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Integrated Pest Management

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Presentation on theme: "Integrated Pest Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Integrated Pest Management
Best Management Practices Image Charlotte Glen Lady bird beetle larva feed on aphids and other pests Unless otherwise noted, images in this presentation came from or Lucy Bradley Urban Horticulture Specialist Thanks to Steve Bambara, Charlotte Glen, Craig Mauney and Debbie Roos for content & images

2 Integrated Pest Management
Annihilate Obliterate Best Management Practices Lady bird beetle larva feed on aphids and other pests Eradicate Lucy Bradley Urban Horticulture Specialist

3 Integrated Pest Management
Best Management Practices Not talking about eradication or annihilate obliterate Notice that we are much humbler than we once were -- we are talking about “Management” not “Elimination”, and not even “Control” Lucy Bradley Urban Horticulture Specialist

4 There are no “pests” in a natural ecosystem . . .
It’s called the Food Chain!

5 Which is the Pest? What is a “pest” is purely a matter of perspective

6 My perspective might be radically different in this scenario

7 Good Offense Keep Plants Healthy Right Plant, Right Place
Proper Planting Appropriate Water Encourage natural enemies Avoid Stress What are 3 things you can do to encourage natural enemies? Learn to recognize natural enemies Leave some pests for them to feed on Avoid pesticides Avoid Stress! Stressed plants have more problems! Photosynthesis reduced = produce less energy Less able defend themselves Energy = growth + reproduction + defense Stressed plants actually attract pests! Common stresses: too dry or too wet, high or low soil pH, low nutrients, planted too deep, compact soil

8 Drought stressed plants ‘glow’ and ‘scream’ to insects
Good Offense Stress Reduces photosynthesis Reduces growth Attracts pests Stressors: Too dry or wet, Too high or low soil pH, Too low or too high nutrients, Planted too deep Compact soil Avoid Plant Stress Drought stressed plants ‘glow’ and ‘scream’ to insects

9 Good Offense Biodiversity Systems Approach Pests indicate problems
Solution addresses the underlying problem, not just the symptom.

10 5 Steps in IPM Monitor Identify Evaluate Choose Implement
Monitor garden and landscape regularly Look for good and bad pests Check pest prone plants 1st Identify problems and determine their potential to cause damage Don’t assume treatment necessary Evaluate the level of the problem and decide if treatment is needed Choose appropriate management measures Implement Apply as early as possible Goal is management, not elimination Pesticides alone will not solve all pest problems IPM is not an organic approach but uses all available options To develop an IPM Plan combine a great deal of information with a strategy that fits the pest and the situation. Pesticides give quick results – IPM Plan harder to implement, slower to show results, and may cost more. Image from

11 Monitor Monitor garden and landscape regularly
What are you monitoring? Where do you look? When do you look? Look for both pests and beneficials Check pest prone plants first! Monitor garden and landscape regularly Look for good and bad pests Check pest prone plants 1st

12 Identify the Plant What is normal seasons of the year stages of life?
What problems are typical? Insects? Diseases? Abiotic? What is normal? ID Plant Learn what is normal in various seasons & life stages Prescription, with out Diagnosis, is Malpractice Identify problems and determine their potential to cause damage Don’t assume treatment necessary

13 Identify the “Pest” Learn to recognize the various stages of their life cycle What is normal?

14 Evaluate How much do you like the plant? Will it recover?
How likely is the problem to spread to other plants? Is there a problem? Or just some fascinating theater you will be able to watch? Evaluate the level of the problem and decide if treatment is needed

15 Choose appropriate management measures This is the focus of this presentation – what are your options? How do you choose? Choose

16 Implement Implement Apply as early as possible
Implement Apply as early as possible Goal is management, not elimination Implement

17 Acceptable level varies
IPM uses all possible methods to keep damage below an acceptable level: Acceptable level varies between plants & people complete eradication is not the goal!

18 IPM: Cultural Management
Environmental Factors we can manage: Soil management Plant selection Planting times and spacing Watering and mulching Sanitation Crop Rotation Trap Crops Pathogen Host Environment Alter environment, condition of host plant or behavior of pest to prevent or suppress damage Disease Triangle Prevent disease by removing a factor

19 IPM: Cultural Management
Environmental Factors we can manage: Soil management Plant selection Planting times and spacing Watering and mulching Sanitation Solarization Crop Rotation Pathogen Make the conditions more favorable to the plant, and to natural enemies Host Environment Disease Triangle Prevent disease by removing a factor

20 Soil Management Soil test Manage nutrients & pH Add organic matter
Alleviate soil compaction Water appropriately Mulch Image – Charlotte Glen Healthy soil encourages healthy, unstressed plants. Soil test - Proper pH and fertilization are important. Nutrients The chemical aspects of soils – pH, salt content, availability of nutrients, etc. - can affect crop health and pest susceptibility. (Debbie Roos) Increasing soluble nitrogen levels in plants can decrease resistance and increase pest numbers and crop damage Using slow release nutrients sources makes plants less susceptible to insect pests. Study in CA found organically fertilized broccoli fewer flea beetles and cabbage aphids than conventionally fertilized broccoli Organic Matter -helps manage pest above and below the ground Compost improves structure, moisture holding capacity, nutrient content, and beneficial organisms (Debbie Roos) However, un-composted organic matter can encourage pests. (Steve Bambara) Compaction: A soil’s physical condition – its level of compaction, water-holding capacity, and drainage – all affect soil and plant health. How can you manage soil compaction? Manually Loosen soil (till, rip) Select plants to root out and break up soil. Approximately 75% of insect pests spend part of their life cycle in the soil. Healthy soils contain many natural enemies of insect pests, including insect predators, pathogenic fungi and insect parasitic nematodes (Debbie Roos) Healthy soils high in organic matter and with a biologically diverse food web support plant health and nutrition better than soils low in organic matter and species diversity. Healthy plants are less susceptible to pest damage (Debbie Roos) Mulch – prevent erosion, protect from extreme moisture and temperature, breaks down over time to provide organic matter

21 To till or to till not Benefits
Disrupts life cycle of pests & beneficials Can expose pests to predators & the elements Till before planting to manage weeds that harbor armyworms, cutworms, plant bugs and aphids Till in fall to destroy overwintering sites for flea beetles, corn borers, squash bugs, etc. Drawbacks Can lead to compaction Erosion

22 Plant Selection Choose varieties adapted to
local climate & site conditions: soil type drainage sun exposure varieties may be less attractive to pest species or may tolerate more damage than others Look around for the tried and true plants in your region, the ones that thrive on vacant lots. Many people recommend “Native Plants” however, few plants are native to urban settings. Image from the Grumpy Gardener, Southern Living

23 Many varieties of Crape Myrtle are resistant to powdery mildew
Select Resistant Cultivars Restrict insect movement, feeding or reproduction size, shape, color, leaf hair, cuticle thickness, and natural chemicals (attractants & repellants) Less attractive to pests. Dark green leaves are less attractive than yellow green. Produce compounds that deter pests – e.g. pyrethrum is from African chrysanthemum blooms. Tolerance for damage Plant morphological characteristics may interfere with insect movement, feeding or reproduction. Some plants produce compounds that deter certain pests – e.g. pyrethrum is derived from the bloom of African chrysanthemums. Color related resistance, Most insects are attracted to leaves in the yellow-green color range. Healthy dark green leaves are less attractive . Hairs can make it more difficult to move across plant (reduces time for eating), and make it hard to oviposit Many varieties of Crape Myrtle are resistant to powdery mildew

24 Select Healthy Plants Purchase well cared for disease free,
insect free plants from reputable sources Image Lucy Bradley Sometimes a sale item, is not a deal.

