2HYBRID TYPES Micro Mild Full Two-Mode Range Extender Plug-In Full ElectricHydraulicFuel CellHybrid vehicles are vehicles with two or more power sources in the drive train. There are many different types of hybrid vehicles, although only the gasoline-electric hybrid is currently commercially available in the passenger vehicle market.Diesel –Electric and Hydraulic hybrids are also available in the Heavy Truck and Bus markets.There are many types of hybrids on the road.MicroMildFullTwo-ModeRange Extender, also known as a Series or SerialPlug-InFull ElectricHydraulicFuel Cell
3MICRO HYBRIDMicro hybrid. These cars have electric motors that do not supply additional torque when the ICE is running. (In other words—no driving power comes from the electric motor.) In micro hybrids, the electric motors provide functions such as auxiliary power, starter/generator, managing engine stop/start and the use of regenerative braking to charge the battery.The early GM Silverado hybrid and the Saturn Vue Hybrid are micro-hybrids. Ford is working on a commercial diesel micro-hybrid project in Europe.Because the Micro hybrid does not provide any driving power, the high voltage system operates on 42 Volt.Note: To achieve 42 Volts, 3-12 Volt batteries are used. A fully charged battery contains 13.6 Volts when idle and Volts when the operating. 3 X 14 = 42.
4MILD HYBRIDMild hybrid. The electric motor provides supplementary torque to the gasoline or diesel engine, but is never the sole source of driving power. The system also supports features such as regenerative breaking, start/stop and so on.The Honda Civic Hybrid and the Accord Hybrid are current examples of mild hybrid configurations. There are numerous other mild hybrids in the development pipeline.Because the Mild Hybrid system assists with driving power, the high voltage system contains between Volts.Large Trucks and Buses now have a Mild Hybrid system available. This will be the fastest growing segment of Hybrids because of their ability to reduce engine idling.
5FULL HYBRIDFull hybrid. Unlike the micro or the mild hybrids, the full hybrid vehicle can be driven by the electric motor or the engine independently or together. This capability extends to a full electric launch; i.e., you can start driving the car just using the electric motor. The electric motor and the gasoline (or diesel) engine provide different levels of power.Full hybrids are also called parallel hybrids because the electric motor and the engine are hooked up in parallel to the same transmission. Because full hybrids are more complex than the preceding types and also require a more powerful motor and battery system, the vehicles are more costly. The Prius is the best known example of a full hybrid. The Ford Escape is also a full hybrid.Because the Full hybrid has the ability to drive the vehicle, the High Voltage system contains Volts. The Full-hybrid also steps up the voltage under the hood to over 600 Volts.
62-MODE HYBRIDThe Two-Mode Hybrid name is intended to emphasize the drivetrain's ability to operate in all-electric (Mode 1) as well as hybrid (Mode 2) modes. The design, however, allows for operation in more than two modes; two power-split modes are available along with several fixed gear (essentially parallel hybrid) regimes. For this reason, the design can be referred to as a multi-regime design.The Two-Mode Hybrid powertrain design can be classified as a compound-split design, since the addition of four clutches within the transmission allows for multiple configurations of engine power-splitting. In addition to the clutches, this transmission also has a second planetary gear set. The objective of the design is to vary the percentage of mechanically vs. electrically transmitted power to cope both with low-speed and high-speed operating conditions. This enables smaller motors to do the job of larger motors when compared to single-mode systems. The four fixed gears enable the Two-Mode Hybrid to function like a conventional parallel hybrid under high continuous power regions such as sustained high speed cruising or trailer towing. Full electric boost is available in fixed gear modes
7RANGE EXTENDERSeries hybrid (also called a serial hybrid, or sometimes a range extender) are electric cars with support from a small ICE. Only the electric motor propels the vehicle.The engine sits behind and provides electricity to the motor that turns the wheels. The fuel-burning engine drives an alternator that generates electricity that either flows to the electric motor or to a battery for storage. When the car is running solely on batteries, the engine turns on when they drain to a certain level and begins to recharge them.The Chevy Volt will be the first Series Hybrid scheduled to hit the road in 2010.The high voltage system will contain in excess of 300 Volts.
