2 INDICE What is it? Forms of Violence Causes of Violence Causes of Violence Part IIimpactConsequences Part IIRisk FactorsRisk Factors Part IICategories of ViolenceCategories of violence Part II
3 Classification of Violence Classification of violence Part IIEffectsIndicators of ViolenceViolence Indicators Part IIthe VictimThe victim II partThe AggressorThe aggressor II partThe aggressor III part
4 RehabilitationProtection MeasuresProtective measures Part IIPart III protection measures
6 ¿What is it?For domestic violence we refer to all situations or forms of abuse of power or abuse (physical or psychological) of a family member over another or that develop in the context of family relationships and causing various levels of damage to the victims of such abuses.It may manifest itself through beatings, insults, economic management, threats, coercion, control, sexual abuse, isolation from family and friends, prohibitions, emotional abandonment, humiliation or by not respecting the opinions, these are the ways in which violence is expressed violence, often in abusive relationships often found combined, generating damage as a result of one or several types of abuse.Those who suffer are mainly in culturally defined groups as less powerful sectors within the hierarchical structure of the family, where the variables of gender and generation (age) have been instrumental in establishing the distribution of power in the context of the patriarchal culture. Thus women, minors (children) and the elderly are identified as members of these groups at risk or most frequent victims, who added the disabled (physical and mental) by their particular vulnerability . The violence directed towards each represent different categories of domestic violence.While many domestic violence actions are obvious, others may go unnoticed, it is essential to identify whether the partner or family used violence as a means to address and resolve differences of opinion. A common example is a family where every time two of its members have differences of opinion, one yells or hits the other to ensure that "listen to him" (whether child, adult or elder whichever is attacked).I
7 Types of violencesSome actions of abuse between family members are evident, usually those who have physical implications, others may go unnoticed, however all leave deep scars. Domestic violence can take one or more of the following forms: physical violence, psychological violence, neglect, sexual abuse and economic abuse.physical violenceViolence, abuse or physical abuse is the most obvious form of violence, can be broadly defined as any non-accidental act of aggression in which physical force is used, any part of the body (fists, feet, etc..) object, weapon or substance which causes physical injury or illness to a family member. The intensity can range from injuries such as bruises, burns and fractures, caused by pushing, slapping, punching, kicking or hitting with objects, to internal injuries and even death.psychological violencePsychological or emotional violence, in general, can be defined as a set of behaviors that causes harm or psychological or emotional injury to a family member. Psychological violence trauma occurs not immediately but a damage that is accentuated, grow and consolidate in time. They are intended to intimidate and / or controlling the victim who, before this emotional climate, suffers a progressive psychological impairment and depressive features in its maximum degree that can lead to suicide.Some of these actions are obvious, others subtle and difficult to detect, however all sequele. A particular case of this type of abuse are children who witness violence between their parents, those who suffer similar consequences and disruption to abused directly.I
8 Causes of viólenseThe cause of the emergence and maintenance of domestic violence is complex and multifactorial, relating to it as cultural attitudes of gender inequality, social conditions, family conflicts, marital and biographical aspects such as personality and history of abuse in the family origin.History shows that the forms of domestic abuse existed since ancient times in many cultures where children were considered private property of the parents, they were right about her life and death, may also declare their state of freedom or slavery.Similar rights possessed men over women, who were anchored in submission and dependence relations with limited role socially and where male violence was accepted and tolerated by society and even by women.Violence has been and is used as an instrument of power and domination of the strong against the weak, the adult versus child, the man before the woman, your goal is to exercise control over the conduct of the other, which is evident in the objectives as "discipline", "educate", "to reason", "set limits", "protect", "calm", etc.., with those who use violence and too many victims try to justify it.The structuring of hierarchies that support the use of force as a means of exercising power is one of the key concepts of naturalization of violence which has historically hindered their understanding and appreciation to establish cultural norms that allow social perception natural and legitimate violence as favoring their maintenance.I
9 The naturalization of violence tends to materialize in popular expressions or myths that reflect the cultural pattern. The power of myth is that it is invulnerable to rational evidence belie thereby victims often get caught in the middle of a social consensus that blames and prevents them from being aware of their rights and how they are being violated .The institutions are not immune to the construction of meanings that structure the way we perceive reality and contribute to naturalize violence took centuries before there were laws to protect victims; educational institutions for much of the history discipline methods used including corporal punishment, in various organizations still refuse to recognize the effect of violence on physical and psychological health of individuals, the media continue to exhibit daily violence.All this, together with the transmission of gender stereotypes which also contributes to the family, is a set of actions and omissions resulting in the perception of violence as a natural way to resolve interpersonal conflicts and lays the foundation for the imbalance of power that arises in the formation of private companies such as courtship, marriage and cohabitation.Similarly, the process of hiding the problem of violence, epistemological obstacles related to various (foundations and methods of scientific knowledge) has been structured to identify difficulties and allowed to perpetuate.The process of invisibility believes that if a phenomenon is visible inscriptions should be perceptible materials do turn the observer (in this case the social field) must have the tools or instruments necessary to perceive it.I