25 Plant Selection Select plants
that will be able to grow to their full mature size in the allotted space. Each pruning cut opens a wound, invites disease and insects. Power line pruning, photographed by flickr user Justin Berger]

26 Planting Dates Avoid heat and cold stress
Avoid known pest problems by planting early or late. Image vine borer Charlotte Glen Calendar Some pests can be avoided by planting before a pest moves into the area. Some root rot and germination problems can be avoided by later plantings. Keep notes to record pest and disease outbreak patters – record the first day you see outbreak and phenological events (weather, insect, animal patterns) Adjust planting date to avoid peak pressure Experiment with different planting dates, e.g. to avoid corn earworm or flea beetle or squash bug Plant corn early to avoid ear worm. Plant crops susceptible to nematodes early or late while soil is cool. Plant squash early to avoid vine borers which become active in June

27 Shift Planting Dates Plant winter squash before June 1 to give rind time to harden before the pickleworm arrives.

28 Shift Planting Dates Plant corn early to avoid ear worm
Plant crops susceptible to nematodes early while soil is cool Plant late to avoid rot and improve germination Image Charlotte Glen Some pests can be avoided by planting before a pest moves into the area. Some root rot and germination problems can be avoided by later plantings. Keep notes to record pest and disease outbreak patters – record the first day you see outbreak and phenological events (weather, insect, animal patterns) Adjust planting date to avoid peak pressure Experiment with different planting dates, e.g. to avoid corn earworm or flea beetle or squash bug Plant corn early to avoid ear worm. Plant crops susceptible to nematodes early or late while soil is cool.

29 Planting Direct seeded plants
Require correct conditions to emerge and grow quickly Transplants may be more resilient

30 Spacing Plan for mature size
Allow air flow between plants to promote drying & prevent disease Allow adequate space to minimize: competition for Water, Nutrients, & Light Habitat for pests Allow air flow between plants Promotes leaf drying = prevents disease Proper spacing depends on mature size of plant – most plants do best when leaves just touch at full size

31 Interplanting Avoid placing all plants of one kind together
Alternate groups of different plants within rows or patches Flowers help attract beneficials The strong scents of herbs can confuse insects I found no research based list of herbs that repel insect pests, however I did find several references to the value of inter-planting with herbs with strong fragrances, and culinary herbs to “confuse” insects and potentially reduce damage.

32 Watering To reduce disease, avoid wetting leaves
Drip irrigation delivers water through pipes directly to the soil Watering To reduce disease, avoid wetting leaves Most fungal leaf diseases require 4 hrs + of continual leaf wetness to infect Images – Charlotte Glen Water fan sprinklers spray water in the air, wetting foliage

33 Mulching Weed Management Reduces stress on plants
Prevents annual weeds from coming up Reduces stress on plants Keeps soil cooler Conserves moisture Images by Charlotte Glen Avoid ‘Volcano’ mulching! A 3” layer of mulch is good around trees and shrubs –

34 Sanitation Manage weeds
Eliminate habitat for pests & diseases Remove plant debris, (fallen fruit, twigs, and leaves) Prevents insects and diseases from overwintering Careful on timing when removing alternate host plants – you don’t want to stimulate a mass migration to your desired plants. Pick up twigs under pecan trees before eggs hatch and larva enter soil

