Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

AZ ELŐADÁS LETÖLTHETŐ : - Georgikon Kar Növényvédelmi Intézet AZ ELŐADÁS LETÖLTHETŐ : - Georgikon Kar Növényvédelmi Intézet Module of Applied Entomology.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "AZ ELŐADÁS LETÖLTHETŐ : - Georgikon Kar Növényvédelmi Intézet AZ ELŐADÁS LETÖLTHETŐ : - Georgikon Kar Növényvédelmi Intézet Module of Applied Entomology."— Presentation transcript:

1 AZ ELŐADÁS LETÖLTHETŐ : - Georgikon Kar Növényvédelmi Intézet AZ ELŐADÁS LETÖLTHETŐ : - Georgikon Kar Növényvédelmi Intézet Module of Applied Entomology Field pests - in temperate zone of Europe -

2 Main topics Polyphagous field pests Wheat pests Corn pests Sunflower pests

3 Main topics Rapeseed pests Alfalfa and pea pests Potato pests Rice pests

4 I. Polyphagous field pests

5 TÁMOP A/2-10/ PHYTOPHAGY: MONOPHAGOUS SPECIES: Feed on only one plant taxon OLIGOPHAGOUS SPECIES: Feed on a few plant taxa (for example: one plant-family) POLYPHAGOUS SPECIES (generalist): Feed on many plant taxa Polyphagous field pests 5

6 TÁMOP A/2-10/ POLYPHAGOUS PESTS: Cockchafers’ (Melolonthidae) larvae (grubs) Click beetles’ (Elateridae) larvae (wireworms) Noctuid moths’ (Noctuidae) larvae (caterpillars) Rodents (common vole, gopher, hamster) Games (rabbit, roe-deer, red-deer, wild boar) Polyphagous field pests 6

7 TÁMOP A/2-10/ COCKCHAFERS: 12 species living in Hungary The most importants are the followings: 1. Common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) Polyphagous field pests 7

8 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Forest cockchafer (Melolontha hippocastani) Polyphagous field pests 8

9 TÁMOP A/2-10/ April beetle (Rhizotrogus aequinoctialis) Polyphagous field pests 9

10 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Summer chafer (Amphimallon solstitiale) Polyphagous field pests 10

11 TÁMOP A/2-10/ June beetle (Polyphylla fullo) Polyphagous field pests 11

12 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Vine chafer (Anomala vitis) Polyphagous field pests 12

13 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) – absent in Europe, quarantine pest Polyphagous field pests 13

14 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Larvae – the grubs Economic importance: % damage The grubs attacks the rooting system Most dangeorous when recently planted Polyphagous field pests 14

15 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Life cycle The development takes three years Most dangerous is the third instar larva (80% of the full damage) 5-10 cm deep – summer cm deep – winter Adults live approx. two weeks Egg hatching needs moisture Polyphagous field pests 15

16 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Control: Damage threshold level: 1.2 larva/m 2 Soil sterilization before planting Seed treatment Biological control (entomopathogenic nematodes) Less effective in orchards Polyphagous field pests 16

17 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Click beetles (Elateridae) Polyphagous field pests 17 Photograph copyright: ozwildlife

18 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Western click beetle (Agriotes ustulatus) Polyphagous field pests 18 (foto

19 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Dusky click beetle (Agriotes obscurus) Polyphagous field pests 19

20 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Lined click beetle (Agriotes lineatus) Polyphagous field pests 20 Copyright:http://molbiol.ru

21 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Common click beetle (Agriotes sputator) Polyphagous field pests 21 Copyright:

22 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wireworms Th e larvae called: wireworms – cause the damage The adults feeds on pollen Economic importance: 10 – 20% damage Polyphagous field pests 22 Copyright: entomology.ucdavis.edu

23 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Typical life cycle of click beetles Polyphagous field pests 23 Copyright: omafra.gov.on.ca

24 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Control: Damage threshold level may vary by sites / year / culture: 2-5 larva/ m 2 Soil sterilization before planting Seed treatment Biological control (entomopathogenic nematodes) For good efficacy, special skill / practice is needed Polyphagous field pests 24