10 ConsequencesThe severity of physical and psychological consequences for both the victim and the family, make domestic violence a major health problem with strong social impact.For the victim, the main consequences physically are headaches, back pain, gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory disorders, palpitations, hyperventilation and injuries of all kinds such as trauma, wounds, burns, sexually transmitted diseases and / or unwanted pregnancies because forced sex, risk pregnancies and abortions. Women battered during pregnancy have more complications (bleeding, infections and other) during labor and post-partum and generally babies born under this situation tend to be low weight or with disorders that threaten their survival and sequelae that influence their growth and further development. Otherwise violence can lead to the victim even lethal consequences by homicide or suicide.On a psychological level are generated profound effects both short and long term. The immediate reaction is usually shock, temporary paralysis and denial of what happened, followed by dizziness, disorientation and feelings of loneliness, depression, vulnerability and powerlessness. Then the feelings of the victim can go from fear to anger, sadness to euphoria, compassion for herself the guilt. In the medium term, may have obsessive thoughts, inability to concentrate, insomnia, nightmares, uncontrolled crying, increased use of drugs and addiction.There may also be a delayed reaction syndrome described as Post-Traumatic Stress, is a series of emotional disorders, which do not necessarily appear temporally associated with the situation that originated, but which are a sequel of trauma experienced, such as have been under situations of physical or psychological abuse. Some of its symptoms include sleep disturbances (nightmares and insomnia), amnestic disorders, depression, anxiety, guilt, somatization disorder, various phobias and fears, sexual dysfunction and the use of violence against others as with their children .At the social level may occur a deterioration of personal relationships, social isolation and loss of employment due to increased live a rewarding intimacy with your partner, the risk of losing his family, especially wife and children, family and social rejection, isolation and loss of social recognition, risk of arrest and conviction, feelings of failure, frustration and resentment and difficulty asking psychological and psychiatric help.I
11 absenteeism and decreased work performance. When the victim is a minor, is also generated disorders physical and psychological development that can lead to running away, teenage pregnancy and prostitution. In the field of education increased absenteeism and dropout behavior disorders and learning and violence in schools.Children or minors who have not been direct victims of violence as witnesses have seen the equally suffer risks of occurrence of integral development, feelings of threat (emotional balance and physical health are in danger from the experience of scenes violence and tension), learning difficulties, difficulties in socialization, adoption of violent behavior with peers, increased frequency of psychosomatic diseases and other secondary psychopathology.In the long term these children presented a high tolerance for violence and adult offenders are likely to be at home and / or violent social environment as it is the behavior that naturally have internalized as their primary socialization process, which we call violence transgenerational, in other areas of social reality violent models generate the private context of public safety problem by increasing social and youth violence, antisocial behavior, murders, injuries and sexual offenses.The economy is affected by increasing spending on health, education, security and justice and to reduce production.For the aggressor major consequence will be the inability to
12 Situations occurs when low-intensity abuse become usual, is the phenomenon of naturalization. The victims, mostly women, are accustomed to not take into account their views, important decisions to take the man to be humiliated by disparaging jokes, etc.., Through all these experiences to be part of a kind of curtain everyday background that numbing effect to violence.Brainwashing: When threats, coercion and humiliating messages are intense and persistent, the victim usually incorporate those same arguments and belief systems as a defensive mode against the potential threat that would defend or refute, automatic obedience believes will save of suffering.At this point, assumes and can repeat to anyone who tries to help her, she has all the guilt, you deserve the treatment you receive, etc..I
13 Dullness or Submission: When frightening experiences are extreme and repeated, the effect is a "psychic numbing" in which victims are disconnected from their own feelings and become submissive to the extreme. In these cases, the justification for the conduct of the offender and the self-immolation reach peak levels.In all cases the effects of domestic violence are accompanied by the symptoms described physical and psychological level, these consequences still visible through the indicators or signs of abuse.
14 The effects of violence can be located six (6) levels according to the combination of two variables: the level of threat perceived by the person attacked and the degree of regularity of violent behavior (Sluzki, C., Family Violence and Violence Politics, New Paradigms, Culture and Subjectivity. Polity Press, Buenos Aires, 1995.), these are:cognitive DissonanceAttack or escapeFlood or ParalysisSocialization everydayBrainwashingDullness or SubmissionCognitive dissonance: Occurs when a situation of low-level violence in a context or in an unexpected moment (like the honeymoon). The reaction is surprise, failure to integrate the new data to the experience.
15 Attack or leak: Occurs when a situation of high intensity violence a sudden and unexpected way. In these cases it triggers a warning psychophysiological reactivity and can react with a defensive position, escaping the place, or offensive, facing the threat. The surprise work as a trigger of behavior.Flood or Paralysis: Occurs when a situation of extreme violence, which implies a high perceived risk to the integrity or life. The reaction may include alterations of consciousness, disorientation and be the background for the subsequent emergence Syndrome Post-Traumatic Stress. Often victims of paralysis recount this experience in situations such as threats with weapons, attempted strangulation or marital rape.