35 Soil Solarization Prepare soil for planting, water, then cover with clear, 1- 4 mil thick plastic for 5-6 weeks in the hottest part of the summer. Helps manage: weed seeds, pathogens, nematodes SOIL SOLARIZATION Soilborne diseases and pests cause major losses in field and horticultural crops important to California. For some vegetable and fruit crops, soilborne diseases, weeds, and nematodes have been partially controlled by soil-applied pesticides, including methyl bromide, chloropicrin, and metham. However, the use of soil fumigants for pest control is often undesirable due to unfavorable effects on animals or humans, resulting toxic plant and soil residues, complexity of treatments, and high cost. A NONCHEMICAL METHOD FOR CONTROLLING DISEASES AND PESTS Soil solarization, a nonchemical technique, will control many soilborne pathogens and pests. This simple technique captures radiant heat energy from the sun, thereby causing physical, chemical, and biological changes in the soil. Transparent polyethylene plastic placed on moist soil during the hot summer months increases soil temperatures to levels lethal to many soilborne plant pathogens, weed seeds, and seedlings (including parasitic seed plants), nematodes, and some soil residing mites. Soil solarization also improves plant nutrition by increasing the availability of nitrogen and other essential nutrients. The area to be solarized should be level and free of weeds, debris, or large clods, which could raise the plastic off the ground. Transparent (not black or colored) plastic tarps or sheeting 1 to 4 mils (0.001 to inch) thick are anchored to the soil by burying the edges in a trench around the treated area. Plastic tarps can be laid by hand for small farms or gardens or by commercial machinery for large farms. To prevent air pockets that retard the soil heating process, there should be a minimum of space between tarps and the soil surface. The soil under the plastic is then soaked with water by inserting one of more hose or pipe outlets under one end of the tarp. If the soaking step is impractical, the soil may be irrigated before laying the plastic, but care should be taken to apply the plastic as soon as possible to avoid water loss. If, however, heavy machinery is used, the soil must be dry enough to avoid soil compaction. How to Solarize Soil The plastic should be left in place 4 to 6 weeks to allow the soil to heat to the greatest depth possible. The plastic should then be removed and the soil allowed to dry to a workable texture. The soil can be planted to a fall or winter crop or left fallow until the next growing season. If the soil must be cultivated for planting, the cultivation should be shallow (less than 2 inches) to avoid moving viable weed seed to the surface. Plastic color. Clear or transparent polyethylene plastic should be used, not black plastic. Transparent plastic results in greater transmission of solar energy to the soil which allows the soil to heat to higher temperatures than when black plastic is used. June and July. Good results may also be obtained in May, August, and September, depending on the weather and location. Time of year. Highest soil temperatures are obtained when the day lengths are long, air temperatures are high, the sky is clear, and there is no wind. The heat peak in many areas of California is around July 15. Therefore the best time for solarization of soil in California is in Plastic thickness. Polyethylene plastic 1 mil thick is the most efficient and economical for soil heating. However, it is easier to rip or puncture and is less able to withstand high winds than thicker plastic. Users in windy areas may prefer to use plastic 1 1/2 to 2 mils thick. If holes or tears occur in the plastic, they should be patched with clear patching tape or duct tape. Thick transparent plastic (4 to 6 mils) reflects more solar energy than does thinner plastic (1 to 2 mils) and results in slightly lower temperatures. Transparent polyethylene plastic containing ultra violet (UV) inhibitors that slow the deterioration of polyethylene can be purchased in large quantities. The use of UV inhibitors may allow the soil to be solarized longer, the plastic to be reused, or the plastic to be left in place and used as a mulch during the following growing season. Preparation of the soil. It is important that the area to be treated is level and free of weeds, plants, debris, and large clods which would raise the plastic off the ground. Maximum soil heating occurs when the plastic is close to the soil; therefore, air pockets caused by large clods or deep furrows should be avoided. The soil should be disked, rototilled, or turned over by hand and raked smooth to provide and even surface and to help water penetrate and moisten the soil profile. Partial vs. complete soil coverage. Polyethylene tarps may be applied in strips (a minimum of 2 to 3 feet wide) over the planting bed or as continuous sheeting glued, heat-fused, or held in place by soil. If the tarps are glued together, a long-lasting, heat-resistant glue must be used. In some cases strip coverage may be more practical and economical than full soil coverage, because less plastic is needed and plastic connection costs are avoided. In addition, if planting beds are covered with tarps with UV inhibitors to avoid plastic deterioration, the tarps may be used as a mulch during the following growing season by planting through the plastic. Partial soil coverage, however, may lose the long-term benefits or soil solarization by leaving substantial amounts of pest-infected soil to contaminate and reinfest treated areas. Soil moisture. Soil must be moist for maximum effect as moisture not only makes organisms more sensitive to heat, but it also conducts heat faster and deeper into the soil. Soil can be moistened by pre-irrigation or by drip or furrow irrigation following laying of the plastic. With machine application of the plastic, irrigation water may be run underneath the tarps in the tractor-wheel depressions, which act as shallow furrows. Irrigation under the plastic usually controls pests slightly faster and to a greater extent than when irrigation is done before the plastic is laid. Benefits of Soil Solarization increases the opportunity for biological control mechanisms to work. Although some pest organisms are killed within days, 4 to 6 weeks of treatment in full sun during the summer is usually best. Duration of soil coverage. Killing of pathogens and pests is related to time and temperature exposure. The longer the soil is heated, the deeper the control. In addition, longer soil coverage Disease control. In the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys, soil solarized during June or July often reaches temperatures of 140oF at 2 inches and 102oF as deep as 18 inches. As a result, many diseases-causing organisms are controlled to 18 inches or deeper. Soil solarization has provided excellent control of several diseases (Table 1) in California and Israel, and for some diseases, control has continued for at least two growing seasons. Weed control. Seed and seedlings of many annual and perennial weeds have been controlled with soil solarization (Table 2). Some weed species are very sensitive to solarization. Others are moderately resistant and require for control optimum soil moisture, tight-fitting plastic close to the soil surface, and high radiation. Preliminary evidence suggests that some pathogens may reinfest solarized soil at slower rates than non-treated soil. Control of winter weed species is often evident for more than 1 year after treatment. Winter annual grasses seem to be especially sensitive to solarization, while weeds such as sweet clover (Melilotus alba) or yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (C. rotundus). are only partially controlled. The summer annuals purslane (Portulaca oleracea) and crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) are also only partially controlled. If solarization is attempted during cooler seasons, weed growth usually is increased. It may thus be used to promote germination and growth before cultivating. Nematode control. Soil solarization reduces nematode populations, but less dramatically than it does fungal pathogens and weeds. Nematodes generally are more tolerant of heat and control of them is less effective in soil depths beyond 12 inches. Solarization may therefore be useful and economically feasible for shallow-rooted crops and home gardens, but probably should not be used where nematode populations must be reduced by 90 to 99 percent to depths of 18 inches to several feet before planting. Increased plant growth response. Plants often grow faster and produce yields of increased quantity and quality (size and appearance) when grown in solarized compared to non-treated soil. This phenomenon can be attributed, in part, to pathogen and weed control, but it is largely unexplained. For example, when soil apparently free of pests is solarized, increases in plant growth are still observed. A partial explanation may be found in a combination of mechanisms. First, because major pathogens and pests are controlled, it is likely that minor or unknown pathogens and pests are also controlled. Second, some soluble nutrients such as nitrogen (NO3-, NH4+), calcium (Ca++), and magnesium (Mg++) may be increased and made more available to plants in solarized soil. Third, beneficial microorganisms, such as mycorrhizal fungi, Trichoderma sp., actinomycetes, and some beneficial bacteria survive the solarization process or recolonize the soil rapidly. These is turn may contribute to a biological control of pathogens and pests and/or stimulate plant growth. Soil solarization has been used successfully on a large scale to control Verticillium wilt in pistachio orchards in California. Using both hand labor and plastic-laying machinery, the orchard floor was completely covered in plastic. Plastic strips were hand applied around tree bases and connected to a strip of machine-applied plastic between the tree rows with heat-resistant glue or by using narrow bands of earth to hold the strips down. The 5 to 10-year-old trees partially shaded the soil and plastic but not enough to prevent soil heating, which the trees survived with no visible detrimental effects. Although expensive, success of this method in existing orchards indicates the high potential of solarization to control some soilborne problems. Special Uses for Soil Solarization Soil solarization requires that soil be out of production for at least 2 months during the summer. To avoid losing a growing season, special attention should be given to crop rotations and sequences that allow solarization but also take advantage of the land before and after treatment. In the Imperial and Coachella valleys, where summer temperatures are too hot for most crops, soil can be solarized during summer and planted during fall or winter. Special Considerations of Soil Solarization Soil solarization has also been used successfully in Israel to control soilborne pests in greenhouses. Sensitivity to heat of plant pathogens, weeds, and other soilborne organisms differ. Some organisms will not be controlled by solarization and will require other control measures. This appears to be the case with sweet clover (Melilotus sp.) and some high temperature fungi in the general Macrophomina, Synchitrium, and Pythium. Conversely, some organisms difficult to control with soil fumigation, such as seeds of cheeseweed (Malv parviflora) and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), are easily controlled by soil solarization. The costs of soil solarization depend on the thickness of plastic, areas of soil covered (partial vs. complete coverage), the method of providing moisture, and the methods of plastic application, connection, and removal. These costs should be balanced against the benefits, and (in most cases) should be viewed over a period of more than 1 year or growing season. Economic Feasibility Soil solarization can control many soilborne pathogens and pests. The method is simple, safe, and effective, leaves no toxic residues, and can be easily used on a small or large scale. Large increases in plant growth, harvestable yield, and crop quality often occur in solarized soil and often continue for more than one growing season. The potential use of soil solarization for disease and pest control in California are great. Conclusions. Questions and Answers Yes, preliminary experiments combining solarization with low application rates of fungicides, fumigants, or herbicides have led to improved control of pathogens, nematodes, and weeds. Solarization chemical combinations may be especially useful in cooler areas, for heat-tolerant organisms, or to increase the long-term benefits of solarization. Can soil solarization be combined with chemical control? Populations of some beneficial organisms, such as Trichoderma spp. or actinomycetes, may be increased by solarization. Other important soilborne organisms, such as mycorrhizal fungi, may be decreased in the upper soil profile but not enough to lessen their beneficial action. Populations of some microorganisms, such as beneficial bacteria (Bacillus and Pseudomonas spp.) are partially decreased during solarization but afterwards recolonize the soil rapidly. However, populations of Rhizobium spp. of bacteria, which fix nitrogen in root nodules, are killed and must be reintroduced with seeds of legume crops. Survival and activation of beneficial organisms appear to play an important role in the increased plant growth commonly observed in solarized soils. Does soil solarization kill beneficial soil organisms? Soil solarization may be partially effective in cooler coastal areas if treatment occurs during periods of highest air temperatures and when skies are clear. However, pest control may not extend as deeply into the soil as in areas of higher temperatures, and some organisms may not be controlled. Can soil solarization be used in cooler areas such as those near the coast? Yes, if 1 mil transparent polyethlene plastic without UV inhibitor is left on the soil longer than 6 to 7 weeks during summer it becomes brittle and begins to tear. Brittle plastic is difficult to remove from the soil. This problem may be overcome by using plastic containing ultra violet inhibitors; such plastic, however, is usually only available when large quantities are specially ordered. Can I leave the plastic on the soil too long?

