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Jainism: The Religion Jainism is an ascetic religion of India that teaches the immortality and pilgrimage of the soul, denies the existence of a supreme.

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Presentation on theme: "Jainism: The Religion Jainism is an ascetic religion of India that teaches the immortality and pilgrimage of the soul, denies the existence of a supreme."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jainism: The Religion Jainism is an ascetic religion of India that teaches the immortality and pilgrimage of the soul, denies the existence of a supreme being and emphasizes the art of non-violence.

2 JAINISM Response to Hinduism and rejection of castes system
“Founder”—Mahavira or the last of 23 founders Tirthankaras—“ford builders” or “crossing builders”

3 Tirthankaras—“ford builders” or “crossing builders”

4 Origins of Jainism The exact place where Jainism started is not confirmed, but India is most commonly referred to as the place of origin. Jainism, as a religion, was, at various times, found all over South Asia including Sri Lanka and what are now Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma and Afghanistan. Jainism started out in the sixth century B.C as a protest against the overdeveloped rituals of Hinduism. The actual date is still questioned, but it is believed that it started no earlier than 850 B.C (7th-5th Century B.C).

5 Jainism Jainism is an ancient religion from India that teaches that the way to liberation and bliss is to live lives of harmlessness and renunciation The essence of Jainism is concern for the welfare of every being in the universe and for the health of the universe itself

6 History of Jainism Jainism doesn't have a single founder
Religious truth has been revealed at different times by a tirthankara, which means a teacher who “shows the way”. Other religions call such a person a 'prophet'. As great omniscient teachers, tirthankaras accomplished moksha and then teach others how to achieve it.

7 The founders of Jainism
24 Tirthankaras (“ford maker”): great teachers Going back countless thousands of years before recorded history Mahavira (“great hero”) – the 24th and final Tirthankara – reformer of ancient Jainism Nataputta Vardhamana Lived BCE in northeast India 30 years as student (never married) 12 years as ascetic renunciant 30 years as spiritual teacher (tirthankara)

8 Tirthankaras appears in the world to teach the
way to moksha, or liberation. not an incarnation of the God. great omniscient teachers who lived at various times in man's cultural history. accomplished the highest spiritual goal of existence Each new tirthankara preaches the same basic Jain philosophy 24 tirthankaras during this present age Svetambara Jains believe that tirthankaras can be men or women, but Digamber Jains believe that women can't be tirthankaras

9 Tirthankaras Parshva: four of the five Jain principles Mahavira
Not the founder of Jainism world's most recent tirthankara (and will be the last one in this age). born as Vardhamana in north east India in 599 BCE a prince, the son of King Siddhartha and Queen Trishala live the life of an ascetic, or a sadhana extremely long, arduous periods of fasting and meditation. attained Kevalnyan, enlightenment taught the path he had discovered to other seekers. Mahavira added the principle of chastity established a community of 14,000 monks and 36,000 nuns before he died.

10 Jainism: Tirthankaras
In what Jains call the 'present age' there have been 24 tirthankaras - although there is little evidence for the existence of most of these. A tirthankara appears in the world to teach the way to moksha, or liberation. One such tirthankara was Mahavira ( BCE), regarded as the man who gave Jainism its present form

11 Jainism History Jainism: founded by Mahavira in the sixth century BCE
contains elements of Hinduism and Buddhism practice non-violence or non-injury

12 Mahavira

13 Mahavira ca. 599-527 BCE Parallels Buddha’s life
Family wealth vs. poverty Joined ascetics Became far more extreme Ahimsa yields true release Ahimsa produces Jina (release from this life or conqueror over attachment, hence the name Jain)

14 Jainism: Early life of Mahavira
Mahavira was originally born as Vardhamana in north east India He was a prince, thus a member of the kshatriya (warrior) caste When Prince Vardhamana turned 30, not long after the death of both his parents, he left the royal palace to live the life of an ascetic, (one who renounces all worldly pleasures and comforts)

