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Holistic Vegetable Gardening Presented by: Kent Phillips

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Presentation on theme: "Holistic Vegetable Gardening Presented by: Kent Phillips"— Presentation transcript:

1 Holistic Vegetable Gardening Presented by: Kent Phillips

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3 Maryland Master Gardeners’ Mission To educate Maryland residents about safe, effective and sustainable horticultural practices that build healthy gardens, landscapes, and communities.

4 Grow Your Own Food We Can Show You How Click on Classes Tab And Scroll down to Howard County

5 What is a holistic approach Webster’s defines holistic as “emphasizing the organic or functional relation between parts and whole” When growing vegetables that means relationship between our vegetable plants and Soil Nutrients in the soil Water and air in balance Sun Insects

6 Why Practice a Holistic Approach To conserve scarce resources To mimic nature To maximize biological and genetic diversity To provide the best environment for our vegetables Healthy plants grow quickly and resist insect attack

7 Keys To A Healthy Vegetable Garden Healthy soil Full sun Sufficient soil moisture and air Keeping pests to acceptable levels Grow recommended vegetable varieties HG 70 Recommended vegetable cultivars for Maryland home gardens

8 What is healthy soil Lots of organic material added Six inches of OM for new gardens One inch for established gardens Creates a beneficial environment for soil invertibrates and micro organisms Holds water and nutrients - Ways to add organic material Well composted farmyard manure Compost Shredded leaves and grass clippings Organic mulches Cover crops

9 What does compost do Creates a beneficial environment for soil invertebrates and organisms Creates well-drained, deep and crumbly soil Allows for maximum root growth Improve soil structure (breaks up clay) and creates pores for water retention and air infiltration Creates a reservoir of slow-release nutrients.

10 What is healthy soil Soil with proper pH and nutrient levels Do a soil test Proper pH for vegetables is between 6.2 and 6.8 Test will provide recommendation for macro (NPK) and micro nutrients Follow recommendations N is the nutrient most often in short supply UMD recommendation is.1 to.2 #/100 sqft. Over fertilization can harm plants Uncompacted soil with lots of pores for air and water



13 Soil References Online references at Click on “Information Library”, “Publications” then on “Vegetables, Fruit and Herb Gardening HG11 Soil test basics HG110 Selecting and using a soil testing laboratory HG 42 Soil amendments and fertilizers FS782 Basics of soil and plant fertility Videos – Click on Youtube button on GIEI website

14 Sun Fruiting vegetables like full sun Minimum requirement is 8 hrs. Leafy greens like full sun Minimum requirement is 5-6 hrs.

15 Most commonly available commercial organic fertilizers Check OMRI for specific producers ( Fish emulsion: 6-2-2 Seaweed extract: 1-0.5-2 Blood meal: 15-1-0 Cottonseed meal: 6-2.5-1.5 Guano: 8 to 13-8-2 Bone meal: 4-21-0 Rock phosphate: 0-22-0 Alfalfa meal: 3-1-2 Soybean Meal7-2-1 15

16 Soil Moisture On average plants require one inch of water a week Equals.62 gallons/sqft. Equals 20 gallons on a 4 by 8 ft. raised bed Moisture requirements are dependent on weather and the variety of vegetable being grown E.g.. Tomatoes require extra moisture to avoid blossom end rot (BER) Moisture needs to be delivered to the plant roots Most efficient method of delivery is drip irrigation GIEI Youtube videos – search for drip irrigation Mulching plants helps conserve soil moisture GIEI Youtube videos – search for mulchzilla

17 Air Plant roots require air Clay soil – holds water tightly Sandy soil – doesn’t hold water The residual decomposition of organic materials creates soil structure by binding soil particles together into large clumps or aggregates which create pores for air

18 Integrated Pest Management Simple steps and common sense Study Spy Squish An once of prevention is worth a pound of cure Companion planting A healthy garden with good soil, adequate moisture and proper nutrition can withstand some pest predation

19 Beneficials v. Pests Attract predators and parasites Ultimately, predators will increase as prey is available Planting open faced flowers attracts predators that require nectar in their adult stage Purchasing predators tends not to be effective Ducks, chickens and toads

20 Common Predators Praying Mantid

21 Common Predators Lady Bird Beetle and Larva

22 Common Predators Yellow Argiope Jumping spider Wolf Spider Orb Weaver

23 Wheel bug Common Predators

24 Syrphid fly and larva: predator of aphids

25 Common Predators Parasitized Tomato Hornworm

26 Common Vegetable Pests Mexican Bean Beetle Adult Eggs & larvae Row cover Crush Pyrethrum, neem, spinosad spray top and bottom of leaves

27 Common Vegetable Pests Cucumber Beetle Stripped Spotted Floating row cover Pyrethrum, neem oil, spinosad

28 Common Vegetable Pests Harlequin bug Adult Eggs & nymphs Row cover Crush Insecticidal soap alone or with pyrethrum or neem

29 Common Vegetable Pests Flea Beetle Adults Floating row cover over hoops Surround (kaolin clay) – reapply after rain Pyrethrum, neem, spinosad

30 Common Vegetable Pests Imported Cabbage Looper Adult Larvae Floating row cover Bacillus Thuringensis (BT), insecticidal soap Pyrethrum, neem, spinosad – use with sticker spreader

31 Common Vegetable Pests Squash Bug Adult Eggs & nymphs No pesticide for homeowners Floating row cover Hand pick tear out section of leaf with eggs Kill nymphs with neem or hort oil or insecticidal soap

32 Common Vegetable Pests Squash Vine Bore Larvae Floating row cover Cut out borer and mound soil over wound

33 Common Vegetable Pests Stink Bugs BMSB AdultSouthern Green Stink Bug Brown True hard shell bugs like squash and stink bugs are hard to kill Use row cover where possible Hand pick and destroy adults and eggs Insecticidal soap and botanicals can be used on 1 st and 2 nd instars (nymphs) No pesticide available for homeowners to kill adults

34 Physical Controls & Barriers Hand pick and destroy Apply a barrier on the plant (Surround) Cover the bed with a barrier (row cover)



37 Targeted Applications for Specific Pests – Click on “Vegetables” tab, “Common Vegetable Problems” and “Vegetable Insects Pests” With all pesticides – Always read the label and follow instructions Bacillus Thuringiensis – Use on brassicas (broccoli, cauliflower, kale, etc.) – Cabbage looper and other caterpillars Horticultural oils Insecticidal soap

38 Broad Spectrum Killers With all pesticides – Always read the label – Follow label instructions Pyrethrums - contact Spinosad –ingestion Neem oil - contact and ingestion – Azadirachtin These insecticides can be ever bit as deadly as synthetic ones

39 This program was brought to you by Maryland Master Gardener Program Howard County University of Maryland Extension


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