Presentation on theme: "Lucy Bradley Urban Horticulture Specialist Thanks to Steve Bambara, Charlotte Glen, Craig Mauney and Debbie Roos for content & images Best Management Practices."— Presentation transcript:
Lucy Bradley Urban Horticulture Specialist Thanks to Steve Bambara, Charlotte Glen, Craig Mauney and Debbie Roos for content & images Best Management Practices
Lucy Bradley Urban Horticulture Specialist Best Management Practices
It’s called the Food Chain!
Keep Plants Healthy Right Plant, Right Place Proper Planting Appropriate Water Encourage natural enemies Avoid Stress
Stress Reduces photosynthesis Reduces growth Attracts pests Stressors: Too dry or wet, Too high or low soil pH, Too low or too high nutrients, Planted too deep Compact soil Good Offense Drought stressed plants ‘glow’ and ‘scream’ to insects
Biodiversity Systems Approach Pests indicate problems Solution addresses the underlying problem, not just the symptom.
Monitor Identify Evaluate Choose Implement Image from
What is normal seasons of the year stages of life? What problems are typical? Insects? Diseases? Abiotic?
Learn to recognize the various stages of their life cycle
IPM uses all possible methods to keep damage below an acceptable level: Acceptable level varies between plants & people complete eradication is not the goal!
Environmental Factors we can manage: Soil management Plant selection Planting times and spacing Watering and mulching Sanitation Crop Rotation Trap Crops Environment Pathogen Host Disease Triangle Prevent disease by removing a factor
Environmental Factors we can manage: Soil management Plant selection Planting times and spacing Watering and mulching Sanitation Solarization Crop Rotation Environment Pathogen Host Disease Triangle Prevent disease by removing a factor
Soil Management Soil test Manage nutrients & pH Add organic matter Alleviate soil compaction Water appropriately Mulch
To till or to till not Benefits Disrupts life cycle of pests & beneficials Can expose pests to predators & the elements Till before planting to manage weeds that harbor armyworms, cutworms, plant bugs and aphids Till in fall to destroy overwintering sites for flea beetles, corn borers, squash bugs, etc. Drawbacks Can lead to compaction Erosion
Plant Selection Image from the Grumpy Gardener, Southern Living
Select Resistant Cultivars Many varieties of Crape Myrtle are resistant to powdery mildew
Select Healthy Plants
Plant Selection Power line pruning, photographed by flickr user Justin Berger]flickr user Justin Berger
Planting Dates Avoid heat and cold stress Avoid known pest problems by planting early or late. Plant squash early to avoid vine borers which become active in June
Shift Planting Dates Plant winter squash before June 1 to give rind time to harden before the pickleworm arrives.
Shift Planting Dates Plant corn early to avoid ear worm Plant crops susceptible to nematodes early while soil is cool Plant late to avoid rot and improve germination
Planting Direct seeded plants Require correct conditions to emerge and grow quickly Transplants may be more resilient
Plan for mature size Allow air flow between plants to promote drying & prevent disease Allow adequate space to minimize: competition for Water, Nutrients, & Light Habitat for pests Proper spacing depends on mature size of plant – most plants do best when leaves just touch at full size
To reduce disease, avoid wetting leaves Most fungal leaf diseases require 4 hrs + of continual leaf wetness to infect Water fan sprinklers spray water in the air, wetting foliage Drip irrigation delivers water through pipes directly to the soil
Weed Management Prevents annual weeds from coming up Reduces stress on plants Keeps soil cooler Conserves moisture Avoid ‘Volcano’ mulching! A 3” layer of mulch is good around trees and shrubs –
Manage weeds Eliminate habitat for pests & diseases Remove plant debris, (fallen fruit, twigs, and leaves) Prevents insects and diseases from overwintering Pick up twigs under pecan trees before eggs hatch and larva enter soil
Prepare soil for planting, water, then cover with clear, 1- 4 mil thick plastic for 5-6 weeks in the hottest part of the summer. Helps manage: weed seeds, pathogens, nematodes
Avoid planting crops in the same family in the same location multiple years. Crop Rotation
Manual Traps Exclusion Sanitation Environment Pathogen Host Disease Triangle Prevent disease by removing a factor
Traps Not much evidence to support the value of Japanese Beetle Traps
Stinkbugs on the Trap Crop Sesbania Rostrata
Exclusion cut worm collars, floating row cover, netting, mulches, sticky barriers (trunk bands), copper strips, bagging fruit, Kaolin plastic lined trenches and fencing A cardboard or foil collar can protect young vegetables from cutworms Floating row covers can keep flying adult insects from laying eggs on vegetables
Clay material ground to uniform size Forms a barrier on plant surface to insect and disease Must be sprayed ahead and every days Washes off easily, must be reapplied after rain Must be agitated to keep it suspended
Sanitation Prune out infected twigs and rake fallen twigs and leaves to prevent insects and diseases from overwintering. Canna Leaf Roller can be managed by cutting off old foliage in winter Rake up fallen leaves from plants showing leaf spot and other disease symptoms.
Beneficial Animals & Insects Predators Larva &/or adult eats pests One predator eats many pests Varied diet Parasitoids Egg is laid on the pest, immature consumes pest as it matures One parasite (sometimes many parasites) eat one pest. Very selective Beneficial Diseases Bacteria, virus, fungi, nematodes, protozoa Environment Pathogen Host Disease Triangle Prevent disease by removing a factor
Beneficials Hoover Fly adults look like bees or wasps Hoover fly larvae look like small slugs or caterpillars – voracious aphid eaters
Assassin Bugs Prey: aphids, caterpillars, beetles, leafhoppers, & other insects They do not like to be handled.