15 BACKGROUND At age 30, Mahavira renounced all his wealth, property, wife, family, pleasures Fasted 2 days without water Took off clothes except for a cloth around his shoulder Tore out hair in 5 handfuls Vowed to neglect his body and suffer all pain Eventually gave up his cloth too (gave it to someone else who needed it) At the age of thirty Mahavira renounced all his wealth, property, wife, family, relatives, and pleasures. In a garden of the village Kundapura at the foot of an Ashoka tree, no one else being present, after fasting two days without water he took off all his clothes, tore out the hair of his head in five handfuls, and put a single cloth on his shoulder. He vowed to neglect his body and with equanimity to suffer all calamities arising from divine powers, people, or animals. Having already attained before marriage the first three levels of knowledge (knowledge from the senses and mind, knowledge from study, and knowledge from intuition), at this initiation it was said he attained the fourth level of knowledge that includes the psychological movements of all sentient beings. Thus Mahavira became homeless. As he was leaving the garden, a Brahman beggar, who had missed out on the last year of Mahavira's almsgiving, asked him for alms; he gave him half of the garment on his shoulder. After thirteen months he gave up clothes altogether.

16 “Neglecting his body, the venerable ascetic Mahavira meditated on his self, in blameless lodgings and wandering, in restraint, kindness, avoidance of sinful influence, chaste life, in patience, freedom from passion, contentment; practicing control, circumspectness, religious postures and acts; walking the path of nirvana and liberation, which is the fruit of good conduct. Living thus he with equanimity bore, endured, sustained, and suffered all calamities arising from divine powers, men, and animals, with undisturbed and unafflicted mind, careful of body, speech, and mind.” (Acharanga Sutra)

17 Mahavira as an ascetic He spent twelve and a half years subjecting himself to extremely long, arduous periods of fasting and meditation- and he attained enlightenment (perfect absolute knowledge) Therefore was later called Mahavira (the name is from maha, great, and vira, hero) He had become a jina- spiritual conqueror

18 Mahavira as teacher From that day forward Mahavira taught the path he had discovered to other seekers After a final period of intensive fasting he attained nirvana (absolute bliss), and the Moksha (release from samsara) Mahavira added the principle of chastity to make the Five Jain principles (no violence, no lying, no stealing, no possessions)

19 PARSVA 23rd Tirthankara 9th C, BCE

20 MAHAVIRA AND PARSVA Once Mahavira recognized as Tirthankara, probably inherited Parsva’s followers

21 Key Figures in Jainism Left: Mahavira picture Top: Mahavira statue
Right: Mahavira on LionThrone Above: Rock image of 24 Tirthankaras

22 Key Figures of Jainism Vardhamana Mahavira is the most important figure in Jainism as he was the last in line of the Tirthankaras. He was born in 599 B.C. and died in 527 B.C. His birthplace was Kundalpur, India. His life and teachings were dedicated to the art of ahimsa or non-violence, which is the central belief of Jainism. He grew up in India where Hinduism was the dominant religion. He accepted the aspects of Hinduism, but felt that some changes needed to be made. It was he who built up the Jain Church and laid such a firm foundation for it that it has existed almost unchanged for more than twenty-five centuries.

23 Jainism

24 Jainism There are about 4 million Jains today, most of them “lay people” Historians consider Jainism to have been founded by Mahavira ( BCE) as a reaction to the conservative Brahminism of the 6th-century BCE In general, they do NOT accept the Hindu Scriptures or rituals, but they do share a belief in the transmigration of souls The most obvious characteristic of them is their devotion to the principle of ahimsa, or non-injury monks wear a veil even lay people forbidden to drink after sunset

25 Jainism (cont.) Jains are followers of the Jinas, or “tirthankaras” (the ford-makers, who reveal the path to moksha) They believe 24 tirthankaras appear in every half cycle Mahavira is the 24th tirthankara in this cycle A contemporary of Buddha, Mahavira renounced the world at the age of 30, and after 12 years as a wandering ascetic achieved enlightenment He then converted 12 disciples who structure his teachings into the Jain Scriptures He died in meditation and became a liberated soul

26 What is Jainism? At least 2500+ years old
Followed by million people mostly in India Life affirming but world-denying Seeks to release the soul from the round of rebirth, to liberate spirit from matter Ahimsa – non-violence – is the hallmark of this spiritual discipline No creator god Spiritual life is primarily moral rather than ritualistic

27 What is Jainism? Living Jains are followers of JINA, the conqueror of inner enemies. These inner enemies (Kashay) are anger(Krodh), greed(lobh), ego(man) and deceit(maya). These arise out of attachment(rag): leading to greed and pride and aversion(dvesh): leading to deceit and anger. Jainism is a religion of self-help: with out any outside agency - even god coming to the rescue of the soul. The soul is its own destroyer or liberator.

