Presentation on theme: "Expanding Social Horizons: Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood Chapter 7."— Presentation transcript:
1 Expanding Social Horizons: Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood Chapter 7
2 Family Relationships Learning Objectives What is a systems approach to parenting?What are the primary dimensions of parenting? How do they affect children’s development?What determines how siblings get along? How do first born, later born and only children differ?How do divorce and remarriage affect children?What factors lead children to be maltreated?
3 The Family as a SystemOlder views saw child development as primarily the result of parent’s actionsCurrent views, Systems View, of child rearing view the family as a system with parents and children affecting each otherIn addition, the family system is impacted by outside influences such as extended family, community, and even larger entities
4 Dimension and Styles of Parenting Parenting can be viewed through the dimension of warmth and responsiveness and control-Children of warm parents feel secure, happyand are generally well behaved-Children of hostile or uninvolved parents maybe anxious and less controlledParenting can also be viewed involving control with the controlling parent at one end and the uninvolved parent at the other end of the spectrum Intermediate amount of control is best.
5 Dimension and Styles of Parenting The dimension of control affects parenting effectiveness-Children of over controlling parents may feelunable to develop standards of behavior ontheir ownA balance of good control, communication, and warmth results in children with an understanding of what is expected and invites dialogue
6 Parenting StylesAuthoritarian parenting combines high control with little warmth-Hard work, respect, and obedience areencourage.-Little give and take and parents do not explaintheir decisionsAuthoritative parenting combines moderate control with warmth and responsiveness-Rules are explained and decision making isencouraged
7 Parenting StylesIndulgent permissive parenting provides warmth and little control-Use little punishment and accept theirchildren’s behaviorIndifferent uninvolved parenting involves little warmth or control-Parents not involved with their children-Basic physical and emotional needs met-Minimize their time with their children-Avoid becoming emotionally involved with the child
8 Parenting StylesStyles of parenting have different effects on children’s development-Authoritative parents-children tend to be more responsible, self-reliant, and friendly-Authoritarian parents-children have low self-esteem and are lessskilled socially-Indulgent-permissive parents-Children are often impulsive and easilyfrustrated, little self control-Indifferent-uninvolved parents-Children often have low self-esteem, are aggressiveimpulsive and moody
9 Variations Associated with Culture and Socioeconomic Status European-American parents-value warmth and moderate control in orderto encourage independence and selfrelianceAsian and Latin American parents-individualism is not highly valued-cooperation and collaboration is encouragedwith more emotional restraint and controlLower social economic status leads to more authoritarian styles
10 Parental BehaviorWhat specific behaviors can parent’s use to influence their children? Direct instruction, modeling, feedback (reinforcement, punishment)Parents who use direct instruction tell children what to do, and when and why-Most powerful when combined with modelingLearning by observation iseffective, especially if pairedwith counterimitation, orlearning what should not bedone.
11 Parental BehaviorDirect instruction , telling child what to do , when, and why is better than just telling them what to doParents can coach children in social skills such as inviting a child over privately so as not to hurt the feelings of those not invitedModeling is a powerful tool in teaching children what is to be done as well as counterimitation – teaching what not to do such as a child seeing parent punish a sibling for bad behavior.
12 Feedback Negative reinforcement trap -a child cries, complains or whines until theparent relents and provides what the childdesiresPunishment-most effective when:-immediate-consistent-informative (providing an explanation and a way to avoid in the future-administered by a person with whom the childhas a warm and affectionate relationship
13 Punishment Side effects and drawbacks -temporarily effective, suppressivechild does not learn new behaviors toreplace the bad behaviorsChildren upset by punishment, may not understand the purpose of the consequencesPhysical punishment may result in aggression as a means to resolve disputes with other childrenPhysical punishment can result in mental health problems, impaired parent-child relationships, delayed cognitive development.