25 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Noctuid moths (Noctuidae) Nocturnal Diurnal Polyphagous field pests 25

26 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Turnip moth (Scotia segetum) Polyphagous field pests – Nocturnal moths 26

27 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Dart moth (Agrotis exclamationis) Polyphagous field pests – Nocturnal moths 27

28 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Spotted cutworm (Amathes c-nigrum) Polyphagous field pests – Nocturnal moths 28

29 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon) Polyphagous field pests – Nocturnal moths 29

30 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Euxoa temera Polyphagous field pests – Nocturnal moths 30 Copyright: fr.academic.ru

31 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Turnip moth damage The seedlings can be totally bored through The larva chew rings around the stems Polyphagous field pests – Nocturnal moths 31

32 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Biology and control of turnip moth Two generations per year First fly in May Damage can be observed from May to October The eggs laid into the surface of the soil Control is very difficult Polyphagous field pests – Nocturnal moths 32

33 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Silver Y moth (Autographa gamma) Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths 33 Copyright: gardener.wikia.com

34 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Shoulder-striped Clover (Heliothis maritima) Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths 34 Copyright:

35 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths 35 Copyright: bayercropscience.co.za

36 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) One of the most dangerous pests worldwide Host plants includes vegetables, field crops and ornamentals Damage: usually feeds on the generative parts of plants (flowers, fruits, seeds) 2-(3) generation per year The pupa can overwinter under Hungarian conditions, diapausing from September Forecasting with sex pheromone traps Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths 36

37 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Damage on corn: Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths 37

38 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Damage on pepper: Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths 38

39 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Damage on tomato: Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths 39

40 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Damage on alfalfa: Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths 40

41 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cabbage armyworm (Mamestra brassicae) Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths 41 Copyright: russellipm-agriculture.com

42 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Bright line- Brown eye moth (Mamestra oleracea) Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths 42 Copyright:

43 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Damage: Larvae of diurnal moths damages the following crops: Sugar beet, sunflower, soybean, rapeseed, alfalfa, pea, bean, lettuce, mustard, carrot, cabbage, tobacco, poppy, etc. They feeds on leaves or flowers Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths 43 Copyright:

44 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Biology and control Most of them has two generation per year The eggs laid on the leaves Overwinters in the soil, except for the silver Y moth, which is a migrant moth The pupation is usually in the soil Control: good efficiacy can be achieved against young larvae Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths 44

45 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia) 45

46 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Common vole (Microtus arvalis) Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia) 46

47 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Common vole (Microtus arvalis) The most dangerous and widespread rodent in Hungary Mass outbreak in every 3-6 years after mild winter Host plants: alfalfa, wheat, maize, potato, sugarbeet, pea, onion, vegetables, fruit trees The damage is bigger nearby its holes Feeding on living plant parts, maize cob, wheat spike, rooting system of woody plants Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia) 47

48 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Common vole (Microtus arvalis) Biology: 6-8 litter per year, with 3 to 8 juveniles No winter sleep Densities can range froem 100/ha up to 2000 individuals /ha Control: Chemical control can be performed, using anticoalguant active ingredients (chlorphacinone, calcium phosphide, zinc phosphide, etc.) Biological control: predaceous birds Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia) 48

49 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Common vole (Microtus arvalis) Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia) 49

50 TÁMOP A/2-10/ European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia) 50

51 TÁMOP A/2-10/ European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) Brown and white coloured face The body is medium sized among rodents Aggressive appearance when alarmed is typical Prefers loess soil Most abundant in the Great Plain – East Hungary Damage: Host plants: Maize (most important), wheat, potatoe, sugarbeet, onion, fruit trees’ root system Feeds on young seedlings, chews tip / upper part of the wheat and the cob of the maize Hamsters store food reserves in their burrows Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia) 51

52 TÁMOP A/2-10/ European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) Biology: 2 litters per year, with 4 to 6 juveniles Hibernating starts in October and finishes in April Sleeping periods alternate with wakeful phases when hamsters feed on their winter stores (15-20 kg maize) There is no effective control against this pest Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia) 52