28 Jainism: Key Beliefs Ahimsa - The central Jain belief is an agreement to avoid physical violence and conduct that can be mentally and emotionally damaging to oneself or others. It also involves commitment to all life forms on earth and not engaging in practices which may bring harm. Karma – the belief that for every action, there is a consequence. Reincarnation – One’s soul that is reborn into different bodies over the course of many lives. Proper Conduct - Jains are encouraged to make a vow to conduct themselves according to the following principles: 1) Non-violence (ahimsa) 2) Truthfulness 3) Non- Stealing 4) Celibacy 5) Non-possession

29 Jainism: Key Beliefs Moksha - Results in the elimination of the effects of karma in one’s life (achieved through meditation) Atomism - Jains believe that every living thing on the planet possesses a soul or “Jiva”. They also believe that people are bound to act more compassionately if they acknowledge that everything is composed of a spirit or soul. No absolutes - No perspective of any person is wrong, despite the fact that different perspectives have different effects on the specific situation.

30 TEACHINGS OF JAINISM Reincarnation—until one finally breaks the cycle
Karma is the glue that sticks you to life Reduce involvement and one reduces karma Dualism: Jiva=soul=good, pure, eternal Ajiva=matter=bad, impure, temporal Asceticism cleanses the soul of the karma Salvation comes from ones work at release God, prayers, rituals, etc. aren’t necessary

31 Major Tenets Everything is eternal; there is no all-powerful “God” that has created the world. When a living being dies, it is reincarnated. All living beings have souls. The 3 gems. Reverence for the deities (Siddhas, Jinas, and the 24 Tirthankaras). Vegetarianism, or Fruitarianism. The great vows, the Mahavrats.

32 Jain Beliefs: Karma & Reincarnation
Karma: impurity of the soul that keeps the soul bound to the cycle of rebirth into matter Karma is built-up through actions in this world: thoughts, words, deeds, attitudes Reduce and eliminate karma so as to achieve moksha (nirvana)– release of the soul from the cycles of rebirth How are we to do this?…

33 Reincarnation As soon as a person (or any living being) dies, his or her soul is immediately reborn in another life form. If one’s spirituality is such that it should require punishment, a person may be required to spend time in one of seven hells. Unlike most views of hell, each stage of hell becomes increasingly colder. One’s stay in hell is not eternal; once the punishment is sufficient, a person’s soul will be reborn into another life form. If people can escape all karma (good and bad), they will be reborn as a Siddhas, or liberated souls, in the highest level of heaven, where they will be eternally happy and separate from the world.

34 Karma Karma is the natural moral law of the universe, in which every good or bad action has a corresponding effect on the person doing that action. According to Jainism there are 2 types of Karma . Ghati (destructive) and Aghati (non-destructive), each containing several sub-categories. The goal of Jainism is to liberate one’s soul, to become a Jina (spiritual victor). To become a Jina, one must escape Karma by leading an ascetic and intrinsically pure life.

35 Jain Beliefs: Karma Karma is the mechanism that determines the quality of life The happiness during a being's present life is the result of the moral quality of the actions of the being in its previous life A soul can only achieve liberation by getting rid of all the karma attached to it

36 Jain Beliefs: Karma The Jain idea of karma is much more elaborate and mechanistic than that found in some other Indian religions Karma is a physical substance- think floating dust which sticks to the soul, or as types of atomic particle which are attracted to the soul as a result of our actions, words and thoughts

37 Jain Beliefs: Karma On their own, karma particles have no effect but when they stick to a soul they affect the life of that soul We attract karma particles when we do or think or say things, if we kill something, when we tell a lie, when we steal and so on The accumulation of karma causes us to have bad thoughts and actions, these bad actions attract more karma, and so on.

