Presentation on theme: "Head and Neck Dr. SREEKANTH THOTA DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY."— Presentation transcript:
Head and Neck Dr. SREEKANTH THOTA DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY
Bones of the Skull The skull bones are made up of external and internal tables of compact bone separated by a layer of spongy bone called the diploe.
COMPONENT PARTS The skull has 22 bones, excluding the ossicles of the ear. Except for the mandible, which forms the lower jaw, the bones of the skull are attached to each other by sutures, are immobile, and form the cranium.
Subdivisons 1.The cranium can be subdivided into: an upper part the calvaria, which surrounds the cranial cavity containing the brain(Neurocranium). 2.Lower anterior part-the facial skeleton (viscerocranium).
The cranium consists of the following bones, two of which are paired Frontal bone: 1 Parietal bones: 2 Occipital bone: 1 Temporal bones: 2 Sphenoid bone: 1 Ethmoid bone: 1
The facial bones consist of the following, two of which are single: Zygomatic bones: 2 Maxillae: 2 Nasal bones: 2 Lacrimal bones: 2 Vomer: 1 Palatine bones: 2 Inferior conchae: 2 Mandible: 1
Frankfort horizontal line(anatomical position of Cranium) Horizontal plane represented by a line between Upper rim of the external auditory canal( auricular point), to the lower rim of the orbit( infraorbital point). FHL divides the head into upper and lower halves.
External Views of the Skull Anterior View of the Skull(Norma frontalis) The anterior view of the skull includes the forehead superiorly, and, inferiorly, the orbits, the nasal region, the part of the face between the orbit and the lower jaw
Foramen of Anterior view 1. Supra-orbital foramen: Supra-orbital nerve and vessels. 2. Infra-orbital foramen: Infra-orbital nerve and vessels. 3. Mental foramen: Mental nerve and vessels
Superior view of the skull(Norma verticalis) Parietal foramen: Emissary veins
Fracture of the Pterion A hard blow to the side of the head may fracture the thin bones forming the pterion, producing a rupture of the anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery crossing the pterion
Inferior view of the skull.
Foramen 1. Incisive fossa 2. Greater and lesser palatine foramina 3.Jugular foramen 4.Carotid canal 5.Stylomastoid foramen 6.Foramen magnum
Skull Cranial fossa
Internal Surface of the Cranial Base The internal surface of the cranial base has three large depressions that lie at different levels: the anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae.
Anterior cranial fossa
Foramen of Anterior cranial fossa 1. Cribriform plate:olfactory nerves (CN-I) 2. Foramen cecum: occasional small emissary vein from nasal mucosa to superior sagittal sinus. 3. Anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina: anterior and posterior ethmoidal nerves, arteries, and veins.
Middle cranial fossa-
Foramen of Middle cranial fossa 1.Optic canal: optic nerve (CN II), ophthalmic artery. 2.Superior orbital fissure: oculomotor (CN III), trochlear (CN IV), and abducens (CN VI) nerves; ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve (CN V1) and ophthalmic veins. 3. Foramen rotundum: Maxillary nerve
4. Foramen ovale: Mandibular nerve, the accessory meningeal artery, and the lesser petrosal nerve. 5. Foramen spinosum: middle meningeal artery.
Posterior cranial fossa
Foramen of posterior cranial fossa Foramen magnum: medulla, the ascending portions of the spinal accessory nerve (XI), and the vertebral arteries.spinal accessory nerve Internal acoustic meatus:facial (VII) and vestibulocochlear (VIII) cranial nervesvestibulocochlearcranial nerves Jugular foramen: internal jugular vein (actually begins here), the glossopharyngeal (IX), the vagus (X) and the accessory (XI) nerves.internal jugular veinglossopharyngealvagus accessory Anterior condylar (hypoglossal) canal: hypoglossal (XII) nerve.
Fractures of the Calvaria A depressed skull fracture is a break in a cranial bone (or "crushed" portion of skull) with depression of the bone in toward the brain. A compound fracture involves a break in, or loss of, skin and splintering of the bone.
Contrecoup (counterblow) fracture No fracture occurs at the point of impact, but one occurs on the opposite side of the cranium. When a moving object impacts the stationary head, coup injuries are typical, while contrecoup injuries are produced when the moving head strikes a stationary object
Fractures to the Maxilla and associated bones Le Fort I Fracture = Horizontal Fracture Le Fort II Fracture = Pyramidal Fracture Le Fort III Fractures = Craniofacial Separation