8PLUG-INA plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an external electric power source. It shares the characteristics of both traditional hybrid electric vehicles (also called charge-maintaining hybrid electric vehicles), having an electric motor and an internal combustion engine, and of battery electric vehicles, also having a plug to connect to the electrical grid (it is a plug-in vehicle). Most PHEVs on the road today are passenger cars, but there are also PHEV versions of commercial vehicles and vans, utility trucks, buses, trains, motorcycles, scooters, and military vehicles. They are sometimes called grid-connected hybrids, gas-optional hybrids, or GO-HEVs.To make the PHEV efficient, a Lithium Ion battery replaces the conventional Nickel-Metal Hydride battery. Voltages run from Volts.
9FULL ELECTRIC 1913 Edison Electric An electric vehicle (EV), also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, is a vehicle which uses one or more electric motors for propulsion. Depending on the type of vehicle, motion may be provided by wheels or propellers driven by rotary motors.Our first automobiles were electric as you can see with this 1913 Edison Electric Car.
10Hydraulic Launch Assist (HLA) Hydraulic hybrids use three main components to power a vehicle at slow speeds and to augment the gasoline/Diesel engine. Fluid is stored in a low-pressure reservoir. A pump moves the fluid from the reservoir to a high-pressure accumulator. The accumulator holds not only the fluid brought over by the pump, but also pressurized nitrogen gas.These three components gather energy through regenerative braking. Kinetic energy from the brakes powers the pump. As the vehicle slows, the pump is activated, and moves fluid from the reservoir to the accumulator. As pressure in the accumulator builds, it acts like a fully charged battery in a gas/electric hybrid, ready to power the electric motor.Instead of sending power to the electric motor, the accumulator sends its energy directly to the driveshaft. As that happens, the vehicle accelerates, and the pump moves the fluid back to the reservoir, ready to charge the accumulator again.
11FULL HYDRAULIC HYBRIDMechanical transmission of power using gears is very energy inefficient. The familiar automotive multi-speed gearbox and differential suffers from the friction losses that result in 20 – 30% of engine power being lost between a car's engine and the wheels. Many techniques are being developed to eliminate mechanical transmission including Wheel Motors and Hydraulic transmissions that we have seen being trialed in UPS delivery vans.The heart of the system is a six piston radial digital displacement hydraulic pump/motor. This hydraulic motor replaces the port plates and swash plates in conventional hydraulic machines with computer controlled high-speed solenoid valves. Driven by a microprocessor, these solenoids actively control poppet valves that rectify the flow into and out of each cylinder. The hydraulic pump attaches to the flywheel on a conventional combustion motor replacing the gearbox. It is hydraulically connected to Digital Displacement Motors coupled to the wheels, so the only connection between the internal combustion motor and the wheels is the hydraulic system.In operation the system is conceptually similar to an electric series hybrid but with a pressure accumulator taking the place of the battery. The combustion engine generates hydraulic pressure at a steady rpm that can either drive the wheels with the hydraulic motor coupled to the wheels, or be added to the accumulator for later use. When the vehicle slows down the wheel coupled motor turns into a pump and regenerates braking energy into hydraulic pressure that is stored in the accumulator.
12Fuel CellFuel Cell Vehicles—including the much discussed hydrogen fuel cell vehicle—are advanced series hybrids. A separate power source (the fuel cell) generates the electricity that drives the motor or is stored for later use.High pressure Hydrogen is stored in cylinders in the rear of the vehicle. As the Hydrogen passes through a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM Fuel Cell) the hydrogen is stripped of its electron and produces electricity. On the other end of the PEM cell, the hydrogen is mixed with Oxygen to produce H2O (water or steam) as a by-product.