14 PunishmentTime outs-brief, effective and informative, allows time to calm down and then talk to child about why he was punished and how to avoid future punishment
15 Influences of the Marital System Chronic severe parental conflict is harmful to children-Jeopardizes the child’s feelings of a stablefamily-Affects the parent-child relationship, parent may use same style of resolving conflict with the child-Parents in conflict may be too preoccupied for high quality parenting- Children are more prone to become anxious, withdrawn, chronic illnesses
16 Influences of the Marital System When parents find mutually acceptable solutions children respond positively to conflictSome parents don’t work well together, compete for child’s attention,Some parents act as gatekeepers limiting the participation of the other parent
17 Children’s Contributions: Reciprocal Influence Children’s characteristics affect how parents treat them-agetemperament and behavior
18 Siblings As families grow, sibling relationships become more complex -Toddlers talk more to mothers than oldersiblings-By 4 years old, children talk more to oldersiblings than their mothers-One effect of a sibling’s birth is that fathersinteract more with older childrenA birth of another child is stressful and may result in withdrawal or regression
19 Adopted Children 2-4% of U.S. children are adopted Adopted children are more likely to be prone to conduct disorders and adjustment problems in school-more likely the older the child’s age at the timeof adoption-related to the quality of care before adoptionMost adopted children do quite well
20 Impact of Birth Order First born children -Parents are enthusiastic but inexperienced-Parents are demanding and have highexpectations-The child often has a higher IQ scores, moreconforming and are more likely to go tocollege
21 Impact of Birth Order Later born children -Are less concerned about pleasing parents-Are more popular with peers and moreinnovativeOnly children-Contrary to myth, are not spoiled or egotistical-Succeed more often in school and havehigher levels of IQ, leadership, autonomy andmaturity
22 Divorce and Remarriage In the 1990s, 50%of all U.S. children experienced their parents divorceAfter divorce, children tend to live with mothersMothers were less affectionate with children inthe first months after a divorceParents are less able to control their children after a divorce2 years after a divorce, mother were more affectionate and better able to discipline6 years after divorce, mothers and daughters were closer but mother and sons had greater conflict
23 What Aspects of Children’s Lives are Affected by Divorce? Research show that school achievement, conduct, adjustment, self-concept, and parent- child relations faired poorly compared to children of intact familiesAdolescents of divorced parents are more likely to become teen parents and to become divorced themselvesThere is a small but significant increase in emotional problems of adult children of divorced parents
24 Impact of Divorce on Children Development may be affected by loss of a parent role model, economic hardship, and parental conflictChildren are more affected during childhood and adolescence than preschool or college ageChildren who are more emotional may be more negatively impacted by divorceReward with warmth, support, communication. Parental cooperation and same sex custody are positive in their impact
25 Blended FamiliesMore than 2/3 of divorced men and women remarry, resulting in blended familiesWhile school age boys benefit from presence of a stepfather, girls do not adjust well to their mother’s remarriageResearch on children living with a remarried father is sparse. Usually results in behavior problems, with children less likely to adjust well
26 Parent-Child Relationships Gone Awry: Child Maltreatment Physical abuse-assault leading to physical injuriesSexual abuse-fondling, intercourse, or other sexual behaviorPsychological abuse-ridicule, rejection or humiliationNeglect-inadequate food, clothing or medical care
27 Who are the Abusing Parents? Some countries culture does not allow for physical punishment.-countries that allow spanking have a higherrate of maltreatmentThe stress of poverty and social isolation is correlated with abuseInfants, preschoolers and frequently ill children are more often abused
28 Effects of Abuse on Children -Poor peer relations-Do poorly in school-Adults who were abused as children-more depression and anxiety-more likely to abuse their children
29 Preventing Abuse and Maltreatment -Reducing physical punishment-Social supports for parents-allows for venting and advise-Counseling and parenting skills training
30 Peers Learning Objectives What are the benefits of friendship? What are the important features of groups of children and adolescents? How do these groups influence individuals?Why are some children more popular that others? What are the causes and consequences of being rejected?Why are some children aggressive? Why are other frequent targets of aggression?
