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Background of Reformation. Papal corruption & abuses –Avignon Papacy & Papal Schism –Renaissance popes –Buying posts, absentee priests, plural posts –Illegitimate.

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Presentation on theme: "Background of Reformation. Papal corruption & abuses –Avignon Papacy & Papal Schism –Renaissance popes –Buying posts, absentee priests, plural posts –Illegitimate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Background of Reformation

2 Papal corruption & abuses –Avignon Papacy & Papal Schism –Renaissance popes –Buying posts, absentee priests, plural posts –Illegitimate children were appointed priests, bishops, abbots & abbesses –Parishioners lost faith in sacraments administered by immoral clergy

3 Early Reformers John Wycliffe ( ) –Morningstar of the Reformation –Oxford educator; taught superiority of Bible; lectured through Bible –Wycliffe desired to place Bible in hands of people in their own language, so he & followers translated Bible from Latin Vulgate into English ( )

4 John Wycliffe: Writings On the Church: Bible is sole criterion of doctrine to which no ecclesiastical authority may add; papal authority was not confirmed by Scripture (concurrent with Avignon Papacy & Great Papal Schism) On Apostasy: Appeal to state to reform entire ecclesiastical order On the Eucharist: Attack on transubstantiation – lost secular support

5 Early Reformers John Huss ( ) –Priest in Bohemia (Czechoslavakia); popular preacher in Prague; Dean of School of Philosophy at University of Prague –1382, Anne of Bohemia married Richard II of England & invited Bohemians to study in England; they were influenced by Wycliffe & took his teachings back to Bohemia where they impacted Huss

6 John Huss’ Teachings True church is composed of those chosen or predestined by God Christ, not Peter, is Rock on which church is built There should be no civil punishment for religious heresy Bible is final authority for matters of doctrine If pope or bishop does not obey Bible, he is not to be obeyed Christ, not church, is only mediator between God & humanity Only God can grant forgiveness, so for church to sell forgiveness through indulgences is to usurp God’s authority

7 Background of Reformation Greek New Testament vs. Latin Vulgate Renaissance & emphasis on humanism Rise of nationalism Gutenberg printing press

8 Types of Reformation Catholic Reformation –The Church has all necessary ingredients of Christianity –Leave structure untouched but cleanse it –Emphasis on moral & administrative reforms –Types Episcopal (Cyprian) Great leaders (Donatists, Lollards, Hussites, Erasmus) Monastic (Benedict, Cluniacs, Cistercians) Conciliar (Pisa, Constance, Florence/Ferrara/Basel)

9 Types of Reformation Magisterial Reformation –Church prior to RCC had necessary ingredients of Christianity –Alter structure & doctrine of church to condition prior to papal domination –Recreate church of first 5 centuries, NOT prior to Constantinian union of church & state

10 Types of Reformation Magisterial Reformation –Church to remain State-Church: magistrate initiates & supports reform & defends church –Reform included moral & administrative concerns but mainly theological & ecclesiological –Uniformity in doctrine still necessary –Luther, Zwingli, Calvin, Reformed, England

11 Types of Reformation Radical Reformation –Only primitive, Apostolic Church provides true model –Reform the church to pre-Constantinian type, which is NOT a state-church –Reform was moral, administrative, theological, ecclesiological; emphasis was on primitiveness, voluntarism & separation of church & state

12 Types of Reformation Radical Reformation: Three Types –Biblical: Use Bible as ultimate authority for reconstructing primitive church; examples: Anabaptists, later English Baptists –Spiritualistic: Emphasize immediacy & primacy of revelation from Holy Spirit; new revelations come to God’s prophets that augment & even supersede Scripture; examples: Zwickau prophets, Münster –Rationalistic: Human reason is authority in determining sense of Scripture & primitive model; challenge to doctrines of Trinity, vicarious atonement; examples: Servetus, Unitarians


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