The goal of this class is to : Convey the established standard of the operational guide and the tactical objectives for the Troy Fire Department.
To accomplish this goal we will: Review the updated Tactical Plan 203.01. Perform a practical exercise to implement the procedures learned.
The Golden Hour THE VICTIM OF A SERIOUS ACIDENT HAS ONLY A SHORT TIME (FOR A FAVORABLE OUTCOME) FROM THE INCIDENT TO TREATMENT. With this in mind, we need to work quickly and efficiently to help get the victim to treatment as soon as possible.
This plan will outline basic operational procedures to be followed when the Fire Department operates at incidents requiring extrication. While this plan is oriented to vehicle rescue, these guidelines can be applied to other extrication situations, such as machinery entrapment. RESPONSE READINESS SCOPE Due to the multitude of extrication situations that have been encountered, the Fire Department has acquired an assortment of equipment that can be used to accomplish the various tasks required at the extrication scenes. In order for this equipment to be effective, it must be maintained in a state of constant readiness.
INCIDENT RESPONSE When alerted to respond to an incident requiring extrication, personnel shall plan their response based on the following factors: Type of incident: extrication only, extrication and fuel spill, fire, hazardous materials? Location of incident: intersection, expressway-northbound or southbound? Responding units shall stay alert for additional information from arriving Police and/or Fire units. Traffic and/or weather conditions may require responding units to alter their response plan. Potential hazards: hazardous materials, electric wires, leaking fuel.
The Incident Commander (IC) shall perform a preliminary survey (size-up) of the situation. This survey shall include: coordination with Police and EMS personnel if they are on scene, determination of number of victims to be extricated, and actual or potential hazards to personnel. The IC, designating the command with the location of the incident (ex: I ‑ 75 Command) shall radio a brief size-up report to Dispatch and advise the extent of the incident. ESTABLISHING COMMAND In the event there are multiple victims in need of extrication, the IC shall determine if additional equipment and personnel will be required (2nd alarm). Some incidents require specialized equipment (heavy rescue, large tow truck, equipment from DPW). With this type of incident the IC shall make a special request for the required equipment through Dispatch.
ARRIVAL AT INCIDENT When arriving at the scene, apparatus shall be located to provide access for firefighting and extrication equipment. When placing apparatus, wind direction, slope of terrain, protection of personnel, presence of energized overhead wires and/or other hazards shall be considered. The apparatus should be close enough to access to equipment adequately, and far enough so that engine noise and exhaust fumes are minimized in the extrication area. Apparatus and personal vehicles shall be staged as described in Tactical Plan 208.12 (Emergency Scene Traffic Management).
ASSIGNMENTS AND DUTIES IC Preliminary survey (size up). Look at what you have. If you can, do a 360 look at the vehicle and determine if any hazards may be in the area. Develop an action plan (plan “A”). Determine how you plan to get the victim(s) out. Check with EMS, if they are on the scene, to see how they would like to have them extricated. EMS should have of idea as to what path will do the least harm. After you develop plan “A”, it needs to be relayed to the Extrication Leader for implementation. Provide a brief size up report to dispatch, and give update reports on extended incidents.
EXTRICATION LEADER (Officer when possible) Oversees the extrication crew and all operation of the extrication. Implements the primary Action Plan, monitors progress, prepare and have ready an alternate action plan. Implement the alternate action plan is required. (Notifies the IC when modifications are made.) Does not typically do hands-on work. SAFETY OFFICER Responsible for the overall safety of the scene. Reports to the IC.
EXTRICATION CREW Does the hands-on work of the extrication, and carrying out the action plan directed by the Extrication Leader. HAZARD CONTROL CREW Responsible for abating all hazards (fire, fuel, spill, etc.), making sure that a hose line is pulled, charged and manned. Crew is made up of a Crew Leader (Officer when possible) and firefighters. Hazard Control Crew Leader works in conjunction with the Extrication Leader and the IC.
STAGING (Support Crew) Responsible for the readiness of equipment that will be used or may be used. Makes sure the equipment is removed from the truck and placed on a tarp near the incident. Provides lighting at incidents when require. The Staging Leader (officer when possible) is responsible for providing the equipment requested by the Extrication Leader or the IC. Responsible for looking up information in the computer for any hazards that may be unique to the vehicle. Assists EMS as requested (medically trained fire personnel should be used if available). Responsible for a staging area for unassigned personnel.
OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS Operations at incidents requiring extrication have common objectives. These objectives can be summarized as follows: CONTROL HAZARDS Hazards to victims, Police, Fire and EMS personnel must be identified and mitigated. These hazards include:
FIRE Fire must be controlled and/or extinguished to protect the extrication operations. Adequate personnel, hose line (minimum 1 3/4"), and water supply must be deployed. Fire personnel assigned to this area shall be in full protective clothing with SCBA. Masks should be worn, but the breathing tube need not be attached until SCBA is utilized. SPILLED FUEL Fuel leaks and spills must be controlled to prevent ignition. Leak plugging, absorption, treatment with neutralizing agents, and foam application can be employed to mitigate the hazard.
ENERGIZED ELECTRICAL WIRES The scene shall be surveyed to identify any downed electrical wires or underground electrical facilities. If electrical hazards are located, they shall be identified to prevent personnel from coming in contact with them. Care should be exercised prior to touching vehicles to determine if they are energized. TRAFFIC Traffic control is the responsibility of the Police Department. The Incident Commander shall coordinate with the Police Department regarding closing of roadways and/or rerouting of traffic. When fire apparatus and personnel are positioned in the roadway, sufficient lanes shall be blocked to provide a safe working area around vehicles and apparatus. (see Tac Plan208.12)
CROWD CONTROL Crowd control is the responsibility of the Police Department. The Incident Commander shall coordinate with the on-scene Police Commander in order to keep onlookers at a safe distance from operations. Barrier tape may be utilized to create a visible perimeter. UNSTABLE VEHICLES Unstable vehicles shall be stabilized as soon as possible. The objective of stabilization is to provide the maximum number of contact points between the vehicle and the ground and spread these points over the widest area possible. Do not test for stability by pushing the vehicle.
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Personnel shall be constantly aware of the possibility that involved vehicles may contain hazardous materials. Vehicles transporting hazardous materials may not be placarded. Alternative motor fuels such as Propane should also be considered. SCBA shall be used if the presence of hazardous materials is suspected or confirmed. ELECTRICALLY OPERATED RESCUE TOOLS Make sure that when using the reciprocating saw, constantly keep it lubricated with a soap-water solution.
GAINING ACCESS A route for EMS personnel to gain access to the victim(s) shall be provided as soon as possible. This will allow for patient assessment and initiation of emergency care while extrication operations are conducted. The method and route for gaining access shall be selected with speed as the major consideration. Possible routes include undamaged doors, windows (side and rear tempered windows are easily shattered with a sharp pointed tool), and body sheet metal such as the roof. The route selected for gaining access does not have to be the route by which the victim will ultimately be removed.
DISENTANGLEMENT This process provides for removing any obstructions preventing the removal of the victim from the vehicle, and providing a pathway large enough for required equipment to go in and the victim to be removed. Common obstructions to victim removal are: deformed sheet metal, doors, pedals, seats, dashboard, and steering wheel/column assembly. A number of methods can be utilized to effect disentanglement. These include:
DISASSEMBLY The removal of fasteners such as bolts and nuts using common hand tools. The forcible bending or twisting of parts such as forcing open a door. DISTORTION DISPLACEMENT The movement of vehicle components from one place to another, such as moving the seat backward or pulling the steering wheel forward.
SEVERANCE The cutting of vehicle components such as cutting the steering wheel or removing the roof. Often a combination of these methods is required, as in a dash roll-up which combines severance (cutting the base of the "A" pillar) with displacement (pushing the dash up and forward). REMOVAL Removal of victims shall be by or under the direction of the EMS personnel. Generally victims will be immobilized prior to removal with short and/or long backboards.
SUPPLEMENTAL RESTRAINT SYSTEMS (AIR BAGS) In addition to seat and shoulder belt restraint systems, many passenger vehicles are equipped with air bags. The driver-side air bag module is located in the hub of the steering wheel. The passenger-side air bag module (if the vehicle is so equipped) is in the dashboard above the glove compartment. Side curtain air bags are possibly located in the “B” pillar or roof. Verify locations of SRS components with the apparatus computer program (Crash Recovery System).
RESCUE WITH UN-DEPLOYED AIR BAG Air bags that are in the steering wheel and dashboard will deploy in a moderate to major frontal or near frontal collisions. Side air bags are meant to deploy in a side collision. The following guidelines shall be followed when a vehicle is thought to be equipped with an air bag that did not deploy:
Determine if the vehicle is equipped with air bag(s). Check for a larger, more rectangular steering wheel hub, about 6 inches by 9 inches. RESCUE WITH UN-DEPLOYED AIR BAG (cont.) Check for an "SRS" or similar initials molded on the trim cover of the air bag module. When cutting any of the A, B or C pillars, there is a potential of damaging the bag inflators. It is imperative that you evaluate the vehicle and the areas where you will need to cut, by removing the plastic and trim in these areas. When bags are present, it is not imperative that you know the exact location of the inflator. What is imperative is that you know that the inflator is not where you are going to make your cut.
RESCUE WITH UN-DEPLOYED AIR BAG (cont.) DO NOT place your body or any objects/tools on the air bag module trim cover or close in front of an un-deployed air bag module. Safely disconnect or cut the battery cables (cut the negative wire first) before cutting into the steering column if possible. Turning the ignition switch off will not deactivate the air bag system. DO NOT cut or drill into an un-deployed air bag module or attempt to take the module apart. This will avoid possible deployment and exposure to potentially toxic chemicals. Do not touch or inhale exposed chemicals in the unlikely event the metal inflator canister of an un-deployed air bag module is ruptured or cut.
RESCUE WITH DEPLOYED AIR BAG Use normal extrication procedures and equipment. There are no hazardous medical consequences for an occupant or rescuer from a deployed air bag. The surface of deployed air bag(s) and the vehicle interior may be dusted with corn starch or talcum powder, which is used to lubricate the air bag as it deploys, and sodium compounds, a byproduct of the gas generate combustion. Wear normal protective equipment including eye and hand protection. This will guard against possible skin or eye irritation from the powdery air bag residue. Avoid getting air bag residue into your eyes or into the occupant's eyes or wounds.
RESCUE WITH DEPLOYED AIR BAG (cont.) Be aware of hot metal parts underneath the deployed air bag fabric. These components are located inside the steering wheel hub or behind the dashboard area. Push the deflated air bag aside for occupant removal. There is no need to cover, remove, or repack the air bag during extrication.
INCIDENT TERMINATION When terminating an incident, personnel shall account for all equipment and mitigate all hazards prior to leaving the scene. Clean up of debris is the responsibly (by state law) of the towing company and is coordinated by the Police Department.
VIIII. STANDARD EQUIPMENT In order to standardize incident response, all extrication equipment is carried on the ‑ 2 (i.e. Eng 1 ‑ 2) truck in each station. The following is a list of standard extrication equipment assigned to each station: ‑ Hydraulic (Hurst) rescue tool. This includes power unit/generator, model 32 spreader, model "O" cutter, models 20, 30 & 60 rams, extra hoses, chains & hooks. ‑ Air chisel with regulator, hoses, and assorted bits (panel cutters, long and short cutting chisels). ‑ Electric reciprocating saw with assorted cutting blades. ‑ Cable come along with extra handles, 5 ft. and 12 ft. rescue chains. ‑ Hand powered manual hydraulic spreaders. ‑ Assorted cribbing. ‑ Metal Band Saw.
SPECIAL EQUIPMENT (HEAVY RESCUE) Station 4 houses the Heavy Rescue. This apparatus is equipped with additional equipment that could be used for high challenge extrication. Some of the equipment that is on the Heavy Rescue is one of a kind. The following is a list of equipment that is carried. RESCUE CRIBBING MIN 500 PSI (25)6X6X24 (40)6X6X36 (15)4X4X48 (144)4X4X24 (56)2X4X24 (8)6X6X24 WEDGES (26)4X4X24 WEDGES ‑ Tool box with assortment of hand tools including seatbelt cutter and spring loaded center punch. - Die Grinder - Arcair cutting system
RESCUE 42 STRUTS (2) LONG STRUTS W HARDWARE (2) SHORTS STRUTS W HARDWARE (1) A FRAME KIT (1) STRUT JACK (1) SCREW HEAD JACK SPECIAL EQUIPMENT (HEAVY RESCUE) cont. CHAINS AND RATCHET STRAPS (4) 4”X 30’ CHAIN ANCHOR RATCHET STRAPS WITH GRAB HOOKS 5400LB SWL (2) ½” X 20’ GRADE 80 ALLOY CHAINS WITH GRAB HOOKS 12000 LB SWL (3) 5/8” RATCHETING LOAD BINDERS WITH GRAB HOOKS 13000 LB SWL
SPECIAL EQUIPMENT (HEAVY RESCUE) cont. PARATECH HI PRESSURE AIR LIFTING BAGS 12 TON 15”X15” MAX 8” LIFT (6)17 TON 14”X21” MAX 9” LIFT (10)22 TON 20”X20” MAX 11” LIFT 32 TON 24”X24” MAX 13” LIFT 35 TON 14”X 42” MAX 10” LIFT 44 TON 28”X28” MAX 15” LIFT 74 TON 36”X 36” MAX 24” LIFT (LIFTING BAGS CAN BE DOUBLE STACKED) (2)DEADMAN CONTROLLERS WITH HOSE SETS (4) 18X18 ¾” PLYWOOD (2) 36X36 ¾” PLYWOOD (3) 4500 PSI SCBA CYLINDERS
SPECIAL EQUIPMENT (HEAVY RESCUE) cont. HYDRAULIC RESCUE TOOLS (2) 5000 PSI HURST 110V PUMPS INDEPENDENTLY WIRED FOR SIMULTANEOUS OPERATION. THEY ARE ALSO PORTABLE. (2) ONBOARD 100’ HURST HYDRAULIC HOSE REELS (1) HURST MODEL 32 SPREADER (1) HURST MODEL “O” CUTTER (1) HURST MODEL 30 RAM (1) HURST MODEL 60 RAM (1) CHAMPION RESCUE TOOL BEAST WITH SPREADER TIP (1) CHAMPION RESCUE TOOL BEAST CUTTER TIP (1) CHAMPION RESCUE TOOL BEAST USAR CUTTER TIP (3) 15’ HURST HOSE SETS
SPECIAL EQUIPMENT (HEAVY RESCUE) cont. MISC. TOOLS (1) DEWALT 36 VOLT SAWZALL W SPARE BATTERY AND ONBOARD CHARGER (1) DEWALT 36 VOLT CUTOFF TOOL (1) MILWAUKEE ELECTRIC SAWZALL (1) PICK HEAD AXE (1) FLAT HEAD AXE (1) 12 LB SLEDGE (1) HALIGAN BAR (1) 48” PRY BAR (1) LARGE BOLT CUTTER (2) RESCUE 42 RAMS SUPPORTS (1) GLASSMASTER (2) BATTERY CABLE CUTTERS (6) SAFETY GLASSES (4) SETS EAR PROTECTION (1) TOOL BOX WITH SOCKETS AND MISC. HAND TOOLS