Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 1588 – The English successfully repel and defeat the Spanish Armada 1603 – James becomes king of England – King James I England reasons that."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 3 1588 – The English successfully repel and defeat the Spanish Armada 1603 – James becomes king of England – King James I England reasons that their earlier defeat of the Spanish means they could impose on the colonial claims of Spain in the New World. The English reason that the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) was worthless without Spain’s ability to back it up with force. 1606 – The Virginia Company is formed. The founders of the Virginia Company promised riches, wealth, work, in the “Eden” of the New World, Virginia. King James I “gives” a royal license for over six million acres to the Virginia Company. December 1606 - The Virginia Company sets sail for the New World.
Chapter 3 (In 1492 Columbus set sail with the Nina, Pinta and the Santa Maria) In 1606 the Virginia Company sets sail with three ships: Susan Constant Discovery Godspeed April 26, 1607 they arrive at Chesapeake Bay They are attacked that night by Native Americans Two weeks later they go ashore and immediately begin building a fort for their new settlement which is named Jamestown. The English settlers quickly encounter scouts and warriors under the rule of Powhatan, the great Algonquian chief. Battles between the English and the Native begin and continue. By September 50 of the original 144 English settlers had died from illness.
Chapter 3 Later in 1607 Powhatan saves the English settlers by offering peace and food. Captain John Smith is chosen to “deal” and trade with the “Indians”. These deals allow 38 of the original 144 settlers to survive. December 1607 – Smith is taken prisoner by Powhatan. Smith is included in an Algonquian ceremony that appears to be leading to his demise. The daughter of Powhatan, Pocahontas throws herself on Smith and his life is spared. Romance or rehearsed? Adoption or annihilation? The Virginia Company eventually sends new supplies and 120 new settlers By 1610, new colonial settlers arrive and find only 60 of the 500 previous settlers alive. The survivors were excited to hear of returning to England.
Chapter 3 1613 – Relations between the English and the Indians has deteriorated Pocahontas is taken prisoner. Within a year she converts to Christianity and marries John Rolfe. They have a son, Thomas Rolfe and all set sail for England in 1616. 1617 – Pocahontas dies in England and her son later returns to Virginia. 1618 – Powhatan dies, replaced by Opechancanough, as chief The Virginia colony of Jamestown struggled to survive Despite promises by the Virginia Company that the colony would make settlers rich, most colonists went to an early grave.
Chapter 3 Powhatan’s people maintained a healthy distance from the English The colonists’ use of violence against the Indians compelled the Algonquian to regard the English with suspicion Although the Indians retaliated against the English, they did not organize an allout assault against the intruders because they needed the colonists as allies against other tribes in the region Despite continued trade with Powhatan’s people, English colonists proved unable to feed themselves for more than a decade Nevertheless, the colony persisted, posing threats and problems for the Algonquians When Powhatan’s brother, Opechancanough, became supreme chief in 1622, he launched an all-out assault on English settlers, compelling the colonists from that point forward to regard the Algonquians as their perpetual enemies.
Chapter 3 Opechancanough’s near success in pushing the colonists back to the Atlantic prompted a royal investigation of affairs in Virginia. The high mortality rate of Virginia led to a royal investigation. This investigation found that more deaths came from disease and mismanagement than from Indian attacks The king appointed a royal governor for Virginia, and now made Virginia a royal colony instead of part of an independent company. In 1619, the king set up the House of Burgesses, led by elected representatives. The demise of the Virginia Company marked the end of the first phase of colonization of the Chesapeake region. The new leading force in the New World emerges. Tobacco.
Chapter 3 Tobacco became the new “gold” for the English settlers Around 1620 - 60,000 pounds were shipped to England By 1700 – 35 million pounds were exported to England Growing tobacco required year round attention. By the time the new crop was ready to be packed and shipped, the next crop had to be planted. This called for a great deal of laborers Tobacco enticed many to the New World along with headrights Indentured servitude ¾ were men Virginia company attempted to broker marriages for women servants Strict laws were enacted to the benefits of the planters
Chapter 3 Conviction of crimes could and often would extend indentures Virginia legislature eventually required servants to continue to age 24 Women servants were prohibited from marriage until after indentured term If a woman got pregnant she had to serve two extra years and pay a fine.
Chapter 3 Eventually (1660’s/1670’s) Chesapeake society began to polarize The price of tobacco had dropped reducing planter profits making it harder to become (free) landowners An elite began to develop In general, government and politics amplified the distinctions in Chesapeake society. As discontent mounted among the poor during the 1660s and 1670s, colonial officials tried to keep political power in safe hands. 1660 – The Navigation Act These laws greatly benefited England at the expense of the colonists. 1670 - The right of poor men to vote was taken away by the House of Burgesses
Chapter 3 Bacon’s Rebellion Colonists accepted the social hierarchy and inequality as long as they believed government officials ruled for the general good. After wars with Opechancanough, the colonists and the Algonquian Indians agreed to a treaty in the 1640s in which the Indians relinquished all claims to land already settled by the English. The number of land-hungry colonists continued to multiply, encroaching on Indian lands and threatening the viability of the treaty. The colonial government hammered out a fragile peace with the Indians, but frontier settlers saw little in those terms that would benefit them. A leader of the frontier settlers was Nathaniel Bacon, who charged the elite with operating the government for their private gain, and being to friendly to the Indians. Governor Berkeley called for elections in 1676 that backfired and ousted the political elite and put in power local leaders, including Bacon.
Chapter 3 Bacon’s Rebellion The new legislature passed a series of reform measures that favored small planters and the frontier settlers. The right for the poor to vote was restored Governor Berkeley branded Bacon a traitor, prompting Bacon and his followers to declare war on the governor and the elite. Bacon suddenly dies in October of 1676 Berkeley and his men crushed the rebellion, and the elite strengthened their positions. In the aftermath of the rebellion, tensions lessened between great planters and small farmers, in part because the elite recognized that it was safer for colonists to fight Indians rather than each other and so they made little effort to restrict settlers’ encroachment in Indian lands.
Chapter 3 Tobacco to Sugar, Servants to Slavery By around 1650, sugar exports to England was about 150,000 pounds By 1700 sugar exports had reached nearly 50 millions pounds Sugar brought high prices in England so planters, at first mainly in the Caribbean (Barbados), began to grow sugarcane as much as possible Caribbean sugar planters that could afford the equipment to grow and produce sugar from the sugarcane juice got about 4x as rich as mainland tobacco planters in the Chesapeake region African slaves began to make up the majority of laborers in the New World Society now began to become classified more between whites and blacks In Barbados and other Caribbean Islands, the black slaves became the majority
Chapter 3 In the Chesapeake region, whites maintained the majority Most inhabitants of the southern colonies of British North America lived in the Chesapeake; by 1700, one out of eight people in the region was a black person from Africa. By the end of the seventeenth century, the system of slavery made economic and political sense to planters. The slave labor system also polarized Chesapeake society along lines of race and status: all slaves were black and nearly all blacks were slaves almost all free people were white and all whites were free or only temporarily indentured servants.