38 Avoiding and Removing Karma
Karma can be avoided in two ways 1. By behaving well - so no karma is attracted 2. By having the right mental state - so that even if an action attracts karma, the correct mental attitude of the being means that karma either doesn't stick to that soul The karma that has built up on the soul can be removed by living life according to the Jain vows.

39 What is Jain Activity? Any activity of body, Speech or Mind that helps us 1. Develop disinterest in satisfying the desires of our five senses (control over passions) 2. Eliminate anger, ego, deceit, greed (Kashay) within our selves 3. Develop a vision to look for only good in others and completely ignore bad in others. -Acharya Haribhadrasuriji ( AD) in ‘Darshanshastra’

40 Key Practices and Rituals
Meditation (samayika) - the process of eliminating self-centered thinking and becoming united with the spirit that governs the universe Mantras - the Five Homages (panka namaskarais) are recited on a daily basis, usually in the morning; another mantra called ahimsa vikas, helps Jains to pursue a life without violence. Worship - takes place at stone temples or at wooden shrines near the house which resemble the temple itself. Fasting - occurs at mostly festivals and holy days such as Paryushana and Mauna Agyaras

41 Meditations & Mantras Meditation (samayika) is an integral part of Jainism. During meditation and worship, Jains often recite mantras or prayers. The most fundamental of the Jain mantras is the Navkar Mantra.

42 The Navkar Mantra Namo Arihantanum: I bow down to Arihanta
Namo Siddhanam: I bow down to Siddha Namo Ayariyanam: I bow down to Acharya Namo Uvajjhayanam: I bow down to Upadhyaya Namo Loe Savva-sahunam: I bow down to Sadhu & Sadhvi. Eso Panch Namokaro: These five bowing downs, Savva-pavappanasano: Destroy all the sins, Manglanach Savvesim: Amongst all that is auspicious, Padhamam Havei Mangalam: This Navkar Mantra is the foremost.

43 Key Practices and Rituals
Small brooms are carried to sweep insects away from their path Jain nuns and monks do not accept food that is not cooked by themselves, they do not physically touch people of the opposite sex, and they wear simple white clothes or even nothing at all. A disciplined life is expected from all believers of Jainism, not only the monks or the nuns Sacred Rituals - performed at the temple These are some of the rituals: Puja Samayik Namokar Mantra

44 Birth There are a few simple ritual that are performed after the birth of a child Priyodhbhav Sanskar: ten days of cleansing, during which no rituals are performed, but mantras may be chanted by the priests and offerings received for the child at a temple. Namkaranan Sanskar: the ritual of naming the child, performed on the 11th, 13th, or 29th after birth. The name for a boy is selected from the 1008 Jinasahasranam, and for girls chosen from the names of the woman in the Puranas.

45 Rites of Passage/Puberty Rites
The rites of passage/puberty rites (concerning the laity) that Jains practice are not strictly practices of Jainism. Rather they are often the local Hindu customs. These customs are acceptable as long as the do not violate the ethics of Jainism.

46 Baptism The Jains do not practice baptism. However, they do have rules that must be followed when using water. Water should be filtered before use to prevent harm to living creatures that may be in the water Some stricter (more spiritual) Jains do not bathe and only use water as necessary

47 Marriage Rituals Marriage is considered a social contract, not a religious practice. The wedding ceremony may be simple or very elaborate. The rituals performed around the time of marriage vary from one community to another, but are numerous and may include some of the following:

48 Marriage Rituals Pre-Wedding -
Vagdana: Parents declare intended marriage Laghana Lekhan: marriage negotiation finalized Sagai and Lagna Patrika Vachan: engagement ceremonies/rituals Matruka and Kulkar Sthapan: gods and goddesses are invoked to bless the couple Wedding Ceremony – Ghudhchadi: groom’s ritual on the day before the wedding Vara Ghoda: the groom’s procession to the wedding Torana Vidhi: welcoming ceremony at the wedding Paraspara Mukh Avalokana: bride and groom look at each other