53 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Ground squirrel (Citellus citellus) Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia) 53

54 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Water vole (Arvicola terrestris) Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia) 54

55 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Water vole (Arvicola terrestris) Occurs only, where water is present Live in and around streams, rivers and other water bodies Damage: Eat green shoots in preference to fruits and seeds they rely more on below-ground rhizomes during the winter The damaged tree shriveled Causing a wedge-like tree bottom Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia) 55

56 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Water vole (Arvicola terrestris) Biology: Water vole has 3-4 litter per year with 4-6 young per litter It spends winter within the burrow, although they do not hibernate Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia) 56

57 TÁMOP A/2-10/ European mole – (Talpa europea) Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia) 57

58 TÁMOP A/2-10/ European mole – (Talpa europea) A beneficial predator that feeds on insects Cause harm by the burrowing activity, especially the molehills While burrowing young plants often die Often feeds on earthworms Biology: The mole has 1 litter per year with 4-7 young per litter They don’t hibernate The european mole is under protection, any control methods against this pest is permitted!!! Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia) 58

59 TÁMOP A/2-10/ European hare (Lepus europeus) Most common in plain areas – Great Plain Host plants: pea, sunflower, watermelon, bean, cabbage, sugarbeet, fruit tree bark (at wintertime) Biology: The hare has 3-4 litter per year with 3-4 young per litter Polyphagous field pests – Games 59

60 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wild boar (Sus scrofa) Important pest – high density Host plants: Maize, wheat, sugarbeet, grape, potatoe, corn Digs out the maize and the oak seedlings Treads down the field crops Eats out the seeds from the corncob Polyphagous field pests – Games 60

61 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Deers: Red deer (Cervus elaphus), Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) High population density in Hungary Host plants: wheat, maize, sunflower (roe deer), fruit trees (deer), grape, cabbage, pea, alfalfa, soybean, potatote, sugarbeet, oak, beech Damage: Gnaw off wheat and corn, treads down the field crops Leaves and twigs are ripped from trees and brush leaving a ragged surface Annuals can be pulled out, smaller trees can be destroyed Polyphagous field pests – Games 61

62 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Eurasian badger (Meles meles) Damages corn only, by beating down and feeding on corncobs Polyphagous field pests – Games 62

63 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Game control Game repellents Fence, electrical fence Cartonplast in woody plants (single control) Chemical (single and area management) Polyphagous field pests – Games 63

64 II. Wheat pests

65 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wheat: Sowed usually in October Spacing: 12,5x2-3cm Harvesting in June- July It is the most important cultivated plant with the biggest area Wheat pests 65

66 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Autumn pests Zabrus tenebrioides Cereal ground beetle Oscinella fritFrit fly Meromyza saltatrix Wheat stem maggot Scotia segetum Turnip moth Melolontha melolontha Common cockchafer Angunia tritici Wheat seed gall nematode Macrosiphum graminum Grain aphid Wheat pests 66

67 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Winter pests Microtus arvalis Common vole Haplothrips tritici Wheat trips Spring pests Scotia segetum Turnip moth Cephus pygmaeus Wheat stem sawfly Eurygaster austriaca Wheat shield bug Aelia acuminata Bishop’s mitre shield bug Oulema melanopus, O. gallaeciana Cereal leaf beetles Wheat pests 67

68 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Spring pests Zabrus tenebrioides Cereal ground beetle Contarinia tritici Wheat blossom midge Rhopalosiphum padi Bird cherry aphid Macrosiphum graminum Grain aphid Angunia tritici Wheat seed gall nematode Anisoplia spp.Wheat chafers Wheat pests 68

69 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cereal ground beetle (Zabrus tenebrionides) Wheat pests – Autumn pests 69

70 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cereal ground beetle (Zabrus tenebrionides) Damage: Larvae burrow into soil, pulling down and eating shoots from October to May Damage is greater in autumn if the weather is humid, despite in spring Autumn damage is bigger Spring damage is not so big, because the plant is more developed Wheat pests – Autumn pests 70