36 Crop Rotation Avoid planting crops in the same family in the same location multiple years. Insets overwinter in soil and debris, reinfest new crop if susceptible and build up populations Issues surrounding the value of crop rotation in a specific instance: How long can the pest persist in the soil with a host? How capable is it of invading from other areas How well does it survive on other hosts when the crop is not present Design rotation to present a non-host to pest insects Know botanical families: leave as much time as possible between related crops.

37 IPM: Mechanical Management
Manual Traps Exclusion Sanitation Pathogen Alter environment, condition of host plant or behavior of pest to prevent or suppress damage Host Environment Disease Triangle Prevent disease by removing a factor

38 Manual: Handpicking Inspect plants for
egg clusters, beetles, caterpillars, or other pests. Squash or drop them in sudsy water. Handpick bagworm ‘bags’ in winter – removes eggs

39 Manual Mowing Pruning Shaking Flaming Vacuuming Water sprays
Flaming – overwintering Colorado potato beetle, quickly pass flame over young potato plants when beetles are present, little harm to plants when plants less than 5 inches tall. Kills eggs larva and adults Cornell did research Vacuuming – Colorado Potato Beetles, Harlequin bugs, flea beetles, leaf footed plant bug Vacuuming has little negative effect on beneficial populations

40 Traps Most insect traps are most useful for detection and monitoring
Be sure that you are not attracting more pests into an area! Pheromone traps have chemicals that mimic mating hormones Bait traps Japanese beetle traps Pheromone traps Slug and snail traps Sticky boards Trap Crops Water Traps. Not much evidence to support the value of Japanese Beetle Traps

41 Traps There are many kinds – must get right type for pest Bait traps
Japanese beetle traps Pheromone traps Slug and snail traps Sticky boards Trap Crops Water Traps.

42 Trap Crops Plant a crop more attractive to pests than your desired crop Then treat the pest on the infested decoy plant Different crops attract different pests: Mustard – Striped Flea Beetle & Harlequin bugs Blue Hubbard squash- Striped Cucumber Beetle Yellow Rocket - Diamondback Moth Mixed results Stinkbugs on a trap crop Sesbania Rostrata, common name = Sesbania Not effective on weak fliers (aphids) or wind dispersed ( spider mites) Treat pests on trap crop with flaming, vacuuming, insecticidal soap Stinkbugs on the Trap Crop Sesbania Rostrata

43 Exclusion cut worm collars, floating row cover, netting, mulches,
sticky barriers (trunk bands), copper strips, bagging fruit, Kaolin plastic lined trenches and fencing A cardboard or foil collar can protect young vegetables from cutworms Images by Charlotte Glen Mechanical barriers Floating row covers can keep flying adult insects from laying eggs on vegetables

44 Kaolin Clay material ground to uniform size
Forms a barrier on plant surface to insect and disease Must be sprayed ahead and every 7-10 days Washes off easily, must be reapplied after rain Must be agitated to keep it suspended Won’t protect flowers, hard to wash off some vegetables

45 Rake up fallen leaves from plants showing leaf spot and other disease symptoms.
Sanitation Prune out infected twigs and rake fallen twigs and leaves to prevent insects and diseases from overwintering. Canna Leaf Roller can be managed by cutting off old foliage in winter

46 IPM: Biological Management
Beneficial Animals & Insects Predators Larva &/or adult eats pests One predator eats many pests Varied diet Parasitoids Egg is laid on the pest, immature consumes pest as it matures One parasite (sometimes many parasites) eat one pest. Very selective Beneficial Diseases Bacteria, virus, fungi, nematodes, protozoa Pathogen Alter environment, condition of host plant or behavior of pest to prevent or suppress damage Parasites rarely kill host – Parasitoids kill the host Predators, parasites, & diseases attack unwanted pests. Beneficial insects such as ladybugs, lacewings, wasps, and syrphid flies, are introduced, protected, and encouraged in the garden. Beneficial nematodes, and insect infesting fungal diseases such as Beauveria, can be purchased and released into the landscape. Diversity of landscape – increase in beneficials Augmentation – increase populations through purchase and release Conservation – increase existing populations through habitat conservation and other means. Beneficial Parasitic nematodes, and insect infesting fungal diseases such as Beauveria, can be purchased and released into the landscape. Host Environment Disease Triangle Prevent disease by removing a factor

47 Beneficials Learn to recognize all life stages of beneficials
Hoover Fly adults look like bees or wasps Beneficials Learn to recognize all life stages of beneficials Diverse landscapes encourage beneficials – plant many different types of plants, including flowers Strive for a balance of good and bad insects. Tolerate a few pests, If predators don’t find food in your garden they will move on Images – Charlotte Glen Beneficial insects such as ladybugs, lacewings, wasps, and syrphid flies, can be protected, encouraged, or introduced in the garden. Hoover fly larvae look like small slugs or caterpillars – voracious aphid eaters

