Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Literacy Design Collaborative Professional Development Vocabulary.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Literacy Design Collaborative Professional Development Vocabulary."— Presentation transcript:

1 Literacy Design Collaborative Professional Development Vocabulary

2 Outcomes Learn about vocabulary acquisition Review research findings on vocabulary instruction View instructional strategies related to vocabulary instruction Develop or revise a mini-task for an LDC module

3 Session Outline 1. Introduction 2. Reading Assignment 3. Research 4. Research to Action - Activities 5. Research to Action - Video Clip 6. Take Action - Assignment/mini-task 7. Resources

4 Reading Assignment Please go to the link below and read pp of Appendix A from the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Guiding Questions on the next page

5 Guiding Questions 1. What research based practice is recommended for students to increase and retain new vocabulary? 2. Think of examples where you might provide direct instruction for Tier one, Tier Two and Tier Three words? 3. What process is most effective for acquiring Tier Three words in content learning?

6 Research

7 To comprehend what we read, at least 95% of the words must be recognized automatically. How is this possible given the number of words in English? A Vocabulary Riddle

8 Students need to learn more words to read well, but they need to read well to learn more words. McKenna, M.C. (2004). Teaching vocabulary to struggling older readers. Perspectives, 30(1), The Vocabulary Catch-22

9 Oral vocabulary at the end of first grade is a significant predictor of comprehension ten years later. Cunningham, A.E., & Stanovich, K.E. (1997). Early reading acquisition and its relation to experience and ability 10 years later. Developmental Psychology, 33, The Importance of Vocabulary

10 Why is a large vocabulary associated with good comprehension?

11 The Instrumental Hypothesis Vocabulary aids comprehension by providing the reader with a tool, or instrument.

12 It’s not so much the words themselves that help, but the knowledge they represent. The Knowledge Hypothesis

13 Comprehension and vocabulary are correlated “not because one causes the other, but because both reflect a more general underlying verbal aptitude.” – Stahl & Nagy (2005) The Aptitude Hypothesis

14 The Access Hypothesis A larger vocabulary means deeper understanding of words (including nuances of meaning) quicker access to words in the lexicon flexibility in deciding among multiple meanings

15 The Reciprocal Hypothesis Being a better reader makes it possible for you to read more Reading more gives you a bigger vocabulary Having a bigger vocabulary makes you a better reader

16 1.The number of words in English is very large 2.Academic English differs from the kind of English used at home 3.Word knowledge involves far more than learning definitions 4.Sources of information about words are often hard to use or are unhelpful Stahl & Nagy (2005) Four Obstacles to Acquiring a Large Vocabulary

17 How do we learn words from experiences?

18 An aborigine points to a running rabbit and says “Gavagai.” Can you infer the word’s meaning? Gavagai

19 Meaning Each encounter with a word helps a student narrow its meaning. For example, if he hears the word gavagai used to refer to a sitting rabbit, the student will infer that running is not connected with the meaning.

20 Meaning Young children learn word meanings from one-on-one interactions with parents and siblings. These interactions may be rich or poor. Consider two examples based on Hart and Risley’s (1995) comparison of families of different socioeconomic levels.

21 Do I have to eat these? Yeah.

22 Do I have to eat these? Yes, because they have vitamins that will help you grow and get stronger. “Motherese”

23 What does it mean to know a word?

24 No knowledge A vague sense of the meaning Narrow knowledge with aid of context Good knowledge but shaky recall Rich, decontextualized knowledge, connected to other word meanings A Continuum of Word Knowledge

25 That part of long-term memory devoted to word knowledge. For example, when we read the word cat, this word is accessed in the lexicon, along with the various connections we have associated with it. Lexicon

26 How is a word stored in the lexicon?

27 cat

28 /kat/ c-a-t

29 cat /kat/ 4 legs “meow” c-a-t pet

30 cat /kat/ 4 legs “meow” c-a-t animal pet lion

31 cat /kat/ mammal 4 legs “meow” c-a-t animal pet lion

32 cat /kat/ mammal 4 legs “meow” c-a-t animal pet lion

33 cat /kat/ dog mammal 4 legs “meow” c-a-t animal pet lion

34 cat /kat/ dog mammal 4 legs “meow” c-a-t animal pet lion

35 cat /kat/ dog mammal 4 legs “meow” c-a-t animal pet lion

36 Dual Coding Theory Two systems are involved in learning words. One contains verbal information, the other non-verbal (images). When we learn a word, real-world images that we associate with the concept are also stored. Accessing a word in the lexicon therefore involves both the verbal system and non-verbal (imagery) system. ~ Moral ~ When teaching new words, use pictures and other images where possible.