16 Risks of FactorThere are risk factors and situations of particular vulnerability to explain why similar contexts, sometimes violent situations occur and sometimes not. The identification of these factors associated with the different forms that violence is instrumental in preparing proposals or perform some action, both in regard to care of the problem and its prevention. The risk factors are not the cause of violence but affect its appearance and maintenance.Although anyone can be affected by domestic violence, as this occurs in all cultures, regardless of sex, age, race, religion or social class, female gender, minor, disabled or elderly and found in a relationship with imbalance of power or a family within a rigid structure with a high degree of control among its members and cultural values favoring a vertical hierarchical division autocratic; poses a greater risk of suffering because it is more vulnerable the less power you have within the family hierarchy or to be physically and / or psychologically dependent.Although given the low detection rate, probably many victims of abuse do not meet a certain profile, the person mainly women at increased risk of becoming a victim can find features like: a low level of culture and education, low self esteem, attitudes of submission and dependence due to a rigid and stereotyped conception of the role of men and women, poor socioeconomic status (of great importance in terms of means and opportunity to escape or not a situation of violence) and social isolation prevents access to external sources of support either family or community; also be situations of abuse or dependence of alcohol or drugs.I
17 Pregnancy also often represents a greater proportion of risk, often the first episode of physical aggression occurs in this period because the offender is perceived as a threat to its dominance, this generates a greater number of abortions, complications of pregnancy, childbirth premature and delays in care.The factor most closely associated with battered women and also one of the most clearly linked to the emergence of aggressive behavior in men refers to the history, experiences of violence or exposure to the same one they had in childhood or adolescence in their families of origin, either as direct victims of abuse or witnessing violence. Violence can be passed from one generation to another by repeating models based on cultural norms that maintain gender inequality and legitimize both in parenting, and in interpersonal relationships and conflict resolution. Males are more likely to become violent men and victimized girls to learn that society accepts violence against women.
18 Situations occurs when low-intensity abuse become usual, is the phenomenon of naturalization. The victims, mostly women, are accustomed to not take into account their views, important decisions to take the man to be humiliated by disparaging jokes, etc.., Through all these experiences to be part of a kind of curtain everyday background that numbing effect to violence.Brainwashing: When threats, coercion and humiliating messages are intense and persistent, the victim usually incorporate those same arguments and belief systems as a defensive mode against the potential threat that would defend or refute, automatic obedience believes will save of suffering. At this point, assumes and can repeat to anyone who tries to help her, she has all the guilt, you deserve the treatment you receive, etc..Dullness or Submission: When frightening experiences are extreme and repeated, the effect is a "psychic numbing" in which victims are disconnected from their own feelings and become submissive to the extreme. In these cases, the justification for the conduct of the offender and the self-immolation reach peak levels.In all cases the effects of domestic violence are accompanied by the symptoms described physical and psychological level, these consequences still visible through the indicators or signs of abuseI
19 categories of violence Physical and PsychologicalPsychological violence has features to classify into three categories:Abuse: may be passive (defined as abandonment) or asset which consists of a continuous degrading treatment that attacks the dignity of the person. It usually occurs in the form of verbal hostility, as shouting, swearing, insults, contempt, ridicule, irony, reviews permanent and threats. Also seen in attitudes as slamming, silent abuse, deceit, jealousy (pathological jealousy), control of daily acts, blocking initiatives, prohibitions, constraints and impositions.Harassment: is exercised with a strategy, a methodology and a target, the victim is pursued with criticism, threats, insults, slurs and actions to undermine your confidence and self esteem andmake it fall into a state of despair, malaise and depression that makes leaving the exercise of a right or submit to the will of the aggressor.To qualify as harassment situation there must be a continuous siege, a strategy of violence (as when the offender intends to convince the victim that she is to blame for the situation) and the consent of the rest of the household (although also friends or neighbors) who work or are silent witnesses of abuse, either for fear of reprisals, or simply for personal satisfaction from selfishness to not be the ones affected.Emotional harassment, part of bullying, is a situation where the bully his victim emotionally dependent, steals the privacy, tranquility and time to perform their tasks and activities, constantly interrupting their demands continuous demonstrations of affection or , exaggerated and inappropriate affection. If the victim refuses to submit to this form of bullying, the aggressor complains, cries, despairs, and go begging as a strategy to emotional blackmail, threatening to withdraw their affection victim or attack each himself, can get to perpetrate attempts suicide orI
20 Violence against the man inside the couple, given the exceptional cases, not considered a social problem and less a specific category of domestic violence. Everything before the eyes of a man who suffers abuse may be irrelevant, and should be considered that much of the results presented are based on the amount and type of complaints received and is an established fact that men generally do not report assaulted abusive situations.In that there is no such allegations affect ignorance of the law, lack of related institutions targeting men, their prejudice towards impartiality, and mainly, the professionals (social workers, psychologists, etc..), But are crucial sociocultural aspects as machismo and shame result of a patriarchal ideology rigid stereotypes about what is expected of the man in the relationship. Other reasons, and also limit women are love the couple, children or fear of the economic and judicial separation may involve.Child abuse, in general, can be defined as any act not accidental, single or repeated, that by act or omission (lack of response or appropriate action) causes physical or psychological harm to a minor, either by from their parents, other family members or caregivers, but outside the family, should be supervised by it.Child abuse includes full or partial abandonment and all adult behavior or speech that infringes or interferes with the Rights of the Child (UN Universal Declaration, 1959). Violence, whether physical, sexual or emotional is one of the most serious violations of these rights, the immediate consequences in the medium and long term they generate in the child's development.Within this category we also classify fetal abuse happens when the mother ingests deliberately alcohol or drugs, with the fetus in her womb. Product in which the child (a) can be born with addictions, malformations or severe retardation and other problems.I