48 Beneficials Attract and Conserve Purchase & Release
Plant small flowered crops Carrot family Daisy family Mint family For example: Catnip, caraway, dill, fennel, hyssop, lemon balm, parsley, rosemary, thyme, yarrow, etc. Purchase & Release (Lazy Blog Farm) Much more effective to create an environment to attract If you purchase you still need to provide an environment to support their health

49 Predators Creatures that catch, kill and eat insects
Most like a wide variety of prey, & consume numerous prey over their lives Insects, spiders, lizards, and frogs Assassin Bugs - Assassin bugs are 1/2 inch long, black or brown, have large eyes on a narrow head, and have large front legs with spines for grabbing prey. The giant wheel bug is one well known example. They overwinter in different stages. They prey on aphids, caterpillars, Colorado potato beetles, Japanese beetles, leafhoppers, and other insects. They also do not like to be handled. Bigeyed bugs - Bigeyed bugs are long grey-tan insects with huge eyes and tiny black spots on the head and thorax. They hibernate in garden matter and like carrot family plants and goldenrod. Their prey include aphids, leafhoppers, chinch bugs, spider mites, and insect eggs. Damsel Bugs - Damsel bugs resembles assassin bugs. They are pale gray, about 3/8 inches long. The damsel bug feeds on aphids, leafhoppers, mites, and caterpillars. Green lacewings - Adults are pale green or brown, 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, with a slender body and large, clear, highly veined wings that are held over the body when at rest. They lay eggs with stalks. Larvae are yellowish-grey, mottled, spiny, and have long thin jaws which curve like pinchers. They are attracted to yarrow and wild carrot. Larvae, (called antlions or aphid lions) eat aphids, mealy bugs, mites, scale insects, white flies, thrips, and insect eggs. Ground beetles - Adults are 1 inch or less, fast moving, iridescent bluish-black in color. They hide under rocks and other objects during the day. Larvae are elongated and dark brown-black with large heads. They eat a variety of insects they find on the ground. Lady beetles (Ladybird beetles, lady bugs) - These well known beetles are reddish, orange, or black with spots. Color and spots vary with species. Larvae are elongated, 1/4 to 1/2 inch long, covered with tiny spines, and are grey or black with blue and orange markings. Adults are attracted to pollen and nectar plants. Both adults and larvae consume aphids, thrips, mealy bugs, scale insects, mites, and whiteflies. Minute pirate bugs - These tiny bugs are smaller than 1/8 inch long and are generally black. Nymphs resemble adults but are orange and do not have wings. They eat aphids, scale insects, and other tiny insect pests. The insidious flower bug is an important enemy of thrips. Parasitic wasps - These wasps are common in several different families. They can range in size from 1/16 to 2 inches, though most are tiny. Coloration is often black to brown. The wasps are slender, have a pinched waist and clear wings. Examples include chalcids, braconids, ichnecmonids, and trichogramma. Trichogramma wasp attacks eggs of more than 200 species, including cutworms, corn borers, corn earworms, armyworms, codling moths, and cabbage moths. Adults use their stinger to attack larvae and lay eggs in their prey; trichogramma attacks the legs of its host. They can be encouraged by planting wildflowers in the daisy and carrot families. They can attack many caterpillars, beetle larvae, flies, aphids, and other soft bodied insects. Praying mantids - Large (2 1/2 to 4 inches long) green or brown with long bodies, large eyes and papery wings. These slow moving insects have modified long front legs for grabbing prey. Immatures resemble adults but are smaller and wingless. Mantids overwinter as eggs deposited in a paper mache-like egg case. They are nonselective feeders of insects including other praying mantids. Predacious stink bugs - Adults have a shield shaped body and overlapping wing tips. They emit a strong odor when disturbed. Nymphs are more rounded and colored red and black when young. The older nymphs are red, black, yellow-orange, and cream colored in bands and blotches. Many stink bugs are insect pests, but the spined soldier bug and twospotted stink bugs are beneficial. Predacious stink bugs feed on Colorado potato beetles, Mexican bean beetles, and various caterpillar larvae. Predatory mites - They are the same size or larger than spider mites but move more rapidly. The color can be white, tan, orange, or reddish. These mites feed on many mite pests, including the two spotted spider mite. Soldier beetles - Adults resemble fireflies, but do not light up. They overwinter as mature larvae and are attracted to wild lettuce, milkweed, hydrangea, and goldenrod. They eat aphids, small beetles, caterpillars, grasshopper eggs, and spider mites. Syrphid flies (Hover flies, Flower flies) - Adults are 1/8 to 5/8 inch long with short antennae, one pair of wings, and the ability to hover and turn like a humming bird. The adults resemble bees, come in many colorations (yellow, orange, black), and feed on nectar and pollen. The larvae are tapered, legless, tan or green maggots. They are attracted by coreopsis, candytuft, morninglory, and nemophila. Larvae have a voracious appetite for aphids, scale, thrips, mealybugs, and leafhoppers. Tachinid flies - Adults resemble houseflies, but are larger, and are covered with bristles. They parasitize adults and larvae of beetles, grasshoppers, and caterpillars such as sawflies, armyworms, and gypsy moth. Trichogrammatid wasps - Very minute wasps that parasitize insect eggs. Some species are host and habitat specific. Timing of release is critical since these parasitic wasps only attack the egg stage of insect pests. Host examples: cabbage lopper, tomato hornworm. Paper wasps, Hornets - Though more often considered pests, paper wasps consume many caterpillars while raising their young during the summer months. Hornets catch many soft bodied flying insects to feed their larvae.

50 Assassin Bugs Prey: aphids, caterpillars, beetles, leafhoppers, &
other insects They do not like to be handled. Wheel Bug nymph feeds on Colorado potato beetle larva Wheel Bug, Arilus cristata is a true bug (Hemiptera) in the Assassin Bug family

51 Big-eyed Bugs Prey: spider mites, thrips, aphids , and
other insect eggs Adult image – Steve Bambara

52 Resemble assassin bugs
Damsel Bugs Resemble assassin bugs Prey: Aphids, leafhoppers, mites, and caterpillars Adult image from Steve Bambara

53 Green (or Brown) Lacewings aka “Aphid Lion”
larva Prey on: Soft-bodied insects – aphids, mites, insect eggs, thripes, mealybugs, immature whiteflies, small caterpillars 200+/week adult