49 Marriage Rituals Hasta Melap: joining ceremony, priest’s words to the couple Toran Pratishtha: the goddess Lakshmi is honored Vedi Pratishtha: the gods of Kshetras are honored Agni Sthapan: sacred fire ritual; offerings to the fire god Abisheka: couple’s heads are anointed with water Gotrachar: lineages of the couple are pronounced Granthi Bandhan: ceremonial tying of the couple together Agni Pradakshina: the couple circles the sacred fire four times while reciting a different mantra each time around Kanyadaan: before the last stage of Agni Pradakshina, the father presents the bride to the groom

50 Marriage Rituals Vakshepa: “Lord Adinath was married with this ceremony…” Second Abisheka: priest wishes the couple well Kar-mochan: couple are released, ceremony is ended Post Wedding – Ashirvada: the elders bless the couple Reception: wedding feast Sva Graha Aagamana: bride goes to her new home. Jina Grahe Dhan Arpana: alms are given at a Jain temple in thankfulness to the gods

51 Death Rites When a person dies, he or she is cremated as soon as possible. The body is placed on a bier and taken to a place where it can be burned without harming any living beings. The body is taken from the bier and covered with wood. The body is covered with ghee, camphor, and sandalwood powder. The last rites are performed by the son of the deceased. The son circles the pyre 3 times while sprinkling water on the body. While chanting the Namokar Mantra, he lights the pyre. After a while, milk is poured over the scorched area and the remains are collected in bags. The remains are placed in hole and sprinkled with salt. The hole is covered and the rituals are over.

52 Jainism New Religion Ritual Unnecessary Nonviolence
500 BC, group of Hindus broke away, founded new religion called Jainism Led by teacher Mahavira, Jains thought most Hindus put too much emphasis on ritual Ritual Unnecessary Jains thought ritual unnecessary People could achieve moksha by giving up worldly things, carefully controlling actions Nonviolence Central to Jain teaching, idea of ahimsa, nonviolence Most Hindus also practiced ahimsa, but not to same extent Jains carefully avoid harming living creatures, are usually vegetarians

53 Other Traits Lifestyle Principles Jains promise to tell only truth
Avoid stealing Strive to eliminate greed, anger, prejudice, gossip from lives These things can prevent person from achieving moksha Most devout become monks, nuns, give up possessions Live outdoors, seek shelter only during rainy months Cover mouths with masks, sweep ground to avoid accidentally killing insects Lifestyle Most Jains not monks, nuns Pledge to uphold principles of ahimsa, have careers that do not involve harming of animals Jainism calls for periodic fasting, especially during festivals, on holy days; limiting worldly possessions Principles

54 Jain Beliefs: Spiritual Beings
Jina: (conqueror) an enlightened being who has conquered material existence and released the soul from the round of rebirth Tirthankara: a jina who is a great spiritual teacher Siddha: a liberated soul The goal of Jainism: to become a Jina, thus freeing one’s soul from the material realm we can all become “gods” but these gods do not intervene or respond to petitionary prayer

55 Jain Beliefs: Jiva & Ajiva
Jiva = life-giving spirit (soul) Ajiva = inert/non-living matter All living beings contain soul and are considered Jiva (soul trapped in matter): Humans Animals Plants Microscopic life-forms trapped in matter (water beings, rock beings, fire beings, air beings)

56 Jain practices: Spiritual Discipline
Ahimsa: non-violence to any and all life forms. Intent to do no harm. Strict vegans (avoid all meat and animal products, including milk, eggs, fish and even avoid root vegetables). Aparigraha: non-attachment Anekantwad: non-hatred Asceticism: to live a monastic life, detached from this world and society – a life of poverty and chastity

57 Unique Teachings of Jainism
God is not a Creator, Preserver or Destroyer of the Universe Every living being has a potential to become God Path of liberation is to follow rational perception, rational Knowledge and rational conduct Conquer your desire by your own effort to attain liberation

58 Unique Teachings of Jainism
Proper knowledge of universal substances and fundamental Tattvas are essential for rational perception, knowledge and conduct Self purification, penance, austerity and meditation are essential for rational conduct

59 Unique Teachings of Jainism
Universal love (Ahimsa) Anekantvad (Non absolutism) Aparigraha (Non-attachment)

60 Jain hand is the emblem of the Jainism, which symbolizes Ahimsa, nonviolence, the wheel in the center is the wheel of Samsara, the word in the center of the wheel reads “stop.”