Big-eyed Bugs Prey: spider mites, thrips, aphids, and other insect eggs
Green (or Brown) Lacewings aka “Aphid Lion” Prey on: Soft-bodied insects – aphids, mites, insect eggs, thripes, mealybugs, immature whiteflies, small caterpillars 200+/week larva adult
Ground Beetles Large, dark, and sometimes metallic, they feed along the ground, especially at night. Prey: soft-bodied insects larva adult larva
Lady Bird Beetle Prey: aphids, mites, Insect eggs and small insects.
Minute Pirate Bug Prey: thrips, spider mites, aphids, and small insects. larva
Praying Mantids Eat relatively few insects in the garden.
Predaceous Stink Bugs Many stink bugs are pests, however, both as adults and as colorful nymphs predaceous stink bugs are predators. Prey: beetles and caterpillars
Predatory Flies Prey: thrips, mites, aphids, and insects larva Long Legged Fly Robber Fly
Predatory Fly Syrphid Flies larva The harmless adults resemble bees, but the small larvae consume many aphids. adult
Predatory Mites Move rapidly to catch and eat their plant-eating counterparts. They are often white, tan, or orange. Prey: spider mites thrips, fungus gnats other small insects and insect eggs
Soldier Beetles Adults resemble fireflies and are attracted to milkweed, hydrangea, and goldenrod. Prey: caterpillars, mites, grasshopper eggs, and small beetles
Wasps & Hornets Though often considered pests, these insects feed heavily on caterpillars, flies and other soft-bodied insects.
Parasitic Wasps Tiny Micro- and mini-wasps sting and lay eggs in caterpillars, Aphids, or insect eggs. The larvae consume their prey from within. Aphidius wasp ovipositing in aphid Scelionid wasp parasitizing stink bug eggs
On hornworm caterpillar
On hornworm egg
Tachinid Flies Heavily bristled Lay eggs on caterpillars, beetle larvae, and bugs
Parasitic Nematodes Apply with water late afternoon when soils are >60 degrees Soil properties impact success Follow directions
B.t.– Bacillus thuringiensis naturally occurring disease effective for caterpillar management Apply to undersides of leaves Most effective when pest are young Stop feeding within a few hours, slow death Spray in evening, breaks down in sunlight
Biorational Inorganic Synthetic Environment Pathogen Host Disease Triangle Prevent disease by removing a factor
Botanicals: Soaps, Oils, Plant Extracts (Pyrethrum, Neem, nicotine, rotenone, sabadilla) Microbial Spinosad When Compared to Synthetics: Break down faster Less persistent Usually not as potent but some are more toxic Broad spectrum (kill beneficials) Used in combination rather than as sole strategy Just as much care should be used
Insecticidal Soap kills soft body pests: aphids, whitefly, mites Kills only what it contacts – not eggs Repeated applications often necessary Do less damage to beneficial predators Manages: aphids, caterpillars, leafhopper nymphs, mealy bugs, scale crawlers, thrips, whiteflies Horticultural Oil kills by smothering, kills all life stages (eggs must be exposed) great for scale, spider mites, mealybug Dormant Oils (dormant season application) Superior Oils (summer use oils) can damage plants at high temperatures
Pyrethrum: Extracted from African chrysanthemums Contact poison, quick knock down Little residual Broad Spectrum – highly toxic to bees Manages: aphids, beetles, caterpillars, thrips, true bugs Neem (azadriachtin) Extracted from tree grown in Africa & India Hormone mimic Repellant Stomach poison and fungicidal properties Relatively non-toxic – little impact on adult beneficials Manages: Mexican bean beetle, squash bugs, aphids
Spinosad, developed from soil dwelling bacterium Causes death within a few days Effective for caterpillars, Colorado potato beetle, fire ants thrips Most effective when ingested
Used for disease management Copper – fungal and bacterial diseases Sulfur – fungal disease management Bordeaux Mix copper sulfate + hydrated lime Diatomaceous Earth Apply carefully Leaf damage can occur
Silicon dioxide, finely milled fossilized remains of diatoms Desiccant. Scratch insect exoskeleton or puncture gut lining Apply to wet foliage Manages: aphids, mites, caterpillars Use D.E. products registered by EPA as pesticides, “Natural Grade”, not “Pool Grade”
Older products: Sevin, Orthene, Malathion Broad spectrum, kill many different pests Usually more dangerous Newer products: Pyrethroids Permethrin, bifenthrin, Cypermethrin, Cyfluthrin, Deltamethrin, Esfenvalerate, Fluvalinate, Lambda-cyhalothrin Have much lower rates of active ingredient
Newer products Imidacloprid (Merit) – systemic Fipronil – long lasting, fire ant management Newer Products: Insect Growth Regulators Prevent molting, slow acting Most homeowner products available in fire ant baits Methoprene, Hydroprene, Fenoxycarb
Don’t use pesticides Avoid using dusts or powders Apply late in the date, after bees have returned to their hives Avoid spraying flowers
Is host valuable? Is problem properly identified? Is problem life/ health threatening? Is the plant prone to this problem? Are effective, legal treatments available? Will 1 to 2 applications suffice? Have cultural practices been used? Is treatment practical?
Keep plants healthy Identify the plant, and the pest. Study pest biology – target weakest link! For best management use cultural, mechanical, biological and chemical methods Only treat with pesticides after all of other methods explored - Use least toxic chemicals
Extension Publications NC Agricultural Chemical Manual National Pesticide Information Center Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Pesticide labels National Organic Program