21 Violence against the elderly Violence or abuse the elderly, in general, can be defined as any act not accidental, single or repeated, that by act or omission (lack of response or appropriate action) causes physical or psychological harm to an older person, and either by their children, other family members or caregivers, but outside the family, should be supervised by it. These situations of abuse are a major cause of injury, illness, lost productivity, isolation and despair.Mistreatment of the elderly is caused by a strain in our culture, we feel that the old is useless and futile. The elderly are felt as clogs or a burden that must also piggyback family to support, so it is not surprising that the most common type of abuse is neglect and lack of care.Moreover, the absence of records or actual estimates of the extent of this problem and the lack of complaints because of fear, depression, inability to move by themselves and little credibility, has allowed this phenomenon is almost invisible.Violence against people with disabilitiesViolence or the mistreatment of the disabled, in general, can be defined as any act by act or omission which causes physical or psychological harm to people who have temporarily or permanently a decline in their physical, mental or sensory, either by Family members or caregivers who, though outside the family, should be supervised by it. This violence affects people whose condition most vulnerable are in a dependent position that places them at a greater risk in relation
22 Clasificatión of Violences Físicas y PsicológicasLa violencia psicológica presenta características que permiten clasificarla en tres categorías:Maltrato: puede ser pasivo (definido como abandono) o activo que consiste en un trato degradante continuado que ataca la dignidad de la persona. Generalmente se presenta bajo la forma de hostilidad verbal, como gritos, insultos, descalificaciones, desprecios, burlas, ironías, críticas permanentes y amenazas. También se aprecia en actitudes como portazos, abusos de silencio, engaños, celotipia (celos patológicos), control de los actos cotidianos, bloqueo de las iniciativas, prohibiciones, condicionamientos e imposiciones.Acoso: se ejerce con una estrategia, una metodología y un objetivo, la víctima es perseguida con críticas, amenazas, injurias, calumnias y acciones para socavar su seguridad y autoestima ylograr que caiga en un estado de desesperación, malestar y depresión que la haga abandonar el ejercicio de un derecho o someterse a la voluntad del agresor.Para poder calificar una situación como acoso tiene que existir un asedio continuo, una estrategia de violencia (como cuando el agresor se propone convencer a la víctima que es ella la culpable de la situación) y el consentimiento del resto del grupo familiar (auque también de amigos o vecinos) que colaboran o son testigos silenciosos del maltrato, ya sea por temor a represalias, por satisfacción personal o simplemente por egoísmo al no ser ellos los afectados.El acoso afectivo, que forma parte del acoso psicológico, es una situación donde el acosador depende emocionalmente de su víctima, le roba la intimidad, la tranquilidad y el tiempo para realizar sus tareas y actividades, interrumpiéndola constantemente con sus demandas de cariño o manifestaciones continuas, exageradas e inoportunas de afecto. Si la víctima rechaza someterse a esta forma de acoso, el agresor se queja, llora, se desespera, implora y acude al chantaje emocional como estrategia, amenazando a la víctima con retirarle su afecto o con agredirse a si mismo, puede llegar a perpetrar intentos de suicidio u otras manifestaciones extremas que justifica utilizando el amor como argumento.I
23 Psychological violence has features to classify into three categories: Abuse: may be passive (defined as abandonment) or asset Which Consists of a continuous That degrading treatment attacks the dignity of the person. It usually we Occurs in the form of verbal hostility, as shouting, swearing, insults, contempt, ridicule, irony, reviews permanent and Threats. Also seen in attitudes as slamming, silent abuse, deceit, jealousy (pathological jealousy), monitoring of daily acts, blocking Initiatives, Prohibitions, constraints and impositions.Harassment: is Exercised with a strategy, a methodology and a target, the victim is pursued with criticism, Threats, insults, slurs and actions to undermine your confidence and self esteem andmake it fall into a state of despair, malaise and depression That makes leaving the exercise of a right or submit to the will of the aggressor.To Qualify as harassment situation there must be a continuous siege, a strategy of violence (as When the offender Intends to convince the victim That she is to blame for the situation) and the consent of the rest of the household (Also although friends or neighbors ) who work or are silent witnesses of abuse, Either for fear of Reprisals, or simply for personal satisfaction from selfishness to not be the ones Affected.Emotional harassment, part of bullying, is a situation where the bully his victim emotionally dependent, steals the privacy, tranquility and time to perform Their tasks and activities, Constantly interrupting continuous Demands Their Demonstrations of affection or, exaggerated and Inappropriate affection. If the Victim Refuses to submit to this form of bullying, the aggressor complains, cries, despairs, and go begging as a strategy to emotional blackmail, threatening to withdraw Their affection attack each victim or himself, can get to perpetrate suicide or attempts TheI
24 EfectsThe effects of violence can be located six (6) levels according to the combination of two variables: the level of threat perceived by the person attacked and the degree of regularity of violent behavior (Sluzki, C., Family Violence and Violence Politics, New Paradigms, Culture and Subjectivity. Polity Press, Buenos Aires, 1995.), these are:Cognitive DissonanceAttack or escapeFlood or ParalysisSocialization everydayBrainwashingDullness or SubmissionCognitive dissonance: Occurs when a situation of low-level violence in a context or in an unexpected moment (like the honeymoon). The reaction is surprise, failure to integrate the new data to the experience.Attack or leak: Occurs when a situation of high intensity violence a sudden and unexpected way. In these cases it triggers a warning psychophysiological reactivity and can react with a defensive position, escaping the place, or offensive, facing the threat. The surprise work as a trigger of behavior.Flood or Paralysis: Occurs when a situation of extreme violence, which implies a high perceived risk to the integrity or life. The reaction may include alterations of consciousness, disorientation and be the background for the subsequent emergence Syndrome Post-Traumatic Stress. Often victims of paralysis recount this experience in situations such as threats with weapons, attempted strangulation or marital rape.Daily Socialization: Occurs when situations of low intensity abuse become usual, is the phenomenon of naturalization. The victims, mostly women, are accustomed to not take into account their views, important decisions to take the man to be humiliated by disparaging jokes, etc.., Through all these experiences to be part of a kind of curtain everyday background that numbing effect to violence.Brainwashing: When threats, coercion and humiliating messages are intense and persistent, the victim usually incorporate those same arguments and belief systems as a defensive mode against the potential threat that would defend or refute, automatic obedience believes will save of suffering. At this point, assumes and can repeat to anyone who tries to help her, she has all the guilt, you deserve the treatment you receive, etc..Dullness or Submission: When frightening experiences are extreme and repeated, the effect is a "psychic numbing" in which victims are disconnected from their own feelings and become submissive to the extreme. In these cases, the justification for the conduct of the offender and the self-immolation reach peak levels.I