71 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cereal ground beetle (Zabrus tenebrionides) Adult beetles feed on cereal ears before harvest and on spilt grain and stubble re-growths Damage is worst in all- cereal rotations and with minimal cultivations. A non- cereal break crop or early ploughing will provide good control Wheat pests – Autumn pests 71

72 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cereal ground beetle (Zabrus tenebrionides) Biology: One generation per year Overwinters as a larva Adults occurs from May Eggs laid into the surface of the soil Control: Crop rotation Wheat pests – Autumn pests 72

73 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cereal ground beetle (Zabrus tenebrionides) Adult and larva with typically damaged leaves Wheat pests – Autumn pests 73

74 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cereal ground beetle (Zabrus tenebrionides) Adults can be monitored with pitfall traps Wheat pests – Autumn pests 74

75 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Frit fly (Oscinella frit) There are six species of wheat flies in Hungary Frit fly is the most important Host plants include: - wheat - barley - maize - rye - oat Wheat pests – Autumn pests 75

76 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Frit fly (Oscinella frit) Damage: In spring sown oat: blind, withered spikelets In corn: plants stop developing, leaves curling Wheat: The main shoot become yellow in autumn damage The larva burrows into the central shoot and causes ‘deadheart’ symptoms Wheat pests – Autumn pests 76

77 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Frit fly (Oscinella frit) Biology: There are three generations a year (2 in autumn, 1 in spring) Third generation is the most dangerous Larvae overwinters in the shoots Eggs laid onto the plants (cereals) Second generation is a maize pest as well (May) Control: No effective chemical control method Wheat pests – Autumn pests 77

78 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wheat seed gall nematode (Anguina tritici) Wheat pests – Autumn pests 78

79 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wheat seed gall nematode (Anguina tritici) Only a wheat pest Avoid monoculture Damage: Plants are twisted, deformated, become purple Brown galls in the spikes Anabiosis: from the galls the larvae can occur after several years Wheat pests – Autumn pests 79

80 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wheat seed gall nematode (Anguina tritici) Biology: One generation per year Larvae overwinters in the galls or in the plant Seeking the plant with active movement, where moisture is important Passive movement in the plant inside to the spikes Control: Crop rotation Wheat pests – Autumn pests 80

81 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Aphids (Aphididae) Grain aphid (Schizaphis graminum) Wheat pests – Autumn pests 81

82 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Aphids (Aphididae) Bird-cherry aphid (Rhophalosiphum padi) Wheat pests – Autumn pests 82

83 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Aphids (Aphididae) Autumn and spring pests as well Spring damage is more significant in the recent years Damage: Direct damage: Withdrawing the sap from the leaves, the leaves are curling, produces honeydew, where black sooty mold (Cladosporium herbarum) usually occurs Indirect damage: It is more significant, as vectors of Barley yellow dwarf virus. These aphids often provides the primary source of BYDV infection in early sown winter cereals Wheat pests – Autumn pests 83

84 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Aphids (Aphididae) Wheat pests – Autumn pests 84

85 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Aphids (Aphididae) Biology: generations per year Overwinters in woody plants or herbaceous plants as an egg Asexual forms not mating, reproducing by ovoviviparae Control: Spraying with systemic insecticides Can be made in autumn and spring as well Insecticide applications should be applied when aphids reach treatment levels Heavy rainfall and natural parasitism will significantly reduce aphid populations, so these factors should be considered before applying insecticide applications Wheat pests – Autumn pests 85

86 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Other autumn pests Common vole Turnip moth – cutworm Chafer grubs Wheat pests – Autumn pests 86

87 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wheat bugs Eurygaster austriaca Aelia acuminata Wheat shield bug Bishop’s mitre shield bug Wheat pests – Spring pests 87 Copyright: photographersdirect.com Copyright: eol.org

88 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wheat bugs Adults and larvae are both causing damage Sucking the stems, causing whitening or even death of the stem Also sucking on young kernels and semi- ripened grains Quality of the grain decreases Depressed germination ability Wheat pests – Spring pests 88