61 Other Jain Concepts Ahimsa- Non violence
Jains must do their best to avoid any intentional hurt to living things Jains must be vegetarians If a Jain's work unavoidably causes harm (e.g. farming) they should try to minimize the harm Doctrine of many-sidedness

62 Ahimsa (Non violence) Ahimsa is disciplined behavior towards every living being Dashvaikalika Sutra (6/9) Absence of violence of any sort towards all beings at all times is Ahimsa. - Yogasutra In its absolute definition, ‘Ahimsa is the absence of evil thoughts, feelings or attitude’

63 Ahimsa (Non violence) Ahimsa is not to be practised at the physical level only but at a mental one as well. In other words, it is stated that there should be no Himsa by ‘ Man ‘ (mind), ‘Vachan’ (speech), or ‘Kaya” (body). Even hurting feelings is himsa.

64 Vegetarians Because of Ahisma, Jains do not believe in harming living beings, which all have souls. This means that they do not eat meat, and many of them do not eat vegetables either. The strictest of the Jains eat only fruits, nuts, and milk, which are acceptable because they are the byproducts of livings beings, not the actual beings themselves.

65 Anekantvad ( Non-absolutism)
Expression of Truth (Existent) is Relative or Non-absolute Truth (Existent) is expressed in many ways One cannot make definite statement about Truth or Existent, each statement is true in its own limited sense To understand the nature of Existent, one requires the vision of seeing an entity from all direction which is Anekantvad

66 Fundamental Beliefs The soul exists in contamination with karmic matter and it longs to be purified Living beings differ due to the varying density and types of karmic matter The karmic bondage leads the soul through the states of existences (cycles) Karmic fusion is due to our ignorence, nonrestraint, carelessness, passions and activities

67 Fundamental Beliefs Violence to oneself and others results in the formation of the heaviest new karmic matter, whereas helping others with positive nonviolence results into the lightest new karmic matter Austerity forms the karmic shield against new karmons as well as setting the decaying process in the old karmic matter

68 Symbols symbol of the seventh Tirthankara. In the Svetambar Jain tradition, it is also one of the symbols of the ashra-mangalas (Eight Auspicious Signs). a wheel on the palm of a hand, symbolizing Ahimsa (non-violence). Triratna signify the three jewels of Jainism

69 The Sign of Jainism This is the sign of Jainism. Each part of the sign symbolizes an important principle or belief of Jainism. This symbol was adopted by all the sects of Jainism in honor of the 2500th anniversary of Lord Mahavira’s spiritual liberation.

70 Swastika and the Open Pal
Symbol of Jainism Swastika and the Open Pal The outline of this picture represents the universe in the Jain description. It is supposed to resemble a person standing on his feet with his feet apart, and the arms are rested on the hips. The swastika represents the soul in which it can be reborn and reincarnated into during the time it is in the universe. There are three dots above the swastika. They represent Right Faith, Right Knowledge, and Right Conduct. The three dots are the three jewels of Jain philosophy in which they believe liberation can be found. The half moon is where the liberated soul is being kept, and the dot inside of it is the liberated pure soul. The hand below the swastika is a gesture of blessing and protection. Inside the hand, there is a wheel of 24 spokes, and this represents Jinas. In the middle of the wheel, a word is inscribed which says: “ahimsa”

71 How to Become a Jain Jainism is a distinctly Indian religion, although anyone who is willing to meet their strict requirements can become a Jain. The most fundamental belief of Jainism is Ahisma, complete non-violence toward all living beings. No other religion takes the principle of non-violence to the extent that the Jains do.