13BATTERIESA hybrid car battery is like any other battery—except that it is rechargeable and has enough juice to move a large heavy vehicle down the road for a few feet or a few miles. These batteries are considered “dry cell” and even in the most sever collision, there will only be a few drops of electrolyte present.The nickel metal hydride battery used in Highlander Hybrid—and the Lexus RX 400h—is packaged in a newly developed metal battery casing. The 240 cells can deliver high voltage of 288 volts—but the motor-generators units can operate on variable voltage anywhere from 280 volts to 650 volts. The battery pack supplies 288 volts, but the boost converter, a part of the inverter above the transaxle, changes this to 500 volts. This battery pack provides 40 percent more power than the Prius battery, despite being 18 percent smaller.Each of the modules has its own monitoring and cooling control system. The cooling performance reduces efficiency losses due to excessive heat, ensuring that the battery can supply required electric power to the motors at all times. The battery-monitoring unit manages discharge and recharging by the generator and motors to keep the charge level constant while the car is running. The battery pack is stowed under the rear seats.Lithium ion (or Li-ion) batteries are important because they have a higher energy density—the amount of energy they hold by weight, or by volume—than any other type. The rule of thumb is that Li-ion cells hold roughly twice as much energy per pound as do the previous generation of advanced batteries, nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH)—which are used in all current hybrids including the Toyota Prius. NiMH, in turn, holds about twice the energy per pound of the conventional lead-acid (PbA) 12-Volt battery that powers your car’s starter motor. It’s Li-ion’s ability to carry so much energy that makes electric cars possible.Compare the batteries from GM’s legendary EV1 to those for its upcoming Volt extended-range EV. The 1997 EV1 pack used lead-acid cells; it was almost 8 feet long and weighed 1200 pounds. But today’s Volt pack, using lithium-ion cells, stores the same amount of energy (16 kilowatt-hours) in a 5-foot-long container weighing just 400 pounds.VIDEO
14LITHIUM ION BATTERY2011 Mercedes Benz S400 Blue-Hybrid is the FIRST production hybrid with a Lithium Io Battery.The electric-gas combo provides a total output of 295 horsepower, channeled through a seven-speed automatic transmission. Benz is particularly proud of what it refers to as “compact” batter technology. Engineers made this hybrid system as well-packaged and light as possible.Mercedes-Benz was able to fit the entire pack into the same space, at the right-hand base of the windshield, that previously housed the car’s standard lead-acid 12-Volt starter battery.The S400 weighs only about 120 pounds more than the standard S-Class.The picture above shows the Lithium Ion Battery in the trunk.
15SAFETY DISCONNECTThe Safety Disconnect is installed on all Hybrid vehicles. It is intended to be used by the technician while performing service and mechanical repairs to the vehicle. These disconnects were not designed as a safety measure for First Responders.These disconnects are in areas that are difficult or impossible to access at the crash site.
16CAPACITORSBatteries have high storage capacity, but they have difficulty quickly charging or discharging energy to meet pulse power requirements of the hybrid.Advances in the Super capacitor or Ultra capacitor will be the key to the success of the hybrid electric vehicle. The Super capacitor is an electrochemical capacitor that has an unusually high energy density compared to common capacitors.Super capacitors can quickly store large amounts of electricity and discharge the electricity on demand to batteries or electric motors which can propel vehicles. Traditional rechargeable batteries require recharge times hundreds of time longer than super capacitors. Also super capacitors have very high charge-discharge cycles compared to rechargeable batteries. The charge-discharge cycles for a super capacitor can be in the millions compared to the best rechargeable battery cycle of 1000. The super capacitor has no disposable parts during it long life cycle making it environmentally friendly.NOTE: Hybrid capacitors completely drain in less than 1 second in most cases. Some may hold a charge for up to 1 minute.
17CAUTIONNever drive anything through the hood or front of the vehicle. Until the power is shut-down, the capacitors contain a lethal amount of voltage. Driving something through the hood such as a halogen tool or piercing nozzle, could cause shock or electrocution.The capacitors are located directly under the hood or behind the headlight.
194. Proceed with Extrication 1. Identify2. Stabilize3. Shut-Down Power4. Proceed with ExtricationIdentify the vehicle type. Look for clues while doing your scene size-up.. Don’t get tunnel vision and only look at the patients.. Stabilize … Go through Shut down Procedure…. Proceed with extrication.
