3Nonrenewable Resources Resources that are being used faster than natural processes can replace them.Fossil fuelsFuels that form from the remains of buried organisms.Coal, oil, natural gas
4Coal Most abundant fossil fuel in the world. Is a rock that contains at least 50% plant remains.At current rate of use, coal will last for another 250 years.
5Synthetic FuelsFuels extracted from solid organic material, such as coal.Hydrocarbons are extracted from the coal to form liquid and gaseous synthetic fuel.
6Stages of Coal Formation As plant material decays it loses gas and moisture and increases in carbon content.Stage 1 – PeatOrganic sediment with a high concentration of water and impuritiesStage 2 – LigniteSoft, brown coal formed from the burial and pressurization of peatStage 3 - Bituminous CoalSoft coal that is compact, black, and brittleStage 4 – AnthraciteCleanest burning coal because it has the highest carbon content
7OilThick, black liquid formed from the buried remains of microscopic marine organisms.Composed of hydrocarbons.
8Natural Gas Often forms with oil. Composed of hydrocarbons. Enough natural gas is located in the US to last about 60 more years.
9Formation of Oil and Natural Gas Tiny marine organisms called plankton die and are buried by sediment.Pressure and heat change the organisms to natural gas and oil.Because both oil and gas are lighter than water, they move toward the surface of the earth.While moving up, they may be trapped under an folder layer of impermeable rock such as shale.Shale is known as a caprock.The rock layer underneath the caprock is known as a reservoir rock.
10Coal Mining Strip mining Used when coal deposits are close to the surface.Layers of soil and rock are removed and piled to the sideCoal is removedSoil is replaced and trees are planted through land reclamation.
11Coal Mining Underground coal mining Tunnels are dug in order to remove the coal.Drift miningCoal close to the surface is removed through horizontal openings in the sides of hills or mountains.Slope miningAn angled opening and air shaft are made in the side of the mountain to remove the coal.
12Drilling for Oil and Gas Wells are drilled down to rock layers that may have oil and gas deposits.Wells are lined with pipe to prevent collapse.Once the targeted layer is reached, equipment to control the flow of oil.Surrounding rock is fractured to allow oil and gas to flow into the well.Oil and gas are pumped to the surface.
13Fossil Fuel Reserves Fossil Fuel Reserve Fossil Fuel Resource Amount of a fossil fuel that can be extracted at a profit using current technology.Fossil Fuel ResourceFossil fuels that are concentrated enough that they can be extracted in useful amounts.
14Methane HydratesStable molecules found trapped in ice structures in ocean floor sedimentsForm under relatively low temps and high pressures.Estimated to contain more carbon than in all current fossil fuel deposits combined.
15Nuclear Energy Nuclear fission The splitting of heavy elements to produce energy.Carried out in nuclear power plants using uranium.Uranium fuel rods sit in water inside a nuclear reactor.Neutrons are fired into the fuel rod, splitting the uranium atoms which produces heat and releases more neutrons to hit other atoms.Heat causes the water to produce steam which drives a turbine, which turns a generator that produces energy.Process produced radioactive wastes that must be stored at least 10,000 years.
16Nuclear EnergyFusionMaterials with low mass are fused to produce a substance with higher mass.Occurs naturally in the sun (hydrogen is fused into helium).
17Inexhaustible Energy Resources Energy sources that are constant and will not run out.SunWindWaterGeothermal
18Solar Energy Solar cells Disadvantages Actively collect energy from the sun and transform it into electricity.DisadvantagesOnly works when sunlight is available
19Wind Energy Windmills Wind Farm Disadvantages Use wing to produce energy.Wind FarmLarge number of windmills in one area.DisadvantagesNot consistentWind must blow at certain speeds
20Energy from Water Hydroelectric Energy Disadvantages Electricity produced with water power.Water released through dams turn turbines which then turn generators that produce electricity.DisadvantagesEnvironmental concerns with loss of habitat, increased erosion, and increased sediment deposition.
21Energy from the Earth Geothermal energy Energy obtained using hot magma or hot, dry rocks inside the Earth.Heated groundwater produced steam which is used to turn turbines which turn generators which produce electricity.
22Renewable Energy Resources Energy sources that can be replaced in nature or by humans in a relatively short period of time (within the lifetime of a human).
23Biomass EnergyEnergy derived from burning organic materials such as wood, alcohol, and garbage.
24WoodDisadvantages:Small particles are released into the air when burned.Habitat is destroyed.
25Alcohol Gasohol Disadvantages Ethanol, produced during the distillation of corn, mixed with gasolineDisadvantagesCurrently takes abundant energy to produce
26Garbage Approximately 2/3 of garbage is burnable. Garbage can be burned to heat water, producing steam used to drive generators.DisadvantagesAir pollution and heavy metals
28Metallic Mineral Resources OresDeposits in which minerals exist in large enough amounts to be mined for profit.Mineral must be in demandEnough mineral must exist to make mining profitableMust be fairly easy to separate from rest of the material
29Metallic Mineral Resources Refining OreAfter the ore is mined, it is crushed and waster rock (called gangue) is removedOnce the mineral is removed it is refined in processes such as smelting in order to be as pure as possible.
30Nonmetallic Mineral Resources Any mineral resources not used as fuels or as sources of metal.Divided into two groups:Industrial mineralsBuilding materials
31Nonmetallic Mineral Resources Examples of Industrial MineralsSylvite is used in fertilizersHalite is used for various saltsCorundum and garnet are used as abrasivesExamples of Building MaterialsAggregate and limestone in concreteGypsum in plaster and wallboardVarious rocks as building blocks/sheets
32Recycling Mineral Resources Using old materials to make new onesAdvantages:Reduces the demand for new mineral resourcesUses less energy to make productProfit