25 INDICATORS OF ABUSEDomestic violence is a social problem that we should all know and face, affects a high percentage of families, regardless of social strata, economic or cultural. Victims find it hard to tell what happens as they fear, shame and usually tend to blame the situation.From the position of victim is usually easy to detect the actions of physical or sexual abuse as cause pain and damage apparent. Detecting psychological or emotional violence may be more complex because they often develop psychological mechanisms that hide the reality when this we find excessively unpleasant surprise however performing certain acts or certain situations may reveal the fact.If you suffer in silence a painful situation, expect that things will rectify themselves or spontaneously depose the aggressor attitude, if you want someone to come to your aid, if you are surprised by something you do not want to do, which goes against your principles or dislike you and you feel unable to refuse or, if you have concluded that you are suffering the painful situation has no solution and you deserve it because you've searched, you might consider that you are being abused, handling and / or bullying.Detect violence, physical and / or emotional suffering another person is usually easier if we care to observe and listen. All humans express the suffering, fears or problems somehow. Many victims do not betray your attacker openly for fear of reprisals or worsen the situation, in the case of women and children who depend on it also. Others, such as the elderly or disabled, may not have the ability of speech to denounce what happens, but there are several indicators or signals to detect a possible domestic violence situation.Physical indicators: Physical indicators are often more visible, appear as physical injury, usually multiple, bruises, scratches, bites, burns and skin irritations, marks and scars on the body, fractures, dislocations, sprains, mobility and / or tooth loss. If the victim has been sexually abused may have also sexually transmitted diseases, irritation or bleeding in the genital or anal area and difficulty walking or sitting, a situation that is even more evident when the affected person is a child (a).When abuse is neglect or lack of attention to the physical needs often have symptoms of malnutrition, dehydration, lack of hygiene and dental disease, usually of respiratory or dermatological frequent occurrence in the elderly, disabled and children without care.I
26 Emotional and behavioral indicators: These indicators are presented in the form of crying, feelings of guilt or shame, fear, sadness, anger, depression, anxiety, insomnia, irritability, mood swings, forgetfulness or lack of concentration, confusion, disorientation and isolation, diseases such as anorexia and bulimia, low self esteem, suicidal thoughts or behaviors.When the victim is a child (a) may also occur in the language problems, sudden and unexpected changes in behavior, fear of contact with adults or rejection of certain people or situations, physical contact resistance, sleep disturbance, appetite or evacuation, aggression, withdrawal, isolation, eroticization of behavior and relationships, unexpected drop in school performance, language and behaviors that denote knowledge of sexual acts inappropriate to his age and running away. Be aware also to expressions such as: "I was alone all weekend", "my brother would not let me sleep last night", "the nanny was bothering me," "Mr. X used underwear funny" that may show signs indirect abuse.A victim of physical or emotional abuse, convinced that her case has no solution, can develop defense mechanisms, unconscious and mechanical, to adapt to the situation and ensure their survival, several indicators behave in form:Maintains a relationship with her attacker who appreciates his small kindnesses intensely, often deny that there is violence against her and if supported by warrants; denies feel angry or upset to the aggressor is always ready to keep you happy, try to find out what you think and what you want, reaching to identify with him. Think people who want to help are wrong and that his attacker is right and protects. He finds it difficult to leave and afraid to come back for it even if this is in jail or even dead.Recognition of these symptoms can allow the identification, early treatment and prevention of future problems, so at the slightest appearance or suspicion of abuse is essential for serious research, but this is for the authorities, all can and should take certain reaction steps.I
27 The VictimAccording to the concept of domestic violence sufferers are mainly in culturally defined groups as less powerful sectors within the hierarchical structure of the family as women, children (boys and girls), the elderly and the disabled.A common factor in those who have suffered violence in childhood, both men and women is low self esteem. This, as a result of gender socialization manifests itself differently according to sex: in women increases feelings of helplessness, arising after failed attempts out of the situation of abuse, and guilt, and in men, active mechanisms overcompensation that lead to structure a hard outer image.On an emotional level the victim has feelings of hopelessness, it perceives itself and confined to the situation in which it is located. Have an idea about the power of hypertrophied aggressor, the world is presented as hostile and believes he can never stand on its own.In general, the victim often feel shame for the acts of partner violence, attitude called "emotional delegations" (Ravazzola MC, Infamous Stories: The Maltreatment in Relationships. Polity Press, Buenos Aires, 1998) and defined as the circumstance in which a member of the family feels the discomfort should feel another. Likewise often feel guilty for the failure of their relationship, often attributing the responsibility of being battered by the same justifications used by the aggressor, thus reinforcing their behavior.When abuse is very serious and prolonged the victim may have thoughts of suicide or homicide, reinforcing feelings of worthlessness and begins to see herself as useless, silly or crazy, as he constantly repeats. Many times it may come to doubt their own ideas or perceptions, this loss of confidence would excessively difficult decisions even those of the most ordinary and domestic sphere.Fear is an emotion common in people who live with violence, is related to the experience of violent episodes usually acting immobilizing, in many cases will prevent the victim out of the abusive situation, ask for help and seek solutions.I
