophets, probably from the time of Ezra and Nehemiah.
Probably developed during the Hasmonean period. “Hasmonean” is a name given to the dynasty that ruled ancient Judea for almost a century, from the Maccabean wars (c.145 BC) until Roman occupation of ancient Palestine in 63 BC.
Jewish Sects As Jewish self-rule lost its religious concerns there were really 3 ways to deal with it: Accept political leaders Oppose the political leaders Withdraw from the situation
Sadducees These claimed to be descendents from Zadok (the High Priest under Solomon) and were closely tied to the aristocracy in Jerusalem. They were shrewd politicians who always tried to accommodate the ruling power. They were theological conservatives, but political liberals. Although small, they were politically powerful and had the most to lose from a political change or military insurrection. Therefore, they strongly opposed Jesus.
Sadducees Beliefs Recognized only the Torah as Scripture Rejected oral tradition Did not believe the soul existed after death Did not believe in eternal punishment or reward Did not believe in the resurrection Did not believe in angels or demons.
Pharisees The term “Pharisee” comes from a term meaning “separated ones.” In the days of Herod the Great, the Pharisees numbered approximately 6,000, but their influence far exceeded their number. Most of them lived in and around Jerusalem. They developed the oral tradition that interpreted Scripture and were the teachers of the two-fold law: written and oral They had little interest in politics and opposed Jesus because He refused to accept their interpretations of the oral law.
Pharisees Beliefs Torah—The written law, given to Moses on Sinai Oral Torah – The interpretation of the Torah became divine regulation in itself. Accepted the Torah, Prophets & Writings as Scripture
Pharisees Beliefs They believed the righteous were resurrected after death. They often were apocalyptic and accepted the existence of angels & demons. The Pharisees understood Israel to be a “priestly people.” The Pharisees saw Torah as a developing and dynamic social force.
Essenes Not explicitly mentioned in the NT, but they are mentioned as a large group by the first-century Jewish historian Josephus. Beliefs Rejected the Jerusalem Priesthood and Temple Lived in the Wilderness (Desert) areas Three year period of initiation Strict obedience to elders was stressed. Communal property Celibacy
Essenes Beliefs Daily Work – Farmers, shepherds, beekeepers, craftsman Ritualistic – Purity was essential Apocalyptic – believed in angels & demons Believed in a bodily resurrection. The Essenes devoted themselves to the study of the law and went beyond the Pharisees in their rigid understanding of it.
Samaritans Believed Shechem and Mt. Gerizim as holy place (opposed to Jerusalem & Mt. Zion) Possible descendents of conquered Northern tribes and others. Moses was regarded as the only prophet and intercessor in the final judgment. In the days of Christ, the animosity between the Jews and Samaritans was so great that the Jews bypassed Samaria as they traveled between Galilee and Judea.
Samaritans Shared many Jewish beliefs: Uncompromising monotheism Loyalty to the law of Moses Being the chosen people with a promise from God of the land of Israel They also believed that 6,000 years after creation, a Restorer would arise and would live on earth for 110 years.
Samaritans Disagreed with Pharisees at several points: Built a rival temple on Mt. Gerizim, which was destroyed by John Hyrcanus (Hasmonean king) Rejected the Jerusalem priesthood Recognized only the Pentateuch as Scripture
Zealots These individuals were extremists. Forbid paying taxes to Rome for God alone was Lord God would help remove the Romans if the people took an armed rebellion They seem to agree with the Pharisees on other matters, but they were willing to kill and die for their beliefs.
Scribes Scribes were more than public secretaries. Over time they changed from a secular to a religious function. During the Exile, they became guardians of the Law. Ezra was the best known priest-scribe, and was highly skilled in the Law of Moses. He was the prototype of NT scribes who were professional interpreters.
Scribes Scribes were sometimes referred to as lawyers. The Law was their sole authority. Scribes required absolute reverence from their students. Most scribes were Pharisees, but some were Sadducees.
The Jewish Worship Institutions: Only one Temple existed. It was in Jerusalem It was the most significant place for the Jewish worship of God The Temple was the only place sacrifices could be offered. Even for Jews of the Diaspora (Dispersion) Sacrifices and offerings were associated with the Jewish Holy Days or Feasts.
Important Jewish Holy Days & Feasts Passover: It was connected with the Feast of Unleavened Bread (about the same time as Easter) and was the oldest and most popular festival. Pentecost: It was also known as the Festival of the First Fruits or the Feast of Weeks, occurring fifty days after Passover. Yom Kippur: It was also known as the Day of Atonement. Usually celebrated in October. It was the most solemn feast since the forgiveness of the people was contingent upon God’s acceptance of the sacrifice. Feast of Tabernacles (or Booths): It was the second most popular and second oldest of the Jewish Holy Days. It was a celebration marked by great joy.
The Synagogue: A Place of: Worship Education and study of the Law Social importance to the community.
The Synagogue: The Greek term means “gathering place.” Its Origin Most scholars believe it originated during or shortly after the exile. Jews of the Diaspora needed a place to meet Location Synagogues could be located anywhere Tradition said that at least ten adult Jewish males were required.
The Synagogue The Typical Order of Service: The Shema from Deut. 6:4-6 Prayer Reading of the Lesson from the Law If a competent person was present, he would give an exposition of the Scripture passages read. The Benediction.
The Sanhedrin The supreme judicial council of Judaism. The council arbitrated matters of Jewish religious life and Jewish law The decisions made by the council were final. It took a two-thirds majority to condemn a person for a crime.
The Sanhedrin The Sanhedrin dates to the time of Ezra and Nehemiah. Some claim that it goes back to the 70 elders under Moses. By the Christian era, it had absolute religious and almost all civil authority. Roman procurators had the power to ratify or veto a decision.
Political Situation in Jesus' Day
Herod the Great Ruled Palestine first as governor & later as king He faced significant opposition from the Jews because he was not a Jew, he was an Idumean He tried to gain the favor of the Jewish people and was a good ruler in the early part of his reign.
Herod the Great He was a great builder. He built palaces, aqueducts, etc. He built a Hippodrome in Jerusalem. He built Caesarea Maritima He refurbished the Temple beginning in 21 BC (not finished until 64 AD).
Herod the Great In his later reign, he was paranoid and cruel He killed seven members of his family According to the Gospel of Matthew, he ordered the death of all the boys in Bethlehem under the age of two, based on the report of the Magi He left orders that upon his death prominent Jewish citizens were to be killed.
“Herod” in the New Testament Herod The Great (37-4 BCE): Herod Antipas (4 BCE-39 CE) Tetrarch of Galilee and Perea Jesus was sent by Pilate to be heard by Antipas Archelaus (4 BCE-6 CE) Ethnarch over Judea Would have been ruling when Joseph returned from Egypt with Mary and young Jesus He was removed from his position in 6 CE and was banished to Gaul Herod Philip the Tetrarch (4 BCE-34 CE) Peaceful Tetrarch of the northern Transjordan region He rebuilt the ancient city of Panias commonly known as Caesarea Philippi.
The Herodian Dynasty Herod Agrippa I (37-44 CE): Herod the Great’s grandson Herod in the Book of Acts who executed James the Apostle and had Simon Peter arrested Herod Agrippa II (53-66 CE): Son of Herod Agrippa I. Herod in Acts before whom Paul appeared in Caesarea by the Sea before being sent to Rome.