20EXTRICATON TRAINING WHAT CAN WE DO TO BE SAFE? Shut Down Procedure. 1. Turn OFF Ignition2. Turn ON Emergency Flashers3. Pull ALL Accessories Plugged Into Dash4. Disconnect 12V Power Supply5. Verify Electric System Shut-DownUse the shut down procedure to be safe.
21IDENTIFYIdentifying a vehicle as a hybrid is difficult. The hybrid identification badge may be located on the rear or the side of the vehicle.The Hybrid vehicle may have a unique design, or may use the exact same body design as the non-hybrid model.Some hybrids could be identified by unique vents or accessories, but these items also change from year to year.Many times in a collision the Hybrid Identification is destroyed or not visible.The interior may also have unique markings on trim panels or switches. The dash of a Hybrid vehicle will also have a unique set of gauges that will help to identify it as a Hybrid Vehicle.An attempt to identify the vehicle as a Hybrid should be performed while doing a 360 degree assessment of the crash scene.As long as the 5-step shut-down procedure is performed, the only place on the vehicle with high voltage will be within the sealed high-voltage battery box.
22STABILIZEThe vehicle must be properly stabilized to prevent any additional injuries to the vehicle occupants during the rescue.The drive wheels must be properly chocked to ensure that they can not turn. When the drive wheels turn they can produce electricity and charge the capacitors. Turning the drive wheels may also create sparking and arcing which could cause a fire.Some hybrid vehicles are all wheel drive, so all 4 wheels should be properly chocked.If parts and patients are going to be removed from the vehicle, the tires should be deflated to ensure that the vehicle does not raise on the suspension and become unstable.REMEMBER:Until the vehicle is de-powered, it can move forward or in reverse silently on electrical power whenever the accelerator pedal is depressed.On some vehicles the engine will also start as soon as the accelerator pedal is depressed.DO NOT stand in front or behind a Hybrid vehicle until you are sure that all electrical power is disabled (Emergency Flashers Go Out)
23GAIN ACCESSIn some situations you may need to open the door to gain access to shut-down the vehicleTraditional methods to open the door can be used. There is no high voltage wiring in the door area. Cutting the hinges or prying open the door can be done.Since the high voltage system is completely isolated from any other vehicle systems or the body structure, it is impossible to be shocked or electrocuted by touching the body of a Hybrid vehicle.If the vehicle is fully or partially submerged in water, there is no danger of electrical shock.
24SHUT DOWN POWERThe 12 volt battery may be located in the trunk or under the hood. It must be disconnected to ensure that there is no power in the vehicles electrical system.If the battery cables can be removed from the battery, make sure that they are covered with some sort of insulator such as electrical tape to ensure that they do not make contact with the battery again.If the cables can not be easily removed, then cutting the cables is the best option. When you cut the cables make sure that you cut a section out of the cables by making a double cut to ensure that the two ends of the cable can not make contact.Remember NFPA: Negative First, Positive After.Always remove or cut the negative (ground) cable before the positive cable. This will ensure there is no sparking.When all of the power is disabled on the vehicle, the emergency flashers will go out.
25EXTRICATON TRAINING Shut Down Procedure. 1. Turn OFF Ignition 2. Turn ON Emergency Flashers3. Pull ALL Accessories Plugged Into Dash4. Disconnect 12V Power Supply5. Verify Electric System Shut-Down
26SMART KEYThe Hybrid vehicle may use a conventional ignition key that can be removed once the transmission is placed into Park.Some vehicles use a “Smart Key” that only needs to be plugged into the slot on the dash to charge its internal battery.When the key is within about 16 feet of the vehicle, its sends a signal to the body control module that allows the doors to be unlocked. Once the key is within about 3 feet of the Engine Control Module, typically located between the two front seats, a series of operations can be performed to start the vehicle, such as stepping on the brake and pushing a button on the dash.Once the vehicle is in Park and the key is removed or the Power button is depressed, all of the lights on the dash will go out.At this time make sure that you turn ON the emergency flashers. This will indicate to everybody in the area that the vehicle still has power.NOTE: If you have access to the smart key, remove it from the proximity of the vehicle. If you can not find the key, press the Power button and proceed with the procedures for shutting down the electrical system.