89 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wheat bugs Biology: One generation per year Adults overwinters under fallen leaves 14 eggs/female are laid onto the underside of the leaves Hibernation starts from June Control: Insecticide spraying Wheat pests – Spring pests 89

90 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cereal leaf beetles Blue leaf beetle – Oulema gallaeciana Red throated leaf beetle – Oulema melanopus Wheat pests – Spring pests 90

91 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cereal leaf beetles Biology: Adults overwinters 1 generation per year Fly to corn in June Following emergence, beetles feed, mate and lay eggs for approximately six weeks eggs are laid per female. Larvae emerge from the egg and feed on the upper leaf surface without fully perforating the lower leaf surface Wheat pests – Spring pests 91

92 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cereal leaf beetles Larvae have the interesting habit of covering their body with fecal matter which is thought to protect the larvae from desiccation and predation Larvae pass through four larval instars before leaving the plant to pupate in cocoons made of mixing their saliva with earth 1.25 to 5 cm deep (red-throated) or in wheat kernels (blue cereal leaf beetle) Wheat pests – Spring pests 92

93 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cereal leaf beetles Adults emerge shortly after (15-20 d) and begin to feed on available crops or wild hosts. Adult feeding is characterized as between vein and completely perforating the leaf tissue Damage from cereal leaf beetle is apparent when the tips of leaves turn white and the leaves develop white stripes or slits where the beetle has consumed a strip. A field with extensive damage will look frosted or whitewashed Wheat pests – Spring pests 93

94 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wheat chafers Anisoplia lata Anisoplia austriaca Anisoplia agricola Anisoplia segetum Wheat pests – Spring pests 94

95 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wheat chafers (Anisoplia spp.) Damage: Beetle larvae feed on rotted plant residues in soil and when live plants are present, they eat their root system. The main damage is done by the beetles simply feeding on grain, converting it into low-value residues and also a lot of grain is knocked out from ears into soil Biology: Two years life cycle Larvae and adults overwinters in the soil Eggs laid on the soil at the end of June Wheat pests – Spring pests 95

96 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wheat chafers (Anisoplia spp.) Control: Soil sterilization against larvae Spraying against adults – only if extremely great numbers are present Wheat pests – Spring pests 96

97 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wheat stem sawfly (Cephus pygmaeus) Wheat pests – Spring pests 97

98 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wheat stem sawfly (Cephus pygmaeus) Most dangerous in monoculture Flight of adults begin in May Adults prefer well-developed stems with thick and hollow culms for oviposition Larva lives inside the stem, feeding on tissues around fiberous vascular bundles After completion of feeding, the larva saws stem from inside at the height of a few centimeters above tillering node, plugs the stem up with a cork made of sawdust, and weaves a thin, semi-translucent, waterproof cocoon, where it overwinters Wheat pests – Spring pests 98

99 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wheat stem sawfly (Cephus pygmaeus) Cold and snowy winters result in a higher mortality of overwintering larvae (50% or more) Control measures include stubbling and deep autumn plowing-in of stubble; harvesting as early as possible; two-phase harvesting of wheat with a close cut; use of resistant varieties with "filled" stems; and growing of less susceptible crops (oats, millet). Treatment by chemicals during the period of adult flight is ineffective Wheat pests – Spring pests 99

100 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wheat blossom midges – Contarinia tritici, Sitodiplosis mosellana Contarinia tritici and Sitodiplosis mosellana are the most important pests The larvae of Contarinia tritici feed on the floral parts of wheat, preventing pollination and development of the grain The larvae of Sitodiplosis mosellana feed on the developing grain, resulting in reduced grain size and milling/baking qualities In most seasons and regions, damage is slight. However, S. mosellana in particular can cause serious losses in northern Europe Wheat pests – Spring pests100

101 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wheat blossom midges – Contarinia tritici, Sitodiplosis mosellana Biology: One generation per year, larvae overwinters Eggs laid on the kernels of wheat Wheat pests – Spring pests101

102 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wheat blossom midges – Contarinia tritici, Sitodiplosis mosellana Wheat pests – Spring pests102 Copyright:

103 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Other spring pests Wheat thrips (Haplothrips tritici) Wheat pests – Spring pests103

104 II. Corn pests

105 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Corn is one of the most important cultivated plants in Hungary 1,1 – 1,2 million hectares Around 25% of the field crops The easiest cultivating method Well profitable Spacing: 75x18-20 cm Sowing: April (usually same time of blackthorn blossom) 10oC soil degree is needed Seed treatment Harvest from September to November, ideal is October Corn cultivation105

106 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Soil borne pests: Grubs, wireworms Corn pests – During the whole vegetation106

107 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Soil borne pests: Wireworm damage: Corn pests – During the whole vegetation107

108 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Wireworms are attracted to the carbon dioxide from germinating seeds They are active in the root zone They can weaken or kill emerged seedlings by : (1) Feeding on tender young roots (2) Boring into the base of corn plants below ground (3) Drilling upward into stalks of larger corn plants. Porous well drained loam soils are more likely to be infested with wireworms than are heavy clay soils Wireworm populations are not uniformly distributed: damaged corn plants may be found next to healthy plants Corn pests – During the whole vegetation108

109 TÁMOP A/2-10/ White grubs have a 3-year life cycle and spend two consecutive seasons pruning roots and eating organic matter in the soil Chewing results in aboveground stunting and wilting Leaf tips occasionally turn purple Control: Seed treatment protects only the seed and will not protect the seedling following germination The damage of wireworms are the biggest in corn fields Crop rotation Corn pests – During the whole vegetation109

110 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Turnip moth – cutworm (Scotia segetum) The larvae are nocturnal feeders, hiding in shadow burrows or under soil clods during the day Damage: (1) Plants cut a tor just above the soil surface, (2) purplish, lodged plants cut below ground (3) Wilting or dead plants Corn pests – During germination110

111 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Birds – Pheasant, rook Birds will dig around a seedling with their bill During the reproductive stages of corn development, blackbirds peel the husks from the tip of the ear back towards the base in very thin strips The damage of pheasant concentrated only to the field edges There is no available control method as the earlier seed treatments are forbidden now Corn pests – During germination111 Copyright: bbc.co.uk Copyright: rspb.org.uk

112 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Weevils Adults are pests, which damages the leaves of corn at 2-4 leaf stage (April- May) They consume leaves margins and destroy apical meristems. Control measures include limiting maize production to 2 or less years in a crop rotation. Maize and sunflower are necessary to alternate with cereals in crop rotation They have chewing mouthparts on a "beak" or snout Adults are more dangerous during the early phase of development shoot, larvae feeds on roots Corn pests – During one-four leaf stage112

113 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Maize leaf weevil, Sugar-beet weevil They have 1 generation per year Adults overwintering cm deep in the soil Occurs at early April Feeds until late May Eggs are placed on the soil Adults able to fly just above 20oC Moving mostly by walking Biggest damage on field edges Corn pests – During one-four leaf stage113

114 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Black weevil (Psalidium maxillosum), Beet-leaf weevil (Tanymecus palliatus) Both species have two years life cycle Overwinters as a larva and an adult (2nd year) Unable to fly Larvae feeds on smaller roots, adults on young leaves Corn pests – During one-four leaf stage114

115 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Barley frit fly (Oscinella frit) Main damage caused in wheat, barley and oat fields The larva burrows into the central shoot and may cause deadheart symptoms in wheat fields Overwinters as a larva in wheat shoots 3 generations per year 1st or 2nd generation occurs in corn Corn pests – During one-four leaf stage115

116 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Barley flea beetle ( Phyllotreta vittula ) Corn pests – During one-four leaf stage116 Copyright:

117 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Corn is the favourit host plant of the pest Monovoltine; inhabits wild cereals everywhere Flight begins at an average daily temperature of 5 degrees Celsius Warm and dry conditions in summer are favorable for the pest; but prolonged and cold springs decrease population. Adults hibernate after additional feeding in forests, ravines, and forest belts Corn pests – During one-four leaf stage117