54 Ground Beetles Large, dark, and sometimes metallic,
they feed along the ground, especially at night. Prey: soft-bodied insects larva larva WHAT IS A GROUND BEETLE? Like all beetles, Ground Beetles have chewing mouthparts and hardened front wings (elytra) that meet in a straight line down the back of the abdomen when closed.  Ground beetles are often black and shiny, but a few species have bright colors.  Ground beetles have long, slender legs and antennae, and a head that is narrower than their thorax.  Ground beetles closely resemble their relatives the Tiger Beetles (Cincindelidae), but tiger beetles can be distinguished by the overlapping sickle-shaped jaws which do not occur on ground beetles.  Most ground beetles do not climb very well, and tend to be found on or near the ground.  Typical ground beetle larvae are long and slender with dark coloration.    SIZE: Adult body length up to 35 mm, most species between 5-15 mm.  Larvae up to 35mm.  LIFE CYCLE: Like all beetles, ground beetles have "complete" metamorphosis with egg, larval, pupal, and adult stages.  In most ground beetle species, females lay eggs in soil.  Upon hatching, larvae feed and grow for 1-2 years (in most species) and pupate in small chambers made of soil.  Many species spend the winter in these chambers, and the adults emerge in spring.  Most adult ground beetles will live for several years.  Pictured below are typical ground beetle larvae. ECOLOGY Most ground beetles are fast-moving predators that feed on small insects, spiders, and other arthropods.  They usually hunt at night by patrolling the ground, and are found in a variety of habitats, including farmland, wooded areas, and lawns.  During the day, most ground beetles hide under rocks, logs, and fallen leaves.  Ground beetles seldom fly.  A few beetles in this family, such as the seedcorn beetle (Stenolophus lecontei), are herbivores. Caterpillar Hunter, a ground beetle, feeding on the pupa of another beetle (B. Newton, 2002)  Ground beetle larvae are also predators, and most species hunt in the same way as the adults, by patrolling at night and hiding during the day, although many ground beetle larvae tend to remain undercover even while hunting: some hunt under fallen leaves, others hunt underground.  adult

55 Lady Bird Beetle Prey: aphids, mites, Insect eggs and small insects.
Images Debbie Roos

56 Minute Pirate Bug Prey: thrips, spider mites, aphids, and
larva Minute Pirate Bug Prey: thrips, spider mites, aphids, and small insects. Orange Adult photo by Steve Bambara

57 Eat relatively few insects in the garden.
Praying Mantids Eat relatively few insects in the garden.

58 Predaceous Stink Bugs Many stink bugs are pests, however, both as adults and as colorful nymphs predaceous stink bugs are predators. Prey: beetles and caterpillars Photo Steve Bambara Big Stink Bug is a Predator of Plant Pests Euthyrhynchus floridanus is a stink bug that feeds on other plant pests. It is one of the more attractive stink bugs with three orange spots on a dark, metallic blue background. These insects overwinter as adults probably in some dry, sheltered location. Eggs are laid the following spring. The eggs hatch 19 to 33 days later. Nymphs of Euthyrhynchus floridanus take a long time to develop through five stages (40 to 67 days). New adult females wait 5 or 6 days before mating and the eggs are laid 23 to 67 days later. Total developmental time for this species is much longer than for plant-feeding stink bugs. Immature Euthyrhynchus floridanus are highly aggregated and even attack larger prey in concert. Apparently, aggregation behavior allows them to successfully attack prey too large to be subdued by a single nymph. Sometimes the adults aggregate with nymphs, although when times get hard these bugs sometimes feed on smaller individuals. When the bugs jab their prey with their proboscis, they inject a toxin that slowly immobilizes the prey. Euthyrhynchus floridanus bugs have an unusual wagging behavior in which the bug rocks its body from side to side while it grips the substrate firmly with its feet. This is thought to be a defensive behavior. Many of these predaceous stink bugs feed on plant tissue when insect prey is not available. Plant feeding is not reported for Euthyrhynchus floridanus, but if such feeding does occur the plant damage must be slight and is certainly outweighed by their beneficial role in managing plant-feeding pests.

59 Predatory Flies Prey: thrips, mites, aphids, and insects larva
Long Legged Fly Predatory Flies Prey: thrips, mites, aphids, and insects larva Robber Fly Syrphid fly Long Legged fly Robber fly

60 Predatory Fly Syrphid Flies The harmless adults resemble bees,
larva Predatory Fly Syrphid Flies The harmless adults resemble bees, but the small larvae consume many aphids. adult

61 Predatory Mites Move rapidly to catch and eat their plant-eating counterparts. They are often white, tan, or orange. Prey: spider mites thrips, fungus gnats other small insects and insect eggs Predatory Mites Mites are not insects; they are more closely related to spiders. Adults have four pairs of legs and two, rather than three, body parts. The species best known to growers are the plant-feeding spider mites. There are, however, many species of beneficial predatory mites, several of which are mass reared commercially for the management of spider mites, thrips, and other pests in greenhouses and some field-grown crops. They are predatory in both the nymph and adult stages. Predatory mites are one of the most successful commercially available biological management agents. Appearance Predatory mites are about the same size as spider mites, usually teardrop-shaped, long legged when compared to spider mites, and often orange-red, tan, or brown. They move quickly through and around spider mite colonies in search of prey and, unlike spider mites, can move backwards as well as forwards. Eggs are usually oval-shaped and a little larger than the spherical eggs of spider mites. Predatory mite nymphs resemble small adults. Habitat (Crops) Crops attacked by spider mites, thrips and fungus gnats; greenhouse crops, orchards, small fruit plantings. Pests Attacked Different species of predatory mites attack spider mite adults, nymphs, larvae, and eggs; thrips, mainly immatures; and fungus gnat eggs and larvae. Many species may also prey on other small insects and insect eggs. Life Cycle The time from egg to adult can range from a few days to weeks, depending on the temperature, humidity, and species. The commercially available species often have high rates of reproduction and short generation times, and are able to match the life cycle of their prey reasonably well. Most commercially available species do not overwinter in cold climates. Relative Effectiveness Predatory mites can seek out prey in places that may be inaccessible to chemical sprays. These beneficial mites are used against spider mites and several species of thrips by greenhouse flower, ornamental, and vegetable producers in Canada and Europe, and by some United States growers. Predatory mites are particularly successful in greenhouses partly because of the high degree of control that the grower has over the environment. However, several predatory species also have been used successfully to suppress spider mites in United States apple, citrus, and avocado orchards and also in field-grown strawberries and raspberries in California. Some species of predatory mites, particularly Phytoseiulus, are among the few biological management agents that will eat all their prey and starve if they cannot locate new colonies of spider mites. Scouting is therefore important to ensure proper timing and placement when releasing the predators. It may be necessary to reintroduce the predatory mites if the pest population reoccurs. The ability of predatory mites to seek out prey can be hindered on plants with hairy stems or leaves. Pesticide Susceptibility Strains of some beneficial mites that are tolerant of organophosphorous and carbamate insecticides, sulfur, and pyrethroids have been selected. Some of these strains are commercially available. Conservation Spider mite and thrips populations are resistant to many of the chemicals used against them. Predatory mites are often very susceptible to these same chemicals. In fact, spider mites only became important agricultural pests after the widespread use of broad-spectrum insecticides in the 1950s and 1960s. Pyrethroid sprays, in particular, are known to cause spider mite flare-ups due to the elimination of natural enemies and physiological effects on the mites. Spot spraying of localized outbreaks of thrips and spider mites with short-residual chemicals that are compatible with the predatory mites or, on a small scale, with insecticidal soap or horticultural oil may help manage infestations while the predatory mite population establishes. Commercial Availability Predatory mites are commercially available. They are shipped as nymphs and adults in a dry carrier material such as bran or vermiculite, often with spider mite eggs as prey to prevent cannibalism. Misting the plants with water before application of the predators may help the carrier material (and predatory mites) adhere to the foliage. However, avoid watering plants immediately after application of the predators to allow them time to find appropriate niches in the foliage.

