Presentation on theme: "Imperialism: Conquest and rule of a foreign land to benefit home country."— Presentation transcript:
Imperialism: Conquest and rule of a foreign land to benefit home country
The World in 1600 Why would Britain emerge as the great Imperial power, more than the Spanish, French, Holland, Portugal, Germans?
This company could claim there was no Independent India, just doing business. But Indian nationalism will not go away. Pope’s decrees to keep India under Catholic Spain and Portugal ignored after 1588.
British East India Company Agents 1-E Elizabeth I granted license to new company in Monopoly, no other Brit competition.
Coins of the British East India Co coin 1804 coin 1719 coin 1804 coin At first BEIC tried to get concessions from Great Moghul Jahangir but he sees no reason, his every wish is law.. So Britain has quiet trade. Involuntary transformation , no plan.
Coffee House in British India Moghuls decadent, elaborate luxury, absolute power but could not keep peace over large area land. Intrigue, disputes, open warfare.
Sepoy soldiers 1-F Marathas were best hope for India wide government but filled with bandits, plunderers, not popular. Extremes of wealth and power. Why would joining the Sepoys be an attractive profession for an Indian?
Sir Robert Clive 1-G Highlights of this key player in the history of the Raj: Competition with French and Joseph Dupleix over the Carnatic coast (near Madras) French and English were at war in Europe, one must leave India! Seige of Arcot 1751 Marathas join in Calcutta another bigger crisis! New Nawab tries to expel growing BEIC.
Black Hole of Calcutta 1756 Airless dungeon 146 English men and women imprisoned one night Only 20 came out alive The rest died of suffocation, thirst and shock. England enraged at Siraj who was portrayed as the torturer
Battle of Plassey: H Robert Clive had cleverly signed alliances with rivals of Siraj At Plassey, a small village near Calcutta 3000 British faced 55,000 of Siraj’s army Siraj advised to flee and did, bulk of army followed His rival Mir Jaffir kills Suraj. Jaffir crowned as Nawab of Bengal, got much $ Clive and other BEIC employees got very rich
Why was Britain so successful in India by the end of the 18c?? 1-I 1.English goods allowed to travel duty-free throughout Bengal while Indian merchants were taxed and restricted. 2.Brits collect enormous bribes by dispensing political favors 3.Viewed as plunder in England, national disgrace 4.Clive takes over Bengal, does many good things. Read Jensen!
Sir Warren Hastings r Knew India well Personal integrity But asked to do two contradictory tasks: a)Provide “good government to Bengal” b) Yet also enrich company and Brit Government! What were the two crisis’ that Hasting faced? 1)American Revolution 2)Bombay and Madras uprisings 3)Acquitted but public trial showed rule of law
India in mid-18c
Lord Cornwallis r Aristocrat Surrendered to Washington Integrity and competence Civil service was to fight corruption ”steel frame” Three branches of gov’t: Revenue collecting Commercial Judicial Supreme court could rule over governor himself! Independent role! Soft on Tipu Sultan ruler of Mysore
Richard Wellesley 1798 – 1805 Defeated and killed Tipu Sultan of Mysore Age of expansion begins Subsidiary alliances “Sacred Trust” of British rule
Lord Bentinck r K He was Governor General of India and Bengal from 1828 – 1835 Reputation for ruthless financial efficiency & disregard for Indian culture led to story that he had once planned to demolish the Taj Mahal and sell off the marble! He tried to reform the Hindu society by abolition of the cruel rite of Sati and the suppression of the infanticide.
British Soldiers in India, 1830s
Outlawing Suttee (sati)
Fighting the Thuggees
British Opium Warehouse in Patna, India Selling Patna Opium in China
Lord Dalhousie r L GOOD GUY * far-sighted! Consolidated East India Co., * laid the foundations of its later administration * sound policy enabled his successors to stem the tide of rebellion. BAD GUY the destroyer of the East India Company's financial and military position through reckless policies.East India Company He laid the foundations of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 Indian Rebellion of 1857 Made Raj into a money-losing colonial administration.
India: 18c-early 19c
Sir Raghubir Singh, Maharaja of Bundi
The Maharaja of Pannah
The Palace of the Nawab of Moorshedabad, Bengal
The Sepoy Mutiny: A
Areas of the Sepoy Mutiny, 1857
The Seige of Lucknow
Execution of Sepoys: “The Devil’s Wind” 2-B
1876: Queen Victoria Becomes “Empress of India” 2-D
Queen Victoria in India PAX BRITANNICA
Queen Victoria: Receiving the Crown of India
Sikhs – Bengal Cavalry of the British Army 2-E
15 th Ludhiana Sikhs, 1889
Assorted British Soldiers, 1890s
Bengal Medical Service, 1860
A Life of Leisure!
Br. Viceroy’s Daughter: Simla, 1863
Lady Curzon, 1904
Living Like a Maharajah
Darjeeling Railroad, 1880s
Simla: Little England in the mountains of India
Procession of the Rajahs, New Delhi, 1902
Victoria Station, Bombay
Chartered Bank of Calcutta, 1915
Theosophical Library – Madras, 1913
What were the BENEFITS of British rule in India?? 2-F
2-G What were the major LIMITATIONS of British rule in India??
The Indian National Congress 1885 The Indian National Congress was founded in Bombay. swaraj “independence.” * the goal of the movement.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
the Muslim League 1905 partition of Bengal based on religions and languages. 1906 creation of the Muslim League.
Mohammed Ali Jinnah
Young Mohandas K. Gandhi,
Gandhi with the london vegetarian society, 1890
Gandhi as a Young Barrister in Natal
Gandhi as a Lawyer in Johannesburg, So. Africa
Gandhi and His Wife, Kasturba, 1915
Amritsar Massacre, dead; over 1200 wounded!
Salt March, 1930 Making Salt
Gandhi spinning cloth Indian weaving was ruined by the competition of British machine-made textiles!
Gandhi and His Grandaughters, 1947
Last Viceroy of India Lord Louis & Lady Edwina Montbatten