118 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Overwintered adults occurs in March Feeding on weed plants first Eggs deposited on the soil surface Larvas hatches in April, adults fly in May These adults feeding on the leaves of corn plants As a result of global warming, hybernating starts later, at mid summer – longer damage period Corn pests – During one-four leaf stage118

119 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cereal leaf beetles – Oulema spp. Corn pests – During one-four leaf stage119 Copyright: species.wikimedia.org Red-throated cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) Blue leaf beetle (Oulema gallaeciana) Copyright: biolob.cz

120 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cereal leaf beetles – Oulema spp. More important damage on wheat Adults overwinters 1 generation per year Fly to corn in June Damage from cereal leaf beetle is apparent when the tips of leaves turn white and the leaves develop white stripes or slits where the beetle has consumed a strip. A field with extensive damage will look frosted or whitewashed Corn pests – During one-four leaf stage120

121 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Aphids – Aphididae Pest status: Common insects, rarely economic pests Life cycle: During the summer, all aphids are female and do not need to mate to reproduce; females produce live young (parthenogenesis). Multiple overlapping generations Type of damage: Sucks plant sap from leaves, removing water and nutrients. In heavy infestations, honeydew secretions may result in sticky leaves, whorls, and tassels, inhibiting pollen shed and weakening plants Corn pests – During intensive growth121

122 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Aphids – Aphididae 1. Corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis) 2. Bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) Feeds on leaves or tassels and silks Yellow mottling, wilting and curling on leaves generations, overwinters as an egg Vector of maize dwarf mosaic virus Corn pests – During intensive growth122 Copyright: extension.iastate.edu

123 TÁMOP A/2-10/ European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) Corn pests – From tasseling123

124 TÁMOP A/2-10/ European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) Pest status: Common insect. Outbreaks in some years and at some location Life cycle: Mature larvae overwinter in corn stubble, debris and soil, pupate occurs in late spring Adult moths emerge in May. Females lay eggs of the 1st generation on the undersides of corn leaves Corn pests – From tasseling124

125 TÁMOP A/2-10/ European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) Eggs hatch within 5-7 days, larvae feed on the leaves or in the whorl Mature larvae tunnel into stalk to complete development. 1st generation adults emerge, mate, and females lay 2nd generation eggs. 2nd generation larvae bore into the stalk, ear shank, and ear Corn pests – From tasseling125 Copyright: nematode.unl.edu Copyright: nwnyteam.org

126 TÁMOP A/2-10/ European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) Type of damage: 1st Generation = Shot holing in the leaves by feeding on the whorl, then tunneling into stalk Corn pests – From tasseling126

127 TÁMOP A/2-10/ European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) 2nd generation (only in middle and southern part of Hungary)= Larvae tunnel into the stalk, shank, and ear. Stalk tunneling weakens plant, disrupts water flow, and creates entry wounds for stalk rot fungus (Fusarium) Management: Forecasting: light traps Control: Chitin synthesis inhibitor: diflubenzuron – active agent Control against moths and corn rootworm are aggregated Corn pests – From tasseling127

128 TÁMOP A/2-10/ European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) Typical damage: Corn pests – From tasseling128

129 TÁMOP A/2-10/ European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) Larva inside the stem: Corn pests – From tasseling129

130 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) Corn pests – From tasseling130

131 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) Greatest problems in seed corn Come from USA in 1992, since 1995 in Hungary Monoculture (20%) → crop rotation (80%) Overwinter as eggs in the soil Egg hatch, end of May Adults swarming begin, end of June Adult damage Adults: feeding on silks, also on leaves, and soft kernels Harm: silks are clipped shorter than 2,5 cm before pollination occurs and if adults are still active Corn pests – From tasseling131

132 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) Larval damage: Small larvae feed inside root hairs, tips Larger larvae feed on large roots, and can severely prune entire nodes of roots Root loss leads to plant stress from poor water and nutrient uptake Poor root formation also leads to lodging of plants, harvest problems Corn pests – From tasseling132

