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Political Map: Central America Political Map: Caribbean Islands.

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Presentation on theme: "Political Map: Central America Political Map: Caribbean Islands."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Political Map: Central America

3 Political Map: Caribbean Islands

4 Political Map: South America

5 Latin America Cont. Oct. 22, 2013 Physical Features, Climate, & Natural Disasters

6 LATIN AMERICAN PHYSICAL FEATURES

7 Physical Geography Latin America is a VAST land Nearly 16% of the Earth’s land surface About 8 million square miles Geographers divide the Latin American region into FOUR areas Mexico, Central America, Caribbean Islands, & South America

8 Mountains & Plateaus One of Latin America’s most distinctive landforms is its towering mountains. These countless folds and ridges are the evidence of these tectonic plate movements and the giant mountain ranges. The mountains begin in North America with the Rocky Mountains and continue all the way to South America’s most southern tip. The mountains change names as you move south—in Mexico they are known as the Sierra Madre, in Central America they are known as the Central Highlands, and in South America they are known as the Andes.

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10 Mountains & Plateaus: Origin Latin America has such a rugged landscape because much of the region sits along the Pacific Ring of Fire. This is where plates of the earth’s crust have collided for billions of years. These collisions have formed mountains and volcanoes, & have caused tremendous earthquakes. They continue to change the landscape today.

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12 Mountains: Mexico Central Mexico has what is called the MEXICAN PLATEAU Mild climate, Fertile volcanic soil, & adequate rainfall This has attracted human settlement for thousands of years. Densely populated There are two mountain ranges flanking the Mexican Plateau. Sierra Madre Oriental (“EASTERN”) Sierra Madre Occidental (“WESTERN”) The Sierra Madre del Sur (“of the South”) where the mountain ranges meet near Mexico City

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14 Mountains: Central America The further south you go into Central America you will find the HIGHLANDS. The central highlands is a chain of volcanic mountains. Many of the Caribbean Islands are ALSO part of this volcanic mountain range, it extends across the bed of the Caribbean Sea. The islands, interestingly enough, are actually volcanic peaks that rise above sea level. Some of these volcanoes are STILL active, which can make living on these islands very hazardous.

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16 Mountains: South America None of the other Latin America’s other mountains compare with the 4,500 mile stretch of the ANDES MOUNTAINS along the western edge of South America. It is the world’s LONGEST mountain range, as well as one of the highest—some peaks rise to more than 20, 000 feet above sea level. The Andes is made of several mountain ranges that run parallel to one another like deep folds in a carpet…parallel mountain ranges are called CORDILLERAS

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18 Mountains: South America Other features… Altiplano High Plain that is surrounded by the Andes Mountains In Peru & Bolivia Patagonia Hills & lower flatlands forming this plateau Southern Argentina

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20 Lowlands & Plains Lowlands Coastal lowlands wind along the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, they also continue along the Pacific & Atlantic coasts of South America One of the longest lowland strips is in Brazil, nearly 40 miles wide, and it has been a major place of settlement and economic activity since the 1500s. Plains LLANOS: Vast grasslands in Colombia & Venezuela PAMPAS: Vast grasslands in Argentina & Uruguay These plains area provide wide grazing lands for beef cattle, large ranch estates, has fertile soil, and is also known as one of the world’s major “breadbasket”—producing an abundance of wheat and corn.

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22 LATIN AMERICA CLIMATE Very diverse climate and vegetation regions!

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24 Climate Lies between the Tropic of Cancer & Tropic of Capricorn Vast area, so many different regions Also, many mountain ranges and wind patterns also contribute to a variety of climates and natural vegetation in Latin America. Climate Regions Tropic Regions Desert/Steppe Areas

25 Tropical Regions Amazon Basin Rain Forest Tropical Savanna Humid Subtropics

26 Desert & Steppe Regions Atacama Desert Rain shadow Effect Steppe Climate

27 Elevation & Climate The varied climates are more affected by elevation than by the distance from the Equator. Three (major) different vertical climate zones, they occur as elevation increases. Each zone has its own characteristic of natural vegetation and crops.

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29 LATIN AMERICA & NATURAL DISASTERS Comparison with Haiti *Haiti was the 1 st independent nation of L. America 2010 Earthquake VS 2012 Hurricane Sandy Earthquake: Hurricane:

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32 Summarize the 2010 Haitian Earthquake in two sentences. Summarize the 2012 event of Hurricane Sandy and its impact in Haiti—(write two sentences). How do these two natural disasters mirror each other in their aftermath? (two sentences) How do you think the level of development effects Haiti’s progress after such natural disasters? (two sentences) How could Haiti better prepare their country (infrastructure, economy, etc.) in anticipation of another natural disaster? (two sentences)

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34 COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE The biggest cultural diffusion EVAAAAA!!!!

35 The Columbian Exchange also known as the Grand Exchange was a dramatically widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations (including slaves), communicable disease, and ideas between the American and Afro- Eurasian Hemispheres following the voyage to the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492slaves communicable disease Christopher Columbus

36 The contact between the two areas circulated a wide variety of new crops and livestock which supported increases in population in both hemispheres

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38 Cultural Diffusion on a VERY, VERY large scale! Do we still have evidence of this exchange, today?

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41 LATIN AMERICA CONTINUED MIGRATION & CULTURE

42 Migration Migration has been a major force shaping population patterns in Latin America. History of migration from foreign countries (INFLOW) History of migration from Latin America to other countries (OUTFLOW)

43 Migration OLD VS NEW Old: Europeans, Africans, & Asians migrated to Latin America New: Korean, Armenian, Lebanese (from Lebanon), and Syrian people migrate to Latin America seeking political & economic freedom

44 Migrating North Immigrants to USA primarily from Mexico, Central America, & Caribbean Islands Desire for… Improved living conditions Political Freedom Escape from political unrest What do they bring? Elements of their culture with them! Name 3 elements of culture!


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