72 Requirements All Jains must:
Seek peace with their surroundings and be as non-violent as possible, Ahisma. Be truthful in everything, Satya. Deal honestly with people, they must not steal, Asteya. Practice the 3 Gems: Right faith, right conduct, right knowledge. The most important of these is faith, after it is obtained the others will follow.

73 FIVE VOWS OF JAINISM Ahimsa Speak the truth Don’t steal Celibacy
Renounce attachments

74 The Five Principles (Vows):
Non-violence (Ahimsa): complete avoidance of harm All living beings are equal Truthfulness (Satya): to always speak the truth in a harmless manner Non-stealing (Asteya): this also includes avoidance of greed and exploitation Chastity (Brahmacharya): monogamy and faithfulness are important Detachment from material things (Aparigraha): to detach from people, places, and material things.

75 Monks and Nuns Monks and nuns must base their lives on mahavrats, or the “great vows”. These include: Not injuring any life forms, Ahisma Truthfulness, Satya Not stealing, Asteya Celibacy, Brahmachanga Not accepting personal possessions, Aparigraha

76 Five Monastic Vows: Ahimsa: non-violence (do not harm others)
Satya: truth (do not lie) Achaurya: non-stealing Brahmacharya: celibacy & chastity Aparigraha: non-attachment/non-ownership (poverty)

77 Literature Agamas based on Mahavira teachings.
orally compiled by his disciples into various Sutras (texts) orally passed on from teachers (acaryas or gurus) to the disciples for several centuries. The scholars date the composition of Jain agamas at around 6th to 3rd century BCE.

Composed and compiled during 1000 years between death of Mahavira and Valabhi Council in 5th C, CE Vernacular language vs. Sanskrit

79 ANGAS and UPANGAS 11 Angas = main texts Books of Conduct
Books of Critique 12 Upangas = secondary limbs Narratives that pass on teachings for lay followers

Biographies of Tirthankaras (Kalpa Sutra) Numerous commentaries and philosophical writings Astronomy, study of logic, psychology Devotional poetry, epics and legends

81 Communion with the Gods & Holy Ones
The Jains commune with their deities by worshiping in temples, meditating, and reciting mantras. The Jains worship idols of Jinas, or “Spiritual Victors”. The most important of these Jinas are the Tirthankaras, or “Ford-Makers”, the 24 founders of Jainism.

82 Worship of the Jinas The Jains worship publicly in stone temples.
They worship by meditating, chanting mantras, and by gazing at and anointing the 24 images of the Tirthankaras, the “Ford Makers”. They also pay homage to all Jinas, or “spiritual victors”.

83 Holidays Mahavira Jayanti Mar 28
The birth anniversary of Lord Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankar and the "founder" of modern Jainism Paryushana Sep 5 The most important Jain festival, it consists of eight (Swetambara) or ten (Digambara) days of intensive fasting and repentance. A time of reflection. Diwali Nov 5 Diwali, the festival of lights, is the most popular of all the festivals from South Asia. It is an occasion for celebrations by Hindus as well as Jains and Sikhs.

84 JAIN SECTS White Clad—will wear white clothes (north)
Sky Clad—nudist (south) Sub-group of the White Clads—reject temples

85 Jain Monastics: Two major sects
Digambara (“sky clad”) Wear no clothes Live alone or in small groups in the forests Admit only men


87 Women religion of religious equality, devoted to recognising
the rights of all living creatures The sectarian divide The Difambara Jain sect believes that women cannot achieve liberation without being reborn as men first. The Svetambara sect disagrees. Nakedness nakedness is an essential element of the road to liberation. Mahavira himself, set an example of total nudity that Digambaras believe monks should follow. This ban on female nakedness is partly intended to protect both men and women: cause men to experience sexual feel ashamed of being naked. prevent the disruptive consequences of allowing women to walk around naked.