27DISCHARGE TIMES CAUTION: NEVER touch the two ends of the battery cables togetherTouching the two ends of the cables together, or grounding out one cable against the vehicle body has no effect on draining the electrical system.You will not speed up the capacitor drain time of the high voltage capacitors or the airbag system.Sparking can occur which can cause the battery to explode. When a battery charges, it gives off hydrogen gas. Hydrogen is flammable and can explode if a spark occurs near the battery.The acid inside the 12 volt battery is highly corrosive and can burn your skin if it leaks out of the battery and gets on your skin. This is NOT a danger if the battery is a "gel" type that does not contain liquid acid. But it can be a concern if the battery contains liquid acid. Batteries should contain the liquid as long as the battery remains in an upright position (do NOT turn it sideways or upside down). Acid may leak out if the battery case is cracked or damaged, so handle with care.Drain times for airbag systems on hybrid vehicles are typically 1 second or less. Some may hold a charge for up to 1 minute.
28This comment was posted on a popular fire website, on one of the extrication forums. It clearly shows how much misinformation is floating around.Following the simple 5-step shut-down procedures will render the hybrid as safe.EXTRICATON TRAINING“As a Firefighter for a small City I have been told about a potential hazard to owners of Hybrid cars. As it currently stands in most small cities and towns with Volunteer Fire Departments when a hybrid vehicle is involved in an accident, emergency crews (Firefighters, EMS, Police) are not allowed to touch or put water on a hybrid vehicle until all power has been "disabled" by an authorized person” (I.E. Electrician).
29HIGH VOLTAGE CABLESHigh Voltage Cables are typically orange in color, but some of the Micro hybrids with voltages under 60 Volts, may be colored blue.The cables run from the high voltage battery pack in the rear of the vehicle to the engine compartment. The cables are typically routed close to the center of the vehicle, under the floor of the vehicle. The orange cables may be visible, or may be covered with a protective plastic cover.Inside the orange cable is a ground fault system comprised of a steel braided cable that automatically shuts down the high voltage if the cable is compromised in any way.The orange cable should be avoided whenever possible, but the high voltage system is designed to shut down if the cable is accidentally cut.
30HIGH VOLTAGE CABLESInside the orange cable is a ground fault system comprised of a steel braided cable that automatically shuts down the high voltage if the cable is compromised in any way.The orange cable should be avoided whenever possible, but the high voltage system is designed to shut down if the cable is accidentally cut, or compromised in any way.
31HIGH VOLTAGE SYSTEMThis electrical diagram shows the Hybrid electrical system when the key is on and the 12 volt battery is connected.It shows that there are two relays controlled by the vehicle computer (which is powered by the 12 volt battery) that are located at the High Voltage Battery. These relays must be energized in order for electrical current to flow through the High Voltage System.You also see the Ground Fault monitor that constantly monitors the High Voltage System and the vehicle body to ensure that no shorts exist. In the event of a short in the High Voltage System, the computer de-energizes the two relays and Immediately stops the flow of High Voltage through the system.The high voltage will also shut down when the 12 Volt battery is disconnected AS LONG AS THE ENGINE IS NOT RUNNINGIf the engine is running, the alternator will produce enough electrical current to keep the relays energized and the high voltage cables energized, even with the battery cables disconnected.
32HIGH VOLTAGE SYSTEMThis electrical diagram shows that when the ignition key is turned off or the 12 volt battery is disconnected, there is no voltage in the High Voltage Electrical System.All of the High Voltage is isolated within the High Voltage Battery.The capacitors under the hood will stay energized for up to 1 minute, but they will not backfeed through the high voltage cables.In the video you will see that even when the vehicle is running and the high voltage system fully energized, there is no voltage that enters the tool when the orange cables are cut.This DOES NOT mean that cutting the high voltage cables is acceptable. They should always be avoided whenever possible.What happens if I accidentally cut through the orange cable?VIDEO
33CUT ZONESThe cut zones are typically the same as with any non-hybrid vehicle. The same safety precautions (such as peel the trim and check for the presence of an airbag inflator) should be followed on all hybrid models.There are no high voltage cables that run through the rocker panels, roof rails, or any of the posts.
