5Physical Features, Climate, & Natural Disasters Latin America Cont. Oct. 22, 2013Physical Features,Climate,& Natural Disasters
6Latin American Physical Features AndesMountainsAmazonSierraMadre
7Physical Geography Latin America is a VAST land Nearly 16% of the Earth’s land surfaceAbout 8 million square milesGeographers divide the Latin American region into FOUR areasMexico, Central America, Caribbean Islands, & South America
8Mountains & PlateausOne of Latin America’s most distinctive landforms is its towering mountains. These countless folds and ridges are the evidence of these tectonic plate movements and the giant mountain ranges.The mountains begin in North America with the Rocky Mountains and continue all the way to South America’s most southern tip.The mountains change names as you move south—in Mexico they are known as the Sierra Madre, in Central America they are known as the Central Highlands, and in South America they are known as the Andes.
10Mountains & Plateaus: Origin Latin America has such a rugged landscape because much of the region sits along the Pacific Ring of Fire.This is where plates of the earth’s crust have collided for billions of years.These collisions have formed mountains and volcanoes, & have caused tremendous earthquakes.They continue to change the landscape today.
12Mountains: MexicoCentral Mexico has what is called the MEXICAN PLATEAUMild climate, Fertile volcanic soil, & adequate rainfallThis has attracted human settlement for thousands of years.Densely populatedThere are two mountain ranges flanking the Mexican Plateau.Sierra Madre Oriental (“EASTERN”)Sierra Madre Occidental (“WESTERN”)The Sierra Madre del Sur (“of the South”) where the mountain ranges meet near Mexico City
14Mountains: Central America The further south you go into Central America you will find the HIGHLANDS.The central highlands is a chain of volcanic mountains.Many of the Caribbean Islands are ALSO part of this volcanic mountain range, it extends across the bed of the Caribbean Sea.The islands, interestingly enough, are actually volcanic peaks that rise above sea level. Some of these volcanoes are STILL active, which can make living on these islands very hazardous.
16Mountains: South America None of the other Latin America’s other mountains compare with the 4,500 mile stretch of the ANDES MOUNTAINS along the western edge of South America.It is the world’s LONGEST mountain range, as well as one of the highest—some peaks rise to more than 20, 000 feet above sea level.The Andes is made of several mountain ranges that run parallel to one another like deep folds in a carpet…parallel mountain ranges are called CORDILLERAS
20Lowlands & Plains Lowlands Plains Coastal lowlands wind along the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, they also continue along the Pacific & Atlantic coasts of South AmericaOne of the longest lowland strips is in Brazil, nearly 40 miles wide, and it has been a major place of settlement and economic activity since the 1500s.PlainsLLANOS: Vast grasslands in Colombia & VenezuelaPAMPAS: Vast grasslands in Argentina & UruguayThese plains area provide wide grazing lands for beef cattle, large ranch estates, has fertile soil, and is also known as one of the world’s major “breadbasket”—producing an abundance of wheat and corn.
24Climate Lies between the Tropic of Cancer & Tropic of Capricorn Vast area, so many different regionsAlso, many mountain ranges and wind patterns also contribute to a variety of climates and natural vegetation in Latin America.Climate RegionsTropic RegionsDesert/Steppe Areas
25Tropical Regions Amazon Basin Rain Forest Tropical Savanna Humid Subtropics
26Desert & Steppe Regions Atacama DesertRain shadow EffectSteppe Climate
27Elevation & ClimateThe varied climates are more affected by elevation than by the distance from the Equator.Three (major) different vertical climate zones, they occur as elevation increases.Each zone has its own characteristic of natural vegetation and crops.
32Summarize the 2010 Haitian Earthquake in two sentences. Summarize the 2012 event of Hurricane Sandy and its impact in Haiti—(write two sentences).How do these two natural disasters mirror each other in their aftermath? (two sentences)How do you think the level of development effects Haiti’s progress after such natural disasters? (two sentences)How could Haiti better prepare their country (infrastructure, economy, etc.) in anticipation of another natural disaster? (two sentences)
34ColUmbian ExchangeThe biggest cultural diffusion EVAAAAA!!!!
35The Columbian Exchange also known as the Grand Exchange was a dramatically widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations (including slaves), communicable disease, and ideas between the American and Afro-Eurasian Hemispheres following the voyage to the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492
36The contact between the two areas circulated a wide variety of new crops and livestock which supported increases in population in both hemispheres
42MigrationMigration has been a major force shaping population patterns in Latin America.History of migration from foreign countries (INFLOW)History of migration from Latin America to other countries (OUTFLOW)
43MigrationOLD VS NEWOld: Europeans, Africans, & Asians migrated to Latin AmericaNew: Korean, Armenian, Lebanese (from Lebanon), and Syrian people migrate to Latin America seeking political & economic freedom
44Migrating NorthImmigrants to USA primarily from Mexico, Central America, & CaribbeanIslandsDesire for…Improved living conditionsPolitical FreedomEscape from political unrestWhat do they bring?Elements of their culture with them! Name 3 elements of culture!