31 FriendshipsBy 4-8 years, children single out specific peers as playmatesAt 8 or 9, children have their first intimate and reciprocal relationshipsOlder children and adolescents emphasize loyalty in friendshipsBy about 14, friendships consist of intimacy and support during stressful periods. Less dependence on family
32 Who are Friends? -Same sexed, similar age, same race or ethnic group -Similar interests, attitudes, recreation pursuits-Children with same sexed and opposite sexedfriends tend to be more popular, well adjustedacademically successful, and have higher selfesteem
33 Quality and Consequences of Friendships Children with good friends-higher self-esteem-less likely to be lonely or depressed-engage in prosocial behaviorGirl friends-Rumination-talking about each other’s problemsAdults who had good friends as children-experience greater feeling of self-worth
34 Groups Cliques -tend to dress, talk and act alike Crowds -affiliated with others with similar values andattitudes-some have more status and may impact self-esteem-parenting style and involvement may have animpact which crowd children affiliate with
35 Group StructureOften exhibit a dominance hierarchy with a leader and followersBoys-physical power is often the characteristicassociated with leadershipGirls and older boys-individual traits that relate to the group’smain interest determine leadership
36 Peer Pressure -Irresistible pressure to conform to the group’s norms -most junior high and high school studentsresist negative peer pressure-most effective when standards are not clearcut-taste in music, clothing, smoking, drinking anddrug usage
37 Popularity and Rejection Popular children-liked by classmatesRejected children-disliked by classmatesAverage children-liked and disliked but without as muchintensityNeglected children-ignored by classmates
38 Consequences of Rejection Rejected children are more likely to:-drop out of school-commit juvenile offenses-suffer from psychopathologyParental behavior-imitation by the child of poor social skills andconflict-inconsistent punishment may result inaggressive and antisocial behavior
39 Aggressive Children and Their Victims Instrumental aggression-using aggression to achieve an explicit goalHostile aggression-unprovoked aggression used to intimidate andharass, seen in elementary schoolChildren’s tendency to behave aggressively is stable over time, especially if seen at a young age, 1 and 2 yo use physical aggressionRelational aggression –undermining others social relationships,rumorsElectronic bullying
40 Aggressive Children and Their Victims Chronic victims of aggression-10% of elementary school age children andadolescents-children tend to be lonely, anxious, depressed,and dislike school-may be aggressive themselves or tend to bewithdrawn and submissive,easily baited, overreact
41 Aggressive Children and Their Victims Victims can be taught to deal with aggressionNot respond in kindNot show fearIncrease self esteemHelp them foster friendshipsCreate a school climate that does not tolerate bullying and supports victims
42 Outcomes of childhood Aggression Half of seriously aggressive 7 yo had committed serious acts of delinquency by age 1712 times more likely than less aggressive children to be charged for criminal activityLeads to poor adjustment to high school. Failing grades, dropping out, unemployment
43 Television: Boob Tube or Window to the World? Learning ObjectivesWhat is the impact of watching television on children’s attitudes and behavior?How does TV viewing influence children’s cognitive development?How truthful are common criticisms of TV?
44 Influence on Attitudes and Social Behavior Important contributor to the socialization of north American childrenResearch show frequent viewing of TV violence increases aggressive behavior8 year olds that were exposed to large amounts of TV violence had more extensive criminal records as 30 year old. Similar results were found for violent video games
45 Influence on Attitudes and Social Behavior Some shows teach language and reading skillsTime watching Sesame Street predicts grades in high school and time adolescents spend readingTeach academic and social skillsSuch shows are Arthur, Martha Speaks, Super Why!, Mister Rogers’ NeighborhoodCurious George, Sid the Science Kid, The Dinosaur Train teach math and scienceElectric Company, Contact, Square One TV help learn academic and social skills
46 StereotypesSome research suggests that exposure to TV may promote the acceptance of gender, race, and ethnic stereotypes by childrenShows on TV do not accurately portray the demographic texture of society. Minorities and women may be under represented and gender roles may be exaggeratedChildren who are heavy consumers of TV may accept these misrepresentations as reality.
