Presentation on theme: "The Human Mosaic CHAPTER FOUR"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Human Mosaic CHAPTER FOUR Speaking about Places:The Geography of Language
2 Introduction - Difference between Language and Dialect? - What is a Pidgin Language?- A Lingua Franca?- Are you Monolingual, Bilingual, or Polyglot?- Do you know any words you use that are not “English”?
6 I) Linguistic Culture Regions A. Language Families1) Indo-European Language FamilySlavic, Germanic, Romance, Iranic, Indic, Celtic, etc.Mother (English) Mutter (German) Madre (Spanish) Meter (Greek) Madar (Iran) Matka (Polish)What is behind the global significance of Indo-European languages?
8 a) Semitic (Arabic, Hebrew, Amharic) 2) Afro-Asiatic Familya) Semitic (Arabic, Hebrew, Amharic)b) Hamitic (Berbers, Tuaregs, Cushites)3) Other Language Familiesa) Altaic (Turkic, Mongolic)b) Niger-Congo (south of Sahara Desert; Swahili)c) Austronesian (Polynesian; Malay-Indonesian) d) Uralic Family (Finnish, Hungarian)e) Sino-Tibetan (Chinese, Burmese, Tibetan)f) Austro-Asiatic (Vietnamese and Cambodian)g) Other Families (Khoisan of the Kalahari; Dravidian of S-India; Native American tongues; Basque; etc.)- languages like Basque are “language isolates” as they do not have any genealogical relationship with other living languages
13 B) English Dialects in the United States - the use of “isoglosses” in geolinguistics- three major dialects in the United States:1) Northern Dialect2) Midland Dialect3) Southern DialectIs it soda, pop, or coke?Turnpike, parkway, interstate, or freeway?Buggies? Draws? Skeeter? Tater? Britches?Are you perhaps fixin' to do something?Ebonics and AAE: pidgin language or dialect?
14 Sign in Arab Quarter of Nazareth in north Israel
16 II) Linguistic Diffusion - 10,000 BP about 15,000 languages- today less than 6,000 languages- importance of relocation diffusion!A. Indo-European Diffusion- 9,000 BP in SE-Turkey- importance of agriculture in the diffusion- later dispersal of Latin, English, and RussianB. Austronesian Diffusion- 5,000 BP in SE-Asia- from New Zealand to Madagascar (!)- Polynesian and the study of Ward, Webb, and Levison
22 C. Searching for the Primordial Tongue (NOVA: “In Search of the Primordial Tongue”)- Nostratic in the Middle East about 12,000 to 20,000 BP (Indo-European, Uralic, Altaic, etc.) - Dene-Caucasian (Sino-Tibetan)- Na-Dene (American-Indian)- What is the Primordial Tongue of all these?D. Linguistic Globalization?Will continuing globalization create just a handful of dominating languages? What are the most likely candidates?
36 IV. Culturo-Linguistic Interaction A. Technology and Linguistic Dominance- role of agricultural revolution- writing (~ 6 millennium BP in Egypt & Sumeria)- Trans-Siberian Railroad vs. CyberspaceB. Language and Empire- Imperial Expansions and their resultC. Social Moral Model- Charles Withers’ study of conquered people Example of Native Americans- low social status- losing pride in one's culture- Bilingual People in the United States (~25%) vs. today (< 14%)WWI / Lusitania
37 D. Economic Development Model - example of Wales in the United Kingdom clearance model & changeover modelE. Language and Religion- Islam and Arabic- Latin and Roman Catholicism- Protestant Reformation and the Standardizationof the German language
39 V. Linguistic Landscapes A. Messages - "hostile" vs. "friendly" landscape- the big yellow MB. Toponyms (Place names)- Huntsville (specific “Hunts” / generic “ville”)- generic toponyms of the United States- Northern: Randolph CENTER, Orange SOUTH- Midland: PittsBURGH, HarrisBURGH- Southern: Cypress BAYOU, Gum GULLY
43 Aborigine specific toponym with English generic name
44 C. Toponyms and Cultures of the Past - Arabic place names on Iberian Peninsula Guadalquivir, Guadalajara- Native American place names in the U.S.- states, rivers, mountains, etc.- Spanish place names in the U.S.D. Toponyms and Environmental Modifications- Neuroth & Bayreuth- What about Frankfurt? Erfurt? Schweinfurt?