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The Skull & Cranial Cavity Brain Meninges Cranial nerves Arterial supply Venous sinuses 30 March 2009Dr Frank CT Voon.

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Presentation on theme: "The Skull & Cranial Cavity Brain Meninges Cranial nerves Arterial supply Venous sinuses 30 March 2009Dr Frank CT Voon."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Skull & Cranial Cavity Brain Meninges Cranial nerves Arterial supply Venous sinuses 30 March 2009Dr Frank CT Voon

2 Temporal Occipital Parietal Ethmoid Sphenoid Frontal Tip: PETS OF or FPOETS. The Neurocranium

3 The Cranium The cranium (skull) is the skeleton of the head. It consists of a neurocranium and a viscerocranium. The neurocranium is also known as the cranial vault. The viscerocranium is also known as the facial skeleton.

4 The Neurocranium The neurocranium (cranial vault) has a roof and a floor. The roof (calvaria or skull cap) is shaped like a dome. The basicranium (cranial base) forms the floor. It encloses the cranial cavity.

5 The Neurocranium It is formed by 8 bones, the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, ethmoidal and sphenoidal bones. The frontal, occipital, ethmoidal and sphenoidal bones are single and thus are in the midline. The parietal and temporal bones are bilateral and hence are paired. The fibrous joints between the bones are known as sutures.

6 Intramembranous ossification The frontal, parietal and temporal bones are formed by intramembranous ossification and are known as flat bones. Do note that these flat bones forming the calvaria are actually curved, with a convex external surface and a concave internal surface.

7 Endochondral ossification The sphenoid, ethmoid and temporal bones are mainly formed by endochondral ossification and are known as irregular bones. These bones form the cranial base. The ethmoid is a part of both the neurocranium and viscerocranium.

8 The Brain and spinal cord Cerebral hemispheres Diencephalon Midbrain Pons and cerebellum Medulla oblongata Spinal cord

9 Parietal lobe Frontal lobe Occipital lobe Temporal lobe Motor cortex Sensory cortex

10 The Cranial nerves Olfactory Optic Oculomotor Trochlear Trigeminal Abducens Facial Vestibulocochlear Glossopharyngeal Vagus Accessory Hypoglossal

11 The 12 cranial nerves

12 Foramina Structures that pass through the foramina Cranial nerves Arteries - Internal carotid and vertebral Veins – sigmoid sinus and beginning of internal jugular vein Spinal cord – Foramen magnum

13 Anterior cerebral artery Anterior communicating artery Internal carotid artery Middle cerebral artery Posterior cerebral artery Vertebral artery Pontine arteries Posterior communicating artery Superior cerebellar artery Anterior inferior cerebellar artery Basilar artery Anterior choroidal artery Ophthalmic artery Perforating arteries Circle of Willis

14 The flow of CSF

15 Superior sagittal sinus White matter Gray matter Falx cerebri Skin Close tissue Aponeurosis Loose tissue Endosteum Periosteum Diploe Pia mater Arachnoid mater Dura mater Outer table Inner table Subdural space Subarachnoid space Cerebrospinal fluid Arachnoid granulations Emissary veins

16 Venous sinuses Superior Sagittal Sinus Inferior Sagittal Sinus Straight Sinus Transverse Sinus Sigmoid Cavernous Sinus Superior Petrosal Sinus Inferior Petrosal Sinus Occipital Sinus Jugular foramen Confluence Internal occipital protruberance Internal Jugular Vein Sinus

17 The Scalp and Cranial Cavity Skin Close subcutaneous tissue Aponeurosis Loose areolar tissue Periosteum Outer table Diploe Inner table Endosteum Endosteal layer of dura mater Menigeal layer of dura mater Arachnoid mater Pia mater Brain Grey matter White matter Ventricles

18 Meninges and spaces –Extradural space Dura mater –Subdural space Arachnoid mater –Subarachnoid space Pia mater –Gray matter –White matter –Ventricles


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