Presentation on theme: "The End of WWI. In the next 30 seconds…. On a scrap piece of paper….. Who are the 4 men in the previous picture? Where are each of these men from? Where."— Presentation transcript:
In the next 30 seconds…. On a scrap piece of paper….. Who are the 4 men in the previous picture? Where are each of these men from? Where was the picture taken and in what year? There is an insignificant prize for the fastest and correct answer.
And the answers are… From left to right… –Lloyd George of Great Britain –Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy –Georges Clemenceau of France –Woodrow Wilson of the United States –The picture was taken in 1919 in Paris
Just to remind you-the leaders of WWI (battle) Ferdinand Foch-France Sir John French-Great Britain Joseph Joffre-France John J. Pershing-United States Paul von Hindenburg-Germany Erich von Ludendorff-Germany
The Major Battles of WWI The Battle of the Marne – Late August 1914. –The British and French were able to prevent the Germans from a quick and decisive victory. –However, the Germans were NOT defeated and this proved the war would not be over quickly.
Major Battles Continued Gallipoli Campaign –Feb. 1915-Jan. 1916 –Britain attacked Turkish forts along the Dardanelles –Both sides suffer heavy casualties, but the British eventually withdrew all troops. (although Winston Churchill recommended sending more troops)
Major Battles Continued Battle of Verdun –Known as the greatest and longest battle in world history-due in part to the great number of men fighting over such a small piece of land –Battlefield was 10 square kilometers –Lasted from Feb. 1916 to Dec. 1916 –French and German troops fighting for prestige –Over 700,000 casualties
Major Battles Continued Battle of Jutland –May 31, 1916 –The British battleship Indefatigable is hit 5 times by a German battle cruiser and eventually sinks. –1,000 sailors died –Less than 25 minutes later, the British battleship Queen Mary is also hit and sinks.
Major Battles Continued Battle of the Somme –July-Oct. 1916 –This battle has come to symbolize the horrors of modern WWI warfare and the futility of trench warfare. –The British attempted to relieve the French who had suffered great losses at Verdun. The British try to advance over a 25 mile front to the German trenches. –This battle is also known for the massive amount of British casualties (420,000)
Major Battles Continued 2nd Battle of the Marne –Summer 1918 –Heavy casualties on both sides, especially for Germany. –This battle marks the last real attempt by the Central Powers to win WWI.
Major Battles Continued Battle of Meuse-Argonne –Also known as the Battle of Argonne Forest –September-Nov. 11, 1918 –Final Allied offensive of WWI, also known as the Grand Offensive. –All major allied powers were involved in breaking through German lines. –Fresh U.S. troops are credited with tipping the scale to victory.
The End of Fighting By the end of October 1918, Turkey signs armistice. The German foreign office contacts President Wilson, armistice is arranged and on November 11th, 1918 firing ceases on the western front. Austria-Hungary signs Nov. 3, 1918
Official Radio from Paris - 6:01 A.M., Nov. 11, 1918. Marshal Foch to the Commander-in-Chief. 1. Hostilities will be stopped on the entire front beginning at 11 o'clock, November 11th (French hour). 2. The Allied troops will not go beyond the line reached at that hour on that date until further orders. [signed] MARSHAL FOCH 5:45 A.M.
The Treaty of Versailles War ends Nov. 11, 1918-but the treaty is not signed until June 28, 1919 during the months long Paris Peace Conference. Becomes effective Jan. 10. 1920 Signatories include Italy, France, Japan, United States, Great Britain and Germany. Signed in Versailles, France This is a lengthy document, particularly about territory and its distribution. Article 231 assigns blame to Germany and charges them 231 billion Reichsmarks.
Article 231 The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.
Wilson’s 14 Points Given as a speech to Congress Jan. 8, 1918, 10 months before armistice. Wilson calls for a peaceful, respectful end to the war. European allies are cautious of this plan. The 14 Points deal with navigation and territory and does not assign blame for the war. The most significant point, #14, calls for an association of nations (which would later become The League of Nations). The US Congress does not ratify the Treaty of Versailles and the US does not join the League of Nations. President Wilson is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1920.
"I can predict with absolute certainty that within another generation there will be another world war if the nations of the world do not concert the method by which to prevent it." Woodrow Wilson, 1919
Another random Wilson quote… I not only use all the brains that I have, but all that I can borrow. »Woodrow Wilson
The horror of war 1.8 million German troops are killed, 2.1 million civilians of the Ottoman Empire are killed. 1.3 million French and 1.7 million Russian troops are killed. Russia also suffers 2 million civilian deaths. The U.S. suffers 330,000 casualties total. The amount that some countries had lost in a single battle. Close to 20 million troops from both sides are wounded in action.
One more statistic… The U.S. had begun to mobilize for war in 1917, but had been in combat for about 4 months when the war ended. In 1918, out of every 100 artillery shells that were fired by three armies: –51 were French –43 were British –6 were American
This was a “Great War”, but was it truly a “World War”?
WWI in Africa In 1914 Germany had 4 colonies Togoland- surrendered in 1914, British and French troops fighting. Cameroon- surrendered in 1914, British and French troops fighting.
WWI in Africa German South-West Africa (Namibia)- surrendered in 1915, British troops fighting. German East Africa –Largest of the colonies –Surrendered in 1918 after 4 years of fighting.
WWI in Asia Once Japan declared war on Germany, they quickly occupy German-leased territories in China. Japanese forces land in Shandong Province on September 2, 1914 and surround the German settlement of Tsingtao. Tsingtao is surrendered November 7, 1914.
WWI in Asia Japan also seizes the German island colonies in the Pacific without resistance: –Mariana –Caroline –Marshall Islands
WWI in Latin America For the most part, nations wanted no part of war and declared neutrality German ships were seized in Argentina and Chile British ships were chasing the German ship the Dresden and sunk it in Chilean waters. Brazil is the only large country to declare war on Germany.
WWI in Australia In 1914, Commonwealth nations are called to defend Great Britain. Australian troops fight in many locations, but consider the Battle of Gallipoli (a peninsula in the Ottoman Empire) as their greatest moment in the war. This battle is still commemorated today
For you to consider… What is the unfinished business of WWI and how does this lead the world into WWII? How would you have handled the end of the war differently?