47 Consumer Behavior Preschool children -perceive commercials as a form ofentertainment8 or 9 year old children-understand that commercials are meant to bepersuasive-may not always be truthfulChildren are affected by advertising-most ask parents to buy items seen of TV
48 Guides for Children and TV Viewing Parent should set absolute rules concerning amount of TV to be watchedChildren should not watch TV out of boredomAdults should watch TV with children and discuss programsParent should model good TV viewing, avoiding shows that are inappropriate for young viewers
49 Prosocial BehaviorChildren are more likely to act prosocially after watching brief films in which peers acted prosociallyPrograms such as Mr. Rogers Neighborhood were found to be effective in encouraging prosocial behavior, particularly in boysWhile these studies show that TV can promoteprosocial behavior, children may not watch the appropriate shows, which are limited in number
50 Influences on Cognition Studies show that shows such as Sesame Street promote more proficiency as recognizing letters, numbers, counting and vocabularyThese studies confirm that TV can be a positive influence on these abilities if parents promote good viewing
51 Criticisms of TV Two major criticisms: -TV promotes short attention spans because ofhigh interest segments-TV promotes passive, lazy thinkers who areless creativeFindings-No support for TV promoting short attentionspans-Mixed findings on TV having negative impacton thinking and creativity
52 Use of ComputersUsed for school assignments, play games, communicate with peers, social mediaAmount of harm depends on games played, violent games promote violenceGames like Tetris, Star Fox emphasize perceptual- spatial skills10% of youths become addicted to games – dominates their lives and produces a high much like gambling addictionOnline communication(ie facebook) can promote self-disclosure and produce high quality friendships
53 Understanding Others Learning Objectives As children develop, how do their descriptions of others change?How does understanding of other’s thinking change as children develop?When and why do children develop prejudice towards others?
54 Children’s Description of Others Goes through stages, concrete to conceptualYoung children use concrete descriptors such as appearance and possessions, and see people more positively than negatively8-14 yo begin to include psychological traits such as funny or smart16yo integrate traits and give more complex descriptions such as describing how and when a person is sarcastic
55 Selman’s TheoryChildren move through stages of development of perspective taking, preoperational children are egocentric, think others think as they doChildren at higher stages of cognitive development are at higher levels of perspective takingChildren who are more advanced in perspective taking are more well liked by theirpeers
56 Selman’s Stages of Perspective Taking Undifferentiated age 3-6, Children know that self and others can have different thoughts and feelingsSocial-informational 4-9yrs, Children know that perspectives differ because people have access to different information, believe people think a certain way because they do not have some informationSelf-reflective, 7-12-yrs. Children can step into another’s shoes and view themselves as others do; they know that others can do the same
57 Selman’s Stages of Perspective Taking Third-person, yrs, Children can step outside the immediate situation to see how they and another person are viewed by a third personSocietal, 14 to adult, Adolescents realize that a third-person perspective is influenced by broader personal, social, and cultural contexts. Realize that many would think its silly to watch TV on a sunny day
58 PrejudiceWhen children learn that they belong to a particular group, they learn prejudice ( more of an enhanced view of their group that a negative view of others in preschool and kindergarten)-decreases during elementary school-increases again in adolescenceChildren tend to view members of groups as more homogenous that they really arePrejudice may be related to social status-the higher the status of the group, the morepositive it is viewed-reduced by discussion and role play
59 Prejudice, How to Discourage Encourage friendly contact between different groupsGroups must be equal and not in competition with each otherParents and teachers must model and reduce prejudiceHave groups work together toward common goals, projectsHave children play different rolesEducate with stories of racism