37 New meanings and even new pronunciations of a word may be added to a student’s lexicon over time. produce próduce Raw veggies prodúce to make

38

39 For example, the word lean is initially learned around fourth grade as the act of allowing one object to rest against another. It is typically not until eighth grade that children learn that one person might lean on someone else for emotional support. “Lean”

40 Biemiller, A. (2004). Teaching vocabulary in the primary grades.In J.F. Baumann & E.J. Kame’enui (Eds.), Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice (pp ). New York: Guilford. K To rest one object against another To rely on another person for support lean

41 Is wide reading enough?

42 Vocabulary size and the amount a child reads are correlated. Direct instruction cannot possibly account for the number of word meanings children acquire. Context is generally unreliable as a means of inferring word meanings. Most words occur too infrequently to provide the number of exposures needed to learn them. Why Wide Reading Is Enough Why Wide Reading Is Not Enough

43 “There is no obvious reason why direct vocabulary instruction and wide reading cannot work in tandem.” – Marzano (2004, p. 112) Robert Marzano

44

45 What are some of the guiding principles of teaching vocabulary?

46 Guiding Principle Pre-teach key words to improve comprehension.

47 Provide more than definitions. Guiding Principle

48 Some teachers fall into the trap of assuming that if a child can match a word to its definition, the words meaning has been acquired. Definitions Are Only a Start

49 WORD = DEFINITION StimulusResponse

50 WORD = DEFINITION StimulusResponse “Truncate” = “to cut off”

51 WORD = DEFINITION StimulusResponse “Truncate” = “to cut off” “She truncated the lights.”

52 Combine definitions and contextual examples. Guiding Principle

53 Minimize rote copying of definitions. Guiding Principle

54 Introduce new words in related clusters. Guiding Principle

55 wing antennae leg abdomen thorax In content areas, clustering words is natural!

56 But general vocabulary words can be clustered too!

57

58

59 Provide brief, periodic review. Guiding Principle

60 A Thought Experiment

61 Group 1 Receives 1 hour of direct instruction on 20 new words Spends 1 full hour of intense review on all 20 words This hour is uninterrupted

62 Group 2 The second group receives the same instruction

63 Group 1 Receives 1 hour of direct instruction on 20 new words Spends 1 full hour of intense review on all 20 words

64 Group 2 Receives 1 hour of direct instruction on 20 new words Spends 1 full hour of intense review on all 20 words This hour is broken into 6 10-minute sessions, 1 per month for 6 months

65 Assuming that no one encountered any of the 20 words again, which group would do better on a test after a delay of 10 years?

66 Group 2 will do far better on any delayed test.

67 Massed vs. Distributed Practice

68 What did the National Reading Panel conclude about teaching vocabulary?

69 NRP Findings on Vocabulary Teaching vocabulary improves general comprehension ability Pre-teaching vocabulary helps both word learning and comprehension of a selection Much vocabulary is acquired through incidental exposure Repeated exposures in a variety of contexts are important

70 NRP Findings on Vocabulary A combination of definitions and contextual examples works better than either one alone Many instructional methods can be effective in teaching vocabulary Instructional methods should result in active engagement Both direct and indirect methods should be used

71 NRP Findings on Vocabulary The more connections that are made to a word, the better the word tends to be learned Computer applications can be effective The effectiveness of some instructional methods depends on the age or ability of the student

72 What the NRP Doesn’t Know About Vocabulary Instruction Which methods work best with students of different ages and abilities? How can technology best be used to teach vocabulary? How is vocabulary best integrated with comprehension instruction? What combinations of instructional methods tend to work best? What are the best ways to assess vocabulary?

73 What are some of the most effective ways to teach vocabulary?

74 Some Research-Based Techniques Read-Alouds Semantic Feature Analysis Graphic Organizers List-Group-Label Semantic Maps (word webs) Word Lines Word Sorts Possible Sentences

75 A Closer Look at Definitions

76 golf n. 1.a good walk spoiled (Mark Twain) 2.a game in which a player using special clubs attempts to sink a ball with as few strokes as possible into each of the 9 or 18 successive holes on a course (Webster)

77 …a game in which a player using special clubs attempts to sink a ball with as few strokes as possible into each of the 9 or 18 successive holes on a course This definition, like nearly all definitions of nouns, has two components. golf n.