28 In the behavioral dimension, the victim tends to isolation and hide the surroundings, living in your relationship and / or family. It usually fearful behaviors and express dependence and submission, experiencing a real conflict between their need to express their feelings and the fear that causes the possible reaction of his assailant. At the same time, maintains various behaviors of support, care and protection to his assailant. Their behavior may appear contradictory and expresses ambivalence (eg, report abuse and then withdraw the complaint).The victim tends to be located in a secondary or delayed in their relationships, in this sense is directed to the other, perceiving little or central protagonist in the systems in which they live, however, attributed to its great power aggressor, assumes as owner of the truth, and often ascribed authority justifies the abuse, either by feeling responsible for them or because they assume that the perpetrator have been his victim from further abuse, is released from his responsibility.Other features, not be general, are identified as risk factors, including low cultural and educational level, socioeconomic status, poverty, of great importance in terms of means and opportunity to escape or not a situation of violence and social isolation that prevents access external sources of support either family or community.The repression of the emotional needs often leads to channel the expression of the repressed through psychosomatic symptoms. A level more often symptomatic depression found (open or hidden), people who experience violence themselves hostage between aggression and impotence. Moreover, it is commonly increased consumption of alcohol and drugs as part of self-destructive behavior or the anestesiadoras.Also present the symptoms of post-traumatic stress, whose main components are the tendency to re-experience the trauma, recurrent thoughts expressed, dreams and images and feelings that appear as sudden loss of interest in the outside world, by activities, people feel like strangers, emotional blankness, state of hypervigilance, sleep disturbances, difficulty with concentration and memory, among others. Other signs will be visible through the indicators of abuse or the consequences and effects of domestic violence.I
29 El AggressorThe attackers have certain characteristics to better describe how you will organize their behavior and the mechanisms that allow you to maintain your position. Often those involved in violent relationships show a high percentage of violent contexts in their families of origin. The attackers often have been abused or neglected in childhood or at least witnessed domestic violence. Violence in the family of origin has been a model of interpersonal conflict resolution and has had the effect of normalization of violence. The recurrence of such behavior, perceived throughout life, has become commonplace, to the point that many perpetrators do not understand when it is pointed out that their conduct cause harm.The assailant, who mistreats both her partner and their children or other relatives, usually a person of low self esteem, poor impulse control without obvious psychiatric disorders (though it has a strong tendency to confuse your assumptions imaginary, as jealousy, with reality), so their goal is not to satisfy some kind of sadistic or psychopathic need to provide pleasure through the subjugation of another, but use a definitive resource that allows you to establish or maintain power and control in the relationship couple or family.The abuser tends to avoid liability through means such as outsourcing, by which justifies his actions with long lists of reasons or blaming external forces and denial, allowing you to identify others as the cause of the problem and separated from the actions needed to overcome their difficulties. In the case of sexual abuse the abuser is fully aware of his actions and which deny or conceal their behavior to maintain it. All this as a way of projecting the responsibility and guilt.Social isolation tends to be an imposition perceives himself as the immediate environment as a threat to their need to control, although this often project an image of excellent spouse, partner, parent or child, to adopt behavioral patterns dissociated : in the public domain shown as a balanced person, in most cases it comes through in their behavior that would suggest anything violent behavior, making it less credible a possible complaint. In the private sector, however, behaves threatening, using verbal and physical, as if it were another person. His behavior is possessive and is characterized by being always "on the defensive".I
30 There are other features that although primarily aimed at the victims, some are associated with the aggressor, however the general unless they are identified as risk factors.Child AbuserThe general characteristics, although not enough to create a profile, are common perpetrators. As for who does violence to a minor, in addition to them, you can add that this is often the parent of the child (a), can sometimes exercise both, in any case will generally be an acquaintance or relative, without any other specific feature of his personality. You may not even wish to be parents, at other times be very permissive parents are overwhelmed by children (as) by not setting clear rules and keep them in time, then being unable to validate their authority resort to shouting, insults and even punches.As for his behavior, in addition to what is stated in the general characteristics, routinely employ a discipline inappropriate for the age and condition of the child (a), have unrealistic expectations and show him unprepared or inexperienced in parenting practices responsible.Man assaults womanUsually in a situation of violence within the couple identifies the man as the family member who exercises, these are characterized by emotional blankness and poor verbal communication skills of their feelings. They are afraid of losing their partner (fears of dependency), which generally repressed and perceive it as thecause of the fact that they feel threatened. This inappropriate expression of emotions, such as anger or anger masks most of the fears, anxieties and insecurities responds to how hard it is observed and question himself (self-resistance) due to the internalization of a traditional male model where man is placed in a privileged position on women in political, legal, economic, psychological, cultural and social and validated myths of male superiority in the biological, intellectual, sexual and emotional. These ideas tend to be closed, with few real chances of being revised due to a rigidly structured perception of reality.In a more specific way, men who are violent toward their partners have been classified into two categories: Cobras and Pit Bulls (concept strongly resisted by those who love this breed of dogI
