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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-1 Chapter 10: Social Behaviour and Personality in Preschool Children 10.1 Self 10.2 Relationships with Parents 10.3 Relationships with Siblings and Peers 10.4 Moral Development: Learning to Control One’s Behaviour MODULES
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-2 Module 10.1 Self LEARNING OBJECTIVES Understand gender stereotyping and how it may differ for boys and girls. Explain how adults, children, and biology contribute to children’s learning of gender roles. Recognize whether preschool children have high self-esteem.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-3 Gender Roles In North America, males are seen as instrumental, women as expressive. Not shared worldwide: US views on gender are extreme. Gender stereotyping of activities familiar to the child occurs in girls as in young as 24 months, and in boys by 31 months. Preschoolers view stereotypes as binding for all boys and girls. Cross-cultural Data on Gender Stereotypes
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-4 Gender Identity Parents (particularly dads), peers, and media reinforce gender-related behavior. Gender identity develops gradually: gender labelling, stability, consistency, and constancy. Some evidence for genetic and hormonal influences.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-5 Effects of TV on Gender Stereotyped Views
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-6 Self-Esteem Preschoolers must achieve a sense of purpose (balance between individual initiative and cooperation). Preschoolers have positive views of self across many different domains.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-7 Module 10.2 Relationships with Parents LEARNING OBJECTIVES Describe a systems view of family dynamics. Name the primary dimensions of parenting. Identify what parental behaviours affect children’s development. Explain the ways children help determine how parents rear them. Recognize the role the family configuration plays in children’s development.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-8 The Family as a System Parents influence children directly and indirectly. Parents influence each other and both are influenced by outside forces (e.g., work).
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-9 Parenting Behavior, Dimensions and Styles Two primary dimensions: warmth and control. Styles: authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent-permissive, and indifferent- uninvolved. Cultural differences in warmth and control. Parental behaviour includes direct instruction, observing and feedback. Direct instruction: telling children what to do, when, and why. Observing: children learn from watching others, including parents and their treatment of siblings. Feedback: reinforcement useful but parents often unknowingly reinforce behaviours they want to prevent.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-10 Children’s Contributions Parenting is often influenced by children’s behaviour. Defiance encourages authoritarian parenting. Parenting varies depending upon individual characteristics of children.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-11 Family Configuration Grandparents have many different styles: formal, fun-seeking, distant, dispensing- family-wisdom, and surrogate-parent. Children of gay and lesbian parents resemble children of heterosexual parents. Multiple adults are important in the lives of children, but who the adults are seems to matter less than how they care for the children.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-12 Module 10.3 Relationships with Siblings and Peers LEARNING OBJECTIVES Understand how first born, later-born, and only children differ. Understand what determines how well siblings get along. Recognize how preschool children play together and how parents influence their play.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-13 Sibling Relationships Firstborns and “onlies” tend to be more adult- and achievement-oriented; laterborns tend to be more innovative and popular with their peers. Siblings get along best when (1) they are same sex, (2) neither is emotional, (3) younger enters adolescence, (4) parents don’t show favoritism, and (5) parents have warm relationship with each other.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-14 Peer Relationships and Preschoolers’ Play Make-believe play: reflects cultural values and promotes cognitive development. Solitary play: common and normal unless children just wander aimlessly. Parents’ roles include playmate, mediator, and coach.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-15 Module 10.4 Moral Development: Learning to Control One’s Behaviour LEARNING OBJECTIVES Identify when self-control begins and how it changes as children develop. Describe how parents influence their children’s ability to maintain self-control. List the strategies children can use to improve self-control. Recognize when preschoolers begin to understand what moral rules are different from other rules.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-16 Beginnings of Self-Control 1 year--aware that others impose demands. 2 years--have internalized some controls. 3 years—can devise ways to regulate their own behaviour. Ability to maintain self-control is stable over development.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-17 Parental Influences Parental models are important. Self-control more likely when parents have control themselves. Giving children more opportunities to regulate own behaviour fosters self-control. Children’s temperament affects parents’ efforts to promote self-control. Temperament, Discipline, and Compliance
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-18 Temperamental Influences on Self-Control Children who are naturally fearful respond to parents’ requests to comply with rules. Children who are not naturally fearful respond to parents’ requests to cooperate that are based on the attachment relationship between parent and child. To improve self-control remind children of the need to resist temptation (e.g., long-term goals more important than short-term goals) and make tempting events less attractive.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-19 Learning About Moral Rules By age 3, most children can distinguish social conventions (e.g., we can eat French fries, but not green beans, with our fingers) from moral rules. Preschool children can distinguish between lies and mistakes.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada10-20 Conclusions Compared to adults in other countries, North American adults have more extreme stereotypes of men and women. Parents treat sons and daughters similarly, except for gender- related behaviour. Self-esteem is at its peak in the preschool years. Children benefit from warm, responsive parenting. Children learn a great deal from parents simply by watching them. Parents’ behaviour and styles often evolve over time as a consequence of their children’s behaviour. Self-control during the preschool years predicts later behaviour, personality and achievement. Moral reasoning emerges in the preschool years when children distinguish moral rules from social conventions.
Chapter 3 Individual Differences and Work Behavior
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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada12-1 Chapter 12: Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood 12.1 Cognitive Processes 12.2 The Nature of Intelligence.
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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada11-1 Chapter 11: Physical Development in Middle Childhood 11.1 Growth of the Body 11.2 Motor Development MODULES.
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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada13-1 Chapter 13: Social Behaviour and Personality in Middle Childhood 13.1 Self-Esteem 13.2 Relationships with.
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