62 Soldier Beetles Adults resemble fireflies and are attracted to
milkweed, hydrangea, and goldenrod. Prey: caterpillars, mites, grasshopper eggs, and small beetles

63 Wasps & Hornets Though often considered pests, these insects
feed heavily on caterpillars, flies and other soft-bodied insects.

64 Parasitoids Beneficial insect lays its eggs on a pest. When the eggs hatch, they consume the pest. One (or sometimes many) beneficial(s) consumes only 1 pest Very selective about host. Parasite – causes harm but rarely kills Parasitoids – Kills Host

65 Parasitic Wasps Tiny Micro- and mini-wasps sting and lay eggs in
caterpillars, Aphids, or insect eggs. The larvae consume their prey from within. Aphidius wasp ovipositing in aphid Braconid Wasp on Hornworm Trichogramma wasp on tomato hornworn egg Scelionid wasp Aphidius wasp on aphid mummy Tachinid Fly Images by Debbie Roos Scelionid wasp parasitizing stink bug eggs

66 Braconid Wasps On hornworm caterpillar Images by Debbie Roos
Images by Debbie Roos Braconid Wasp on Hornworm Trichogramma wasp on tomato hornworn egg Scelionid wasp Aphidius wasp on aphid mummy Tachinid Fly On hornworm caterpillar

67 Trichogramma Wasps On hornworm egg Images by Debbie Roos
Images by Debbie Roos Trichogrammatid wasps - Very minute wasps that parasitize insect eggs. Some species are host and habitat specific. Timing of release is critical since these parasitic wasps only attack the egg stage of insect pests. Host examples: cabbage lopper, tomato hornworm. On hornworm egg

68 Tachinid Flies Heavily bristled Lay eggs on caterpillars,
beetle larvae, and bugs Tachnid fly egg on a soldier beetle

69 Parasitic Nematodes Apply with water late afternoon when soils are >60 degrees Soil properties impact success Follow directions Works well in labs, not sure why not consistently working in the field

70 Fungal Disease Beauveria bassiana
Colorado Potato Beetle infected with Beauveria Fungal Disease Beauveria bassiana Diseases attack unwanted pests. Parasitic fungi Spores of the fungus germinate once they come into contact with the insect pest, then the fungus must penetrate the cuticle and infect the body cavity to kill the pest Effective on many soft bodied insects – aphids, thrips, whiteflies, grasshoppers Works best when applied at onset of infestation, takes a week or more after application to see evidence of management Fungal spores are readily killed by solar radiation and infect best in cool to moderate temperatures Beneficial nematodes, and insect infesting fungal diseases such as Beauveria, can be purchased and released into the landscape

71 Bacterial Disease B.t.– Bacillus thuringiensis
naturally occurring disease effective for caterpillar management Apply to undersides of leaves Most effective when pest are young Stop feeding within a few hours, slow death Spray in evening, breaks down in sunlight Contains a toxin made by a soil bacterium Must be eaten by the insect Best applied late in the day (uv sensitive)

72 IPM: Chemical Management Use as last resort "rescue"
Biorational Inorganic Synthetic Pathogen The younger the pest, the better these work. Host Environment Disease Triangle Prevent disease by removing a factor

73 Biorational Pesticides (least toxic)
Botanicals: Soaps, Oils, Plant Extracts (Pyrethrum, Neem, nicotine, rotenone, sabadilla) Microbial Spinosad When Compared to Synthetics: Break down faster Less persistent Usually not as potent but some are more toxic Broad spectrum (kill beneficials) Used in combination rather than as sole strategy Just as much care should be used Plant-derived materials Rotenone kills fish Ryania is a botanical insecticide made from the ground stems of Ryania speciosa, a native plant of tropical America. The principle alkaloid in this stem extract is ryanodine which makes up % of the product. Ryania is highly toxic to the fruit moth, coddling moth and corn earworm, European corn borer, and citrus thrips, but it is ineffective against the cabbage maggot, cauliflower worms or boll weevil. Ryania is a general use pesticide. Sabadilla: This compound was first used in the sixteenth century, and grew in popularity in this country during the second World War when other botanicals such as pyrethrum and rotenone were in short supply. The insecticidal dust is made from the seeds of a small perennial bulb in the Lily family. The toxic components are lacking in other plant parts (roots, bulbs, stems and leaves). Commercial supplies come from South and Central America. It is interesting that the toxic constituents actually become more powerful after storage; fresh sabadilla extracts have not proven to be a strong insecticide. Sabadilla is a broad spectrum contact poison, and may have some action as a stomach poison also. Sabadilla is toxic to honeybees. It is most effective against leafhoppers and true bugs. It degrades rapidly on exposure to air and sunlight, leaving very little residual toxicity. Ryania: The insecticidal properties are contained in the stems and roots of Ryania speciosa, a South American shrub. Although it acts as a stomach poison, ryania often depresses the insects feeding initially, so that it undergoes a long period of inactivity before death. Its residual period is longer than the other botanicals. Relative to rotenone, ryania is moderate in acute or chronic oral toxicity in mammals; this is partly why much attention has been given to this insecticide in recent years. Rotenone: This important, widely used insecticide is derived from several tropical leguminous plants, including derris, cube and timbo. These plants range from the Far East to the Amazon Valley of South America. Many plant species have been shown to contain rotenone. In general, the rotenone principles are contained in the roots, which are dried and powdered to be used as a dust. Liquid rotenone is available commercially. Rotenone was originally employed by Native American and other indigenous cultures to poison fish. It should by no means be considered "non-poisonous" to animals; in fact, it has been shown to be fatal to mammals if inhaled over extended periods, and may cause numbness of the lips and tongue if exposure during application is constant. Dermatitis may result if rotenone comes in contact with the skin, but it does not appear to be absorbed through the skin. Rotenone is effective against a wide range of insects and has a short residual life. It acts as a stomach poison and as a contact insecticide. It is not toxic to honeybees, but will kill some beneficial insects. It is registered for use against a number of chewing insects on many vegetables and some fruits. Different brands and formulations of rotenone are labeled for various pests; always check the label before purchase to ensure that the product is legal for the intended use. Pyrethrum and Pyrethrins: Pyrethrum is the natural product that comes from the ground up dried flower head of the African chrysanthemum, Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. Pyrethrins refer to the insecticidal compounds that occur in pyrethrum. Pyrethrins affect the insect on contact, creating disturbances in the nervous system which eventually result in convulsions and death. Low doses, however, often cause temporary paralysis from which the insect may recover. Pyrethrum has almost no residual activity, breaking down rapidly on exposure to sunlight, air or moisture. One study in 1937 demonstrated that finer powders are more rapid in action on insects, but deteriorate more quickly upon exposure to light. Activators (like PBO) or other "synergists" are occasionally added to pyrethrins to extend their use, but many of these are not approved by organic certification programs. The insecticidal activity (if any) of these extenders varies. Pyrethrum and pyrethrins are widely available, but supplies may be limited. They are effective as broad spectrum insecticides and will help manage pests such as aphids, whiteflies, stinkbugs, and mites. Be sure the brand that you purchase is labeled for use on the crop and pest in question. Like rotenone, pyrethrum and pyrethrins should be used with caution. Pyrethrum's hazard to humans lies mainly in the form of allergic reactions and dermatitis.

