Presentation on theme: "The Skull & Cranial Cavity Brain Meninges Cranial nerves Arterial supply Venous sinuses 30 March 2009Dr Frank CT Voon."— Presentation transcript:
The Skull & Cranial Cavity Brain Meninges Cranial nerves Arterial supply Venous sinuses 30 March 2009Dr Frank CT Voon
Temporal Occipital Parietal Ethmoid Sphenoid Frontal Tip: PETS OF or FPOETS. The Neurocranium
The Cranium The cranium (skull) is the skeleton of the head. It consists of a neurocranium and a viscerocranium. The neurocranium is also known as the cranial vault. The viscerocranium is also known as the facial skeleton.
The Neurocranium The neurocranium (cranial vault) has a roof and a floor. The roof (calvaria or skull cap) is shaped like a dome. The basicranium (cranial base) forms the floor. It encloses the cranial cavity.
The Neurocranium It is formed by 8 bones, the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, ethmoidal and sphenoidal bones. The frontal, occipital, ethmoidal and sphenoidal bones are single and thus are in the midline. The parietal and temporal bones are bilateral and hence are paired. The fibrous joints between the bones are known as sutures.
Intramembranous ossification The frontal, parietal and temporal bones are formed by intramembranous ossification and are known as flat bones. Do note that these flat bones forming the calvaria are actually curved, with a convex external surface and a concave internal surface.
Endochondral ossification The sphenoid, ethmoid and temporal bones are mainly formed by endochondral ossification and are known as irregular bones. These bones form the cranial base. The ethmoid is a part of both the neurocranium and viscerocranium.
The Brain and spinal cord Cerebral hemispheres Diencephalon Midbrain Pons and cerebellum Medulla oblongata Spinal cord
Superior sagittal sinus White matter Gray matter Falx cerebri Skin Close tissue Aponeurosis Loose tissue Endosteum Periosteum Diploe Pia mater Arachnoid mater Dura mater Outer table Inner table Subdural space Subarachnoid space Cerebrospinal fluid Arachnoid granulations Emissary veins
The Scalp and Cranial Cavity Skin Close subcutaneous tissue Aponeurosis Loose areolar tissue Periosteum Outer table Diploe Inner table Endosteum Endosteal layer of dura mater Menigeal layer of dura mater Arachnoid mater Pia mater Brain Grey matter White matter Ventricles
Meninges and spaces –Extradural space Dura mater –Subdural space Arachnoid mater –Subarachnoid space Pia mater –Gray matter –White matter –Ventricles