31 "The cobra is a snake, quiet and focused before attacking their victims with little or no warning.'s Fury smoldering pit bull and grows, once your teeth sink into his victim, never let go" (Jacobson, N.; J. Gottman, When Men Batter Women: New insights into ending abusive relationships. Simon & Schuster, New York, 1998).A Pit bull men dependency fears lead them to monitor every move of your partner, jealousy make them look treason in each and this enraged when his rage turns violent seem to lose control and attack, even publicly .Cobra Men are cold and calculating, often have criminal and antisocial traits, their violence stems from a pathological need to meet its goal of being the boss and make sure that everyone, especially their wives or partners, whether they know it and act accordingly So when they think their authority has been challenged quickly and furiously fighting even threatening with knives or guns. Although they have more control that Pit Bulls are often more violent and direct their aggression not only to those who love, like Pit bulls, but also to strangers, animals, friends or colleagues, calming internally while their violence increases.The life stories of the Cobras and Pit Bulls also tend to be different, are almost invariably had traumatic childhoods and violent, involved in criminal acts and experiences of alcohol and drug abuse. Pit Bulls are less likely to have criminal records and are most likely to come from violent homes tend to have better overall rehabilitation potential than the Cobras.According to your personality, attackers have also been divided into (Dutton, D.; Golant, S., The kicker: A psychological profile. Paidos, Barcelona, 1997):Basic or basic profile of the perpetratorPsychopathicBasics: Cyclic, sporadic emotional and remorse, moods and intense change variables, insecure, impulsive, with poor interpersonal relationships.Psychopathic: With antisocial personality, and generally criminal violence in other contexts, undifferentiated aggression, lack of emotional responses, manipulation interests of others, addiction, aggression in general, persistent irresponsibility.Hipercontroladores: With paranoid personality, need for control over their partner, distrust and general suspicion, jealousy, perceptions of persecution or conspiracy, preventive environmental control, violent actions plannedI
32 RehabilitationRehabilitation is a process that must include both aggressors and victims, people who have experienced an event of domestic violence suffer at first an emotional state of crisis, which should be treated psychologically by qualified personnel to enable it to recover emotional stability, just as they must perform psychological follow-up care to crisis events, through which it manages a broad understanding of the problem by the people who suffer, and is a prelude to incorporation into group therapy sessions.People who have had one or more experiences of domestic violence, as well as those that generate violence, they need to within your emotional treatment, incorporating therapeutic groups and self-help, in which joint technical develop among people who have experienced the same problem (victim-aggressor-victim or perpetrator, victim-offender therapy is usually contraindicated), getting to know the experience of others, and learn more about your situation. It is in these therapeutic groups where they develop the necessary space to finish healing the emotional scars of violence, and to regain self-esteem of each person, which is essential for life to continue new projects.Regarding the rehabilitation of perpetrators has been recognized that the care of them is essential to break the cycle of violence and prevent its recurrence, because although in many cases the victim is separated from the aggressor (the wife will separate from violent husband the children of the parents, etc..) a high percentage will continue to live with him. Furthermore, in cases of separation, the aggressor may be a new partner or new children and there will be a high probability of a repeat of the previous situation.However, there is controversy regarding rehabilitation programs because many argue that scarce public resources and efforts should be allocated preferentially to assist victims. This, combined with great skepticism about the possibilities of male abusers rehabilitative (known experiences in Europe and the United States have high rates of dropouts from therapy although it has to be noted that many of these interventions are usually within correctional programs, with men convicted of serious crimes and forced by court order) currently make more concrete the way to start a voluntary remediation application is particular by the aggressor, psychiatric and / or psychological systems private or public health.Moreover, both supporters and detractors programs agree that rehabilitation treatments can complement but never substitute criminal measures.Rehabilitation refers to a complex process of conscious behavior modification, this can only be seen in the context of treatment practiced by professionals with adequate theoretical and methodological approach to guide its actions with the aggressor.Beyond that you can change the psychological violence that we can exercise unconsciously, if we apply the indicators or signs of abuse to our own actions we can detect the existence of people in our environment that, without realizing it, we are tampering with or abusing. The best way to determine whether we are behaving with someone as an aggressor is to use all our capacity for empathy and our humility to put ourselves in the place of family and people around us and analyze our behavior towards them.Sometimes we are aware of the hostility they feel toward a person, but not that we are inflicting abuse, feeling anger, envy and resentment against others is almost always inevitable because emotions are not subject to reason, what if we are checking of reason are our actions. So exercise or violence towards others will always be our choice and who mistreats always responsible for their actions.I
33 Order of ProtectiónThe best and first step anyone should take to protect themselves and avoid another incident of domestic violence is to report it. The law is there to help, usually the judge may order the abuser to leave the home, temporary alimony payments to his son (as) and other measures that will prevent the aggressor comes close.However, if you are not prepared or is there some other reason feel you from leaving your abuser, there are certain actions feasible to do to put you and your family safe. To minimize the consequences should prepare some safety and act according to a plan of action before a violent incident, so you only have to fulfill dominate preventing or fear cloud their decisions.Safety conditionsThe following are the security conditions have to be taken:Treatment arms: First in a very careful and avoiding handling, preferably when you are alone at home, remove any weapons there are, give it to the police claiming fear for their safety or, as a last resort, hide it or bury ensuring that no be found by third parties or the aggressor, avoid handing it to another person or family because it would involve an illegal act does not possess the proper permits for possession. Never hold the gun for self-defense because the attacker could take it away and use it against him or, according to moral considerations, you may not be able to use it and if you do can have even more serious psychological consequences that same violence, and would not be considered legally