74 Botanical Soaps & Oils Insecticidal Soap
kills soft body pests: aphids, whitefly, mites Kills only what it contacts – not eggs Repeated applications often necessary Do less damage to beneficial predators Manages: aphids, caterpillars, leafhopper nymphs, mealy bugs, scale crawlers, thrips, whiteflies Horticultural Oil kills by smothering, kills all life stages (eggs must be exposed) great for scale, spider mites, mealybug Dormant Oils (dormant season application) Superior Oils (summer use oils) can damage plants at high temperatures Horticultural oils work best on soft bodied insects. They disrupt the metabolism. Low toxicity to humans Must be fresh Soaps smother soft bodied pests and disrupts their cuticle layer. In order to be effective, thoroughly coat the pest Soap products are most effective when they dry slowly, so spray in the evening or at night Soaps manage aphids, some caterpillars, scale crawlers, leafhopper, nymphs, mealybugs, thrips and white flies Horticultural oils are usually highly refined petroleum oils combined with an emulsifiying agent. Some plant-derived oils also are used. Superior oil: A term originated by P.J. Chapman in 1947 to categorize summer-use oils that met certain specifications. This included a high proportion of paraffinic hydrocarbons and purification that allowed year-round use without phytotoxicity. Since then, further developments have resulted in oils that distill over a narrow temperature range. Most superior oils are now better referred to as narrow-range oils. Dormant oil: An oil used on woody plants during the dormant season. This term originally referred to heavier weight, less well-refined oils that were unsafe to use on plants after they broke dormancy. However, these older oils have been replaced with more refined, light-weight oils that have potential application to plant foliage. Dormant oil now refers to the time of application rather than to any characteristic type of oil.

75 Botanical Pesticides Pyrethrum: Neem (azadriachtin)
Extracted from African chrysanthemums Contact poison, quick knock down Little residual Broad Spectrum – highly toxic to bees Manages: aphids, beetles, caterpillars, thrips, true bugs Neem (azadriachtin) Extracted from tree grown in Africa & India Hormone mimic Repellant Stomach poison and fungicidal properties Relatively non-toxic – little impact on adult beneficials Manages: Mexican bean beetle, squash bugs, aphids Plant-derived materials Rotenone kills fish

76 Microbial Insecticides
Spinosad, developed from soil dwelling bacterium Causes death within a few days Effective for caterpillars, Colorado potato beetle, fire ants thrips Most effective when ingested Note: This is chemical rather than biological because it does not give the insect a bacterial infection. It is a poison that is derived from a bacteria. Slow host death High dosages required Need favorable environment UV Light and temperature affect persistence

77 Inorganic Pesticides Used for disease management Apply carefully
Copper – fungal and bacterial diseases Sulfur – fungal disease management Bordeaux Mix copper sulfate + hydrated lime Diatomaceous Earth Apply carefully Leaf damage can occur

78 Diatomaceous Earth Silicon dioxide, finely milled fossilized remains of diatoms Desiccant. Scratch insect exoskeleton or puncture gut lining Apply to wet foliage Manages: aphids, mites, caterpillars Use D.E. products registered by EPA as pesticides, “Natural Grade”, not “Pool Grade” “If you decide to use this product, be sure to purchase the correct grade, usually labeled "natural grade." The diatomaceous earth sold for use in swimming pool filters is not suitable for pest control.” “Diatomaceous earth (D.E., silicone dioxide) products registered by EPA as pesticides are usually applied as a fine dust contact insecticide to ant trails indoors or to produce barriers. No other forms of D.E. (e.g. swimming pool filter grade or treated D.E.) should be used as a pesticide. D.E. abrades the waxy layer from the insect exoskeleton causing the insect to desiccate.”

79 Synthetic Chemicals Made in a laboratory – often based on natural substances May kill by any or all of the following: contact, ingestion inhalation Always follow label instructions with all pesticides. Made in a laboratory – often based on natural substances Some kill insects by contact, some through ingestion, and some through inhalation Many have more than one mode of action

80 Common Active Ingredients: Synthetic Insecticides
Older products: Sevin, Orthene, Malathion Broad spectrum, kill many different pests Usually more dangerous Newer products: Pyrethroids Permethrin, bifenthrin, Cypermethrin, Cyfluthrin, Deltamethrin, Esfenvalerate, Fluvalinate, Lambda-cyhalothrin Have much lower rates of active ingredient

81 Common Active Ingredients: Synthetic Insecticides
Newer products Imidacloprid (Merit) – systemic Fipronil – long lasting, fire ant management Newer Products: Insect Growth Regulators Prevent molting, slow acting Most homeowner products available in fire ant baits Methoprene, Hydroprene, Fenoxycarb Note 2010 Fipronil is available in NC – it may not be available in other states. Tim Davis indicated it is no longer available in SC. You may want to check availability in your state. In NC go to

82 Common Active Ingredients: Synthetic Fungicides
Myclobutinal (Immunox) Chlorothalonil (Daconil) Mancozeb Maneb Tebuconazole Thiophanate-methyl Propiconazole Different A.I. effective for different diseases and uses (lawn, fruit/vegetable, landscape).

83 Protecting Bees Don’t use pesticides Avoid using dusts or powders
Apply late in the date, after bees have returned to their hives Avoid spraying flowers

84 Chemical Treatment: Is It Worth It?
Is host valuable? Is problem properly identified? Is problem life/ health threatening? Is the plant prone to this problem? Are effective, legal treatments available? Will 1 to 2 applications suffice? Have cultural practices been used? Is treatment practical?

85 IPM Review Keep plants healthy Identify the plant, and the pest.
Study pest biology – target weakest link! For best management use cultural, mechanical, biological and chemical methods Only treat with pesticides after all of other methods explored - Use least toxic chemicals

86 How to Find Recommendations
Extension Publications NC Agricultural Chemical Manual National Pesticide Information Center Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Pesticide labels National Organic Program

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