133 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) Control: Larvae: Soil sterilization with sowing, seed treatment Larvae hatches one month after sowing By this time insecticides are not effective enough Adult: damages for a long period, multiple control is needed Forecasting: Egg washing method Swarming, trap Pheromone traps Corn pests – From tasseling133

134 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cotton bollworm/Corn earworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Damage: usually feeds on the generative parts of plants (flowers, fruits, seeds) 2-3 generation per year The pupa can overwinter under hungarian conditions, diapausing from September Corn pests – From tasseling134 Copyright: ozanimals.comCopyright: photoshelter.com

135 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cotton bollworm/Corn earworm (Helicoverpa armigera) The tiny, white eggs are laid singly on the foliage and fresh corn silk, which is the favorite site for egg deposition Larvae feed on leaves, tassels, the whorl, and within ears, but the ears are the preferred sites for corn earworm attack Corn pests – From tasseling135

136 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cotton bollworm/Corn earworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Young larvae feed on corn silks, clipping them off Shortly thereafter, they bore into the ear where they remain, feeding in the tip area until they exit to pupate in the soil Eggs hatch in 5 to 7 days following oviposition Once larvae enter the corn ears, control with insecticides is difficult Forecasting with pheromone traps Treatments should be timed to coincide with egg hatch Direct insecticidal control towards young larvae that are feeding on the exposed ear tips Corn pests – From tasseling136

137 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cotton bollworm/Corn earworm (Helicoverpa armigera) In sweet corn, where tolerance for worm damage is low, timing of insecticide treatments is critical: begin treatments during silking stage, at the start of egg hatch Before silking stage no control is needed, even at high pheromone trap catches Treatments are usually not needed on field or silage corn Corn pests – From tasseling137

138 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Mammal pests European hamster Wild boar Deers Corn pests – From tasseling138 Copyright:

139 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Mammal pests Causing great harm when corn matures Feeds on corn ears and kernels European badger: Chewing the corn ears Corn pests – From tasseling139

140 III. Sunflower pests

141 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Soil borne pests Grubs and wireworms feeding on the root system Plants are tasseling, often die Control: Soil sterilizers Vine chafer can damage the sunflowers’ foliage Cutworms 2 generation per year, overwinters as a larva Larvae chew off the base of the plants, or bore into the sunflower stem Sunflower pests141

142 TÁMOP A/2-10/ From emergence to ten leaf stage Turnip moth – cutworm – Agrotis segetum Weevils – See corn pests Darkling beetle – Opatrum sabulosum Tarnished plant bug - Lygus rugulipennis Lucerne bug - Adelphocoris lineolatus Birds – Pheasant, pigeons Mammals – as usual in field crops Sunflower pests142

143 TÁMOP A/2-10/ During intensive growth Tarnished plant bug - Lygus rugulipennis Lucerne bug - Adelphocoris lineolatus Black bean aphid - Aphis fabae Leafcurl plum aphid - Brachycaudus helichrysi Spider mites – Tetranychidae Onion thrips – Thrips tabaci Larvae of noctuid moths – Noctuidae Roe deer Sunflower pests143

144 TÁMOP A/2-10/ During reproductive stages Tarnished plant bug - Lygus rugulipennis Lucerne bug - Adelphocoris lineolatus Sunflower moth - Homoesoma nebulellum Cotton bollworm - Helicoverpa armigera Corn rootworm - Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Birds – Sparrow, pigeon Sunflower pests144

145 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Weevils Young plants are damaged by the adults They chew on the leaf margins, when high numbers occurs, can completely defoliate the plant Usually damaging in May Larvae develop in the rooting system, without causing significant damage Sunflower pests – From emerge-ten leaf stage145 Copyright: www. agroatlas.ru

146 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Weevils Damage: Sunflower pests – From emerge-ten leaf stage146

147 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Mammals: 1.European hare (Lepus europeus) 2.Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) Damage: Gnaw off the plants, treads down the field crops. Deer damage is easily recognized because, lacking upper front incisors, deer can only grind and chew with their molars. The plants may be pulled out of the ground After damaged sunflower can shoot again, but it branches and