78 a game in which a player using special clubs attempts to sink a ball with as few strokes as possible into each of the 9 or 18 successive holes on a course class distinguishing features

79 in which a player using special clubs attempts to sink a ball with as few strokes as possible into each of the 9 or 18 successive holes on a course a game class distinguishing features

80 Graphic Organizers

81 A graphic organizer is a diagram that shows how key terms are related.

82 Why Use Graphic Organizers? They are easy to construct and discuss Technical terms can be taught in clusters They help kids “see” abstract content They enhance recall and understanding They have an impressive research base

83 Act 1 Exposition Act 2 Complication Act 3 Climax Act 4 Resolution Act 5 Conclusion Shakespearean Tragedy

84 Exposition Complication Climax Resolution Conclusion

85

86 Complication

87 Exposition Complication Climax Resolution Conclusion Complication Climax Resolution

88 Exposition Complication Climax Resolution Conclusion Complication Climax Resolution Rising Action

89 Exposition Complication Climax Resolution Conclusion Complication Climax Resolution Rising Action Falling Action

90 pupa egg larvaadult

91 Tree Diagrams

92 drugs stimulants depressants alcohol barbiturates caffeine Dexedrine

93 drugs stimulantsdepressants caffeine Dexedrinealcohol barbiturates

94 Musical Instruments

95 wind nonwind

96 Musical Instruments wind nonwind brass woodwind

97 Musical Instruments wind nonwind brass woodwind stringpercussion

98 Musical Instruments wind nonwind brass woodwind stringpercussion trumpet clarinet violin drum

99 Venn Diagrams

100

101 Frog and Toad Curious George No people Animal Characters Animals talk Could happen

102 Sociograms

103 James Roosevelt ( ) Sara Delano ( ) Elliott Roosevelt (1860?-94) Anna Hall ( ) Franklin Delano Roosevelt ( ) Anna Eleanor Roosevelt ( ) Anna James Elliott FDR, Jr. John b b b b b. 1916

104 List-Group-Label Hilda Taba’s idea later led to many related techniques.

105 List Students brainstorm all the words they can recall at the end of a unit. Group Students suggest logical ways to group the words. Label Students suggest a label for each group they form.

106 List Students brainstorm all the words they can recall at the end of a unit. Group Students suggest logical ways to group the words. Label Students suggest a label for each group they form.

107 List Students brainstorm all the words they can recall at the end of a unit. Group Students suggest logical ways to group the words. Label Students suggest a label for each group they form.

108 no legsgarter boa venom cobra fang scales coral tail rattle copperhead trees holes ground

109 no legsgarter boa venom cobra fang scales coral tail rattle copperhead trees holes ground

110 no legsgarter boa venom cobra fang scales coral tail rattle copperhead trees holes ground garter boa copperhead cobra coral Thing Snakes Might Have rattle scales fang no legs venom tail trees holes ground

111 no legsgarter boa venom cobra fang scales coral tail rattle copperhead trees holes ground Kinds of Snakes garter boa copperhead cobra coral Things Snakes Might Have rattle scales fang no legs venom tail Where Snakes Are Found trees holes ground

112 Semantic Maps (Word Webs)

113 Brainstorming Students offer ideas related to a topic Mapping Teacher and students form categories and map the words into a diagram Reading Students read a nonfiction selection Completing the Map Teacher and students revisit the map and together refine and expand it

114 Snakes trees holes ground garter boa copperhead cobra coral KindsWhere Things Snakes Might Have rattleno legs scalesvenom fangtail

115 Semantic maps have the advantage of mirroring how words are stored in the lexicon.

116 cat /kat/ dog mammal 4 legs “meow” c-a-t animal pet lion

117

118

119 Word Lines

120 hot cold

121 hot tepid cold

122 hot tepid cold sweltering

123 hot tepid cold swelteringchilly

124

125 Word Sorts

126 thoraxpupa abdomenantennae winglarva adulthead eggleg Open Sort Categories are not given

127 Closed Sort PartsStages

128 Closed Sort PartsStages thorax abdomen wing head leg antennae pupa Egg larva adult

129

130 Present a list of 8-12 words the students will encounter in the new text Add a few familiar terms Ask for sentences containing at least two of the words Teach the text Return to the sentences Together decide whether they are correct or can be edited to make them so Possible Sentences

