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Presentation on theme: "Head and Neck Dr. SREEKANTH THOTA DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY."— Presentation transcript:



3 Bones of the Skull The skull bones are made up of external and internal tables of compact bone separated by a layer of spongy bone called the diploe.

4 Foramen In anatomy, a foramen is any opening.anatomy Human skull, have numerous foramina through which nerves, arteries, veins and other structures pass.uman skull


6 COMPONENT PARTS The skull has 22 bones, excluding the ossicles of the ear. Except for the mandible, which forms the lower jaw, the bones of the skull are attached to each other by sutures, are immobile, and form the cranium.


8 Subdivisons 1.The cranium can be subdivided into: an upper part the calvaria, which surrounds the cranial cavity containing the brain(Neurocranium). 2.Lower anterior part-the facial skeleton (viscerocranium).

9 The cranium consists of the following bones, two of which are paired Frontal bone: 1 Parietal bones: 2 Occipital bone: 1 Temporal bones: 2 Sphenoid bone: 1 Ethmoid bone: 1

10 The facial bones consist of the following, two of which are single: Zygomatic bones: 2 Maxillae: 2 Nasal bones: 2 Lacrimal bones: 2 Vomer: 1 Palatine bones: 2 Inferior conchae: 2 Mandible: 1

11 External Views of the Skull Anterior View of the Skull(Norma frontalis) The anterior view of the skull includes the forehead superiorly, and, inferiorly, the orbits, the nasal region, the part of the face between the orbit and the lower jaw


13 Metopic suture Suture that divides the two halves of the frontal bone of the skull in infants and children.frontal boneskull It usually disappears by the age of six. In some individuals the suture can persist (totally or partly) into adulthood.


15 Foramen of Anterior view 1. Supra-orbital foramen: Supra-orbital nerve and vessels. 2. Infra-orbital foramen: Infra-orbital nerve and vessels. 3. Mental foramen: Mental nerve and vessels

16 Superior view of the skull(Norma verticalis) Parietal foramen: Emissary veins


18 Bregma and Lambda

19 Anterior fontanelle Largest fontanelle, and is placed at the junction of the sagittal suture, coronal suture, and frontal suture; it is lozenge- shaped, and measures about 4 cm in its antero-posterior and 2.5 cm in its transverse diameter.fontanellesagittal suturecoronal suturefrontal suturelozenge Not completely closed until about the middle of the second year.


21 Clinical significance Examination of an infant includes palpating the anterior fontanelle. A sunken fontanelle indicates dehydration, whereas a very tense or bulging anterior fontanelle indicates raised intracranial pressure. dehydrationintracranial pressure

22 Posterior view of the skull(Norma occipitalis)

23 Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 10 December :40 AM) © 2005 Elsevier

24 Lateral view of skull(norma lateralis) Zygomaticofacial foramen: Zygomaticofacial nerve

25 Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 10 December :40 AM) © 2005 Elsevier

26 Fracture of the Pterion A hard blow to the side of the head may fracture the thin bones forming the pterion, producing a rupture of the anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery crossing the pterion

27 Temporal bone

28 Inferior view of the skull.


30 Foramen 1. Incisive fossa 2. Greater and lesser palatine foramina 3.Jugular foramen 4.Carotid canal 5.Stylomastoid foramen 6.Foramen magnum

31 Skull Cranial fossa


33 Internal Surface of the Cranial Base The internal surface of the cranial base has three large depressions that lie at different levels: the anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae.


35 Anterior cranial fossa



38 Foramen of Anterior cranial fossa 1. Cribriform plate:olfactory nerves (CN-I) 2. Foramen cecum: occasional small emissary vein from nasal mucosa to superior sagittal sinus. 3. Anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina: anterior and posterior ethmoidal nerves, arteries, and veins.

39 Middle cranial fossa-


41 Sphenoid bone



44 Foramen of Middle cranial fossa 1.Optic canal: optic nerve (CN II), ophthalmic artery. 2.Superior orbital fissure: oculomotor (CN III), trochlear (CN IV), and abducens (CN VI) nerves; ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve (CN V1) and ophthalmic veins. 3. Foramen rotundum: Maxillary nerve

45 4. Foramen ovale: Mandibular nerve, the accessory meningeal artery, and the lesser petrosal nerve. 5. Foramen spinosum: middle meningeal artery.

46 Posterior cranial fossa

47 Foramen of posterior cranial fossa Foramen magnum: medulla, the ascending portions of the spinal accessory nerve (XI), and the vertebral arteries.spinal accessory nerve Internal acoustic meatus:facial (VII) and vestibulocochlear (VIII) cranial nervesvestibulocochlearcranial nerves Jugular foramen: internal jugular vein (actually begins here), the glossopharyngeal (IX), the vagus (X) and the accessory (XI) nerves.internal jugular veinglossopharyngealvagus accessory Anterior condylar (hypoglossal) canal: hypoglossal (XII) nerve.


49 Fractures of the Calvaria A depressed skull fracture is a break in a cranial bone (or "crushed" portion of skull) with depression of the bone in toward the brain. A compound fracture involves a break in, or loss of, skin and splintering of the bone.

50 Contrecoup (counterblow) fracture No fracture occurs at the point of impact, but one occurs on the opposite side of the cranium. When a moving object impacts the stationary head, coup injuries are typical, while contrecoup injuries are produced when the moving head strikes a stationary object

51 Fractures to the Maxilla and associated bones Le Fort I Fracture = Horizontal Fracture Le Fort II Fracture = Pyramidal Fracture Le Fort III Fractures = Craniofacial Separation


53 Raccoon eyes (periorbital ecchymosis ) blood from skull fracture seeps into the soft tissue around the eyes Periorbital ecchymosis If bilateral, it is highly suggestive of basilar skull fracturebasilar skull fracture They are most often associated with fractures of the anterior cranial fossaanterior cranial fossa


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