34EXTRICATON TRAINING Hybrid Myths Rescue personnel have been electrocuted by cutting into HybridsFalse… There have been no recorded injuries to firefightersIf you cut an Orange Wire you will die.False – Protected by ground faultsRemember:High Voltage Cables are typically orange in color, but some of the Micro hybrids with voltages under 60 Volts, may be colored blue.The cables run from the high voltage battery pack in the rear of the vehicle to the engine compartment. The cables are typically routed close to the center of the vehicle, under the floor of the vehicle. The orange cables may be visible, or may be covered with a protective plastic cover.Inside the orange cable is a ground fault system comprised of a steel braided cable that automatically shuts down the high voltage if the cable is compromised in any way.The orange cable should be avoided whenever possible, but the high voltage system is designed to shut down if the cable is accidentally cut.The ground fault system was installed to protect workers at the factories and dealership service centers. They will help protect firefighters.
35EXTRICATON TRAININGThere are no safety devises to protect rescue personnel.False – Ground faults throughout the vehicles and relaysBatteries are always live after an accident.Treat as true! – Yet most Hybrid batteries have shear devises that break from the force of an accident. There is no way to check these, so follow the 5 safety step protocol.After the battery is disconnected I need to wait at least 15 minutes before proceeding. - FalseOnce the battery is disconnected and the key is turned off, all of the high voltage is restricted to within the high voltage battery case in the vehicle. The capacitors may take up to a minute to discharge, but they are also contained within a metal box under the hood.Remember: The greatest chance of electrical hazard will occur if you drive a metal object through the hood or headlight. DON’T DRIVE A PENETRATING NOZZLE THOUGH THESE AREAS!In most cars, capacitors were eliminated after the year Now everything is computer driven.
36EXTRICATON TRAINING New Car Construction High Strength Steel Tempered GlassMagnezium
38ExtricationMercedes Benz is using a boron alloyed steel tube inside the A-Post for added strength and flexibility on the CLK series. The tensile strength of this reinforcement is in excess of 250,000 psi.
39ExtricationChrysler is also using an ultra high strength steel pipe inside their B-Post on their mini-vans.
40EXTRICATON TRAININGHigh Strength Steel, increases safety in collisions, and lowers carbon footprint as required by recent laws. It is also part of the required 35 MPG requirement.VIDEO
41EXTRICATON TRAINING Glass Due to respiratory problems, injuries to firefighters, and patients, and damage to the structural integrity of cars, it is now recommended that you leave the glass in place unless it must be removed.VIDEO
43EXTRICATON TRAINING Extrication Strategy and Tactics 5 Step Safety ProtocolRemove hood from hinge sideTry before you pryCheck all doors to determine if you can remove the patient(s) before using cutting and prying tools. If spinal precautions are needed start removing trim see determine where you are going to cut.Peel and PeekRemove all trim before cutting any areas.Forget about Low – High – High
47B Pillar Rip/Noah’s Ark ExtricationB Pillar Rip/Noah’s ArkCutting the sidewall and swinging it down as an assembly is called a Noah's Ark.The result of both methods is total access to the vehicle interior
49EXTRICATON TRAININGRoof Removal – This is the most used extrication technique nationally. It is the only way to efficiently extricate a patient with inline stabilization. It should be used, if practical, on all suspected spinal and head injuries. DON”T CORK SCREW THE PATIENT !
50EXTRICATON TRAININGLocations for cuts after “peel and peek”
51EXTRICATON TRAININGWith regular steel it should take no more than a few seconds to cut each pillar.
52EXTRICATON TRAININGAs an alternative to the old process of tunneling, the rear flap has been developed to speed up the extrication process.