131 Word Cards Students need to focus on words for more than a few seconds to increase understanding Students “do the work!” Provide 5x7 note cards and have students divide in 4 quadrants

132 Vocabulary Card: Frayer Model Essential Characteristics Nonessential Characteristics Examples word Non-exemplars

133 Marzano’s 6-step Process for Direct Vocabulary Instruction 1.Teacher provides a description and example of the new term 2.Students restate the explanation in their own terms 3.Students create a non-linguistic representation of the word

134 4.Students do activities with the identified words to ensure distributed practice and multiple exposures 5.Students discuss the terms with one another 6.Students use games to “play” with the words. In addition, he recommends the use of a vocabulary notebook for each student. Marzono, R. (2004) Building BackgroundKnowledge for Academic Achievement. Alexandria, VO: ASCD. Marzano’s 6-step Process for Direct Vocabulary Instruction

135 Research in Action

136 Integrating Vocabulary Instruction in the Content Area 1. Intentionally select words that are worth teaching 2. Model use of the selected words 3. Allow time for students to use the words immediately after modeling

137 Integrating Vocabulary Instruction In the Content Area 4. Give tasks that promote application and personalization 5. Engage students in authentic reading tasks, daily, focusing on high-frequency prefixes, suffixes and root words (Fisher & Frey, 2008)

138 Selecting Words to Teach “Research shows that some words can be learned from reading, but not until students encounter the new words repeatedly-through reading many other texts, verbal discussion,….” Fisher, D. & Frey, N. (2008)

139 With the idea that students can learn (successfully) eight to ten words a week, how can we select the words that are worth teaching? Isabel Beck (2002) and Fischer and Frey (2008) suggest choosing words from Tier 2 & Tier 3 that fit the following guidelines…. Word Selection

140 Representation Is the word critical to understanding the text? Is the word representative of a family of words? Does the word represent an idea that is necessary to understand related concepts?

141 Repeatability Does the word occur repeatedly in the text? Will the word be used again this year?

142 Transportability Will the word be used in discussion? Will the word be required in writing? Will the word be used in other content areas?

143 Contextual Analysis Will students be able to figure out the meaning using context clues or is direct instruction needed?

144 Structural Analysis Will students use structural analysis to determine the meaning or do they need direct instruction?

145 Cognitive Load Have I identified an appropriate number of words that students will be able to integrate and apply the meanings of the words?

146 Choice Literacy Podcast Learn more about vocabulary instruction and how it is connected to the Common Core Standards and reading comprehension. https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/doug-fisher-on- vocabulary/id ?i=

147 Tier 1 Words Some learners new to English may also need background knowledge and support in Tier 1 words. This is a link to a word list that includes 850 words that are phonetically regular, easy to pronounce and could be a boost for English learners. Ogden’s Basic English Word List

148 More Vocabulary Resources

149

150

151

152

153

154

155

156

157 “In the long run, effective intervention will involve extended vocabulary work as a normal part the curriculum.” Biemiller, A. (2004). Teaching vocabulary in the primary grades.In J.F. Baumann & E.J. Kame’enui (Eds.), Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice (pp ). New York: Guilford. Andy Biemiller

158 Online Dictionaries General Words: Visual Dictionary: Rhyming Words: Spanish Language: World Languages: Thesaurus:

159 References Baumann, J.F., & Kame’enui, E.J. (2004). Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice. New York: Guilford. Bear, D.R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S.R., & Johnston, F. Words their way (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: Guilford. Beck, I.L., McKeown, (2008). Rev It Up: Robust Encounters with Vocabulary. Orlando, Florida: Steck-Vaughn. Blachowicz, C., & Cobb, C., (2007). Teaching Vocabulary Across the Content Areas. Alexandria, VA : ASCD.

160 References Fisher, D. & Frey,N. (2008). Word Wise Content Rich: Five Essential Steps to Teaching Academic Vocabulary. Porstsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Marzano, R. (2004) Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Nagy, W.E. (1988). Teaching vocabulary to improve reading comprehension. Newark, DE: IRA.Erlbaum. Stahl, S.A. (1999). Vocabulary development. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books. Stahl, S.A., & Kapinus, B.A. (2001). Word power: What every educator needs to know about teaching vocabulary. Washington, DC: NEA. Stahl, S.A., & Nagy, W.E. (2005). Teaching word meanings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.


Download ppt "Literacy Design Collaborative Professional Development Vocabulary."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google