legitimate defense but as a premeditated act.Telephone numbers: Memorize the emergency phone numbers and family, it is desirable that the record or write on the phones in the house as her attacker could detect, suspicion and trigger an attack.Safety aspects: Install, in at least one room, a lock or sheet that can be locked from the inside, use a secure system with knob or button keys avoiding it might take too long to lock the door. Make sure this room has a phone or, preferably, get a mobile phone (cellular) and worry to keep it with you. Install new locks when the offender is not in the home and try to be similar, for example in color, which already owns, so maybe he does not notice the change and you will have a wow factor to your Please otherwise if asked for, suspicion or questions, give explanations citing the couple's privacy or commercial offers.Emergency Luggage: Pack a bag with at least one held or change of clothes and shoes, include copies of important documents such as the identity of you and your children, birth certificates and bank account, if you have a vehicle also save copy of the key, remember to include cash, addresses and telephone numbers of relatives and friends, or anything else that may be useful or important in case you have to leave quickly (as medications that can depend). Keep the bag in a safe place outside your home, preferably in the same selected as temporary shelter.I
34 Refuge: Identify a place to go in case you need to escape Refuge: Identify a place to go in case you need to escape. The home of a relative or friend (a) of extreme confidence can serve for this purpose, avoid selecting the homes of friends or acquaintances who have in common with her attacker. Once identified the place talk and agree with the host of his temporary shelter (while getting you get shelter and legal) communication methods, schedules and others to avoid lack of coordination.Escape Route: Identify the windows and doors that is feasible to leave your home, then plan more than one escape route and avoid improvise in case some output block her attacker.Coordination neighborhood: If you rely on one or a few neighbors, so as to make sure that does not count his assailant, work with them or key signals that tell you when to call the police as a certain position of the curtains, lights on or ask directly to call the police if they hear screams or fights.Teach your sons and daughters: Take care to teach their sons and daughters, and even family or semi-dependent living with you, not to interfere in a fight, get to safety, call the police and have your address and telephone number .All of the above safety conditions you must meet to ensure that the following action plan is effective.Plan of actionWhen you begin to be threatened, attacked or when the attack is imminent should start implementing the following actions:Stay away from the kitchen: The first action step away from the kitchen and / or furniture where they keep knives as these can be used as weapons.Stay away from confined spaces: The trend should move away from bathrooms, closets, dangerous surfaces and cramped or small rooms where you can catch.Run and Escape: Run Without go where children are not dependents or semi others who live with you, and that can end up being attacked as well. Shout to alert and use immediately pre-planned escape route, if you can not because it has been blocked, quickly go to the room where you placed locks or plate and lock yourself if the room has a window, escape or yell for help. If you can avoid escape without kids, because they can be used for emotional blackmail.Call the police: Pick up the phone or mobile (cell) if the offender has cut the phone line and call the police, ask and write down or memorize the name of the person who has attended. When you go tell the police what happened and take the name and badge number of the officer or board.If all else has failed, you are being beaten and can not escape, put yourself in a corner against the wall and crouch, head close as possible to your knees and protect your face and head with his hands and arms, use your elbows to cover the ribs, to be against the wall will protect your back, back of the ribs and organs like the kidneys, a chance to run and execute the plan.I
35 If you have been a victim of physical abuse, seek medical help and report the fact as receive care, take pictures of bruises or injuries. It is very important for future actions, which remain formally reported facts. Do not use these measures to face repeated attacks in general can only implement them once the next time the offender know how they operate and will anticipate their actions.If you separate from your attacker still must be alert, change the locks on the doors and windows in your home, if possible install window. Cancel any bank accounts or credit cards you shared with him. Change your phone number, make sure it stays private and will not be published in telephone directories, use caller ID (caller-id) and an answering machine to record messages, review calls before answering. Do not forget to prepare the security conditions and its plan of action lest I want if the offender breaks into your home. Although it is never advisable to confront a violent person could take a self defense course, which will also help improve or maintain their fitness, improve their self esteem and self confidence and relieve stress.If you have children be sure to give the school a picture of the offender and instructions for staff to not give anyone your address or phone number, stop writing the names of people authorized to pick up your child (ren) and make sure you know who to tell if they see the abuser at school.When you are away from home regularly change yours routine travel, shop, bank transactions and payments in different places. In your workplace previously converse with your employer and give the security staff and closest companions a photo of the offender, when you leave for lunch either at your car or public transport are always accompanied. If the abuser calls you at work and save any messages.I
36 When you go to court go in the company of a family member or close friend, do not take your kids. Sit as far as possible the aggressor, not converse with him or with family or friends who may be accompanying him. Be sure to show the judge and / or prosecutor, directly or through your lawyer, the photos of his wounds or injuries, medical certificates and list of witnesses. Note that not necessarily deprive the offender to visit their children, for their safety require that visits be supervised and be notified before his release. Upon leaving a door do differently or wait to do so simultaneously.Remember to stay alert, if you have been a victim of aggression also see performance measures that can be taken.In those cases in which the victim is male, while enjoying the same rights and legal guarantees to be an exceptional situation is recommended that in addition to the above, the assaulted: Always keep a record of the dates and circumstances of incidents violence, violence always state your doctor and the police, making sure to record your injuries and all the details of the violent act, always seek medical care in a hospital to ascertain injuries and basically avoid at all times act or defend violently against aggression.
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