88 Women Ahimsa and women Digambaras also believe that women are inherently himsic (harmful). menstrual blood kills micro-organisms living in the female body. female body is less non-violent than a male body Impurity menstrual blood is a sign of impurity. Attachment nature is to care for children and other dependants

89 Jainism Monastic: Two Sects
Jain monks commit to the Great Vows: non-injury (ahisma) truth-speaking (satya) sexual abstinence (brahmacharya) non-stealing (asteya) detachment from persons, places, and things (aparigraha) Lay people take the “lesser vows” which try to apply the great vows to more “normal” modes of living: e.g., strict vegetarianism, no work that involves the deliberate destruction of life (e.g., hunting no, farming okay). In the fourth century CE a major split occurred: Digambaras: all possessions, including clothing are hindrance to liberation Shvetambaras: detachment is in the mind (and not wearing clothes can also cause injury; e.g., if you light a fire to stay warm) The only objects a Digambara monk is allowed to carry are a water-pot and a fly-whisk of peacock feathers.

90 Jain Monastics: Two major sects
Svetambara (“white clad”) Wear white robes Live in community Admit both men and women Some wear face masks to protect minute life forms from harm

91 SCHISMS: Svetambaras (white clad)
Protest that external signs (i.e., clothing) are insignificant View Mahavira’s decision as an option but not a requirement


93 OTHER DIFFERENCES: Position of women:
Svetambaras: women capable of becoming Tirthankaras (19th Tirthankara, Malli, was a woman) Women orders Digambaras: women must first be reborn as men No women orders Also, how many of 45 ANGAS = scripture


95 Other Jain Concepts Strict Jains sects went so far as to practice ascetic nudity (this was a kind of asceticism– physical suffering so one could learn to overcome it); they would not eat anything still attached to a plant; only seeds and fruits that had fallen off might be eaten. Jains might sweep in front of them as they walked so as not to step on bugs

96 White Clad monks

97 Lay Jainism (non-monastic)
Householders: marry and have children A simple life but not ascetic (may take temporary monastic vows) Modified vows (five plus seven more) to guide life in this world Maintain Vegan diet Do not expect to achieve moksha in this life (it takes full asceticism and monastic life to hope to become a Jina)

98 Lay Jainism: religious practices
Make pilgrimages to sacred sites (related to the lives of the Tirthankaras) Attend temples Revere the Tirthankaras Observe holy days: Mahavir Jayanti (April; commemorating the birth of Mahavira) Paryushana Parva (Aug. – Sept.; a festival of fasting and forgiveness) Mahavir Nirvan (Diwali) (Oct. – Nov.; commemorates the liberation [death] of Mahavira)

99 Political Influence Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi a Jain
some of his ideas on politics come from Jainism (from the 5 principles) pioneered satyagraha (truthfulness). defined as resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, a philosophy firmly founded upon ahimsa or total nonviolence. helped India to gain independence inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world.

100 Economic Influence set a limit to one’s own needs and whatever surplus one may accumulate beyond these needs should be donated to charities. keeps in check the concentration of wealth and paves the way for its wide and more even distribution. the growing gulf between the rich and the poor can be peacefully bridged. the fair distribution of wealth is essential. business dealings must be conducted in the non-acquisitive spirit of aparigraha.

101 Is Jainism Growing? There are an estimated 4 million Jains in the world. Jainism is not a fast growing religion, although there has been a small increase in adherents in the U. S. and U. K. in the last 40 years. Jains do not actively seek to convert others to Jainism, rather they are peaceful and accepting towards all peoples and religions.

102 Jainism in the 21st Century
As of early 21st century, there are 4.5 million followers. Most Jains live in India, with smaller populations in Canada, United Kingdom, and the United States. Jainism has been an influence for the Indian culture for over 2500 years and has contributed to Indian philosophy and logic, art and architecture, mathematics, astronomy and astrology, and literature. Jainism’s culture possibly influenced the religion of Buddhism today. There is little question that Jainism influenced the great Hindu Mohandas Gandhi. Even though it isn’t well known, Jainism has affected spiritual development of the world.

103 Jainism

104 Palitana, Gujarat












116 Similarities with Buddhism
Tolerant other religions Karma India Around the same time Same backgound story for founder or prophet Social equality Nirvana Liberation Non-violence

117 Jainism on the Web:
Jainism Literature Center (from Harvard University’s “Pluralism Project”): Fundamentals of Jainism: Jainism Heritage Centres, “your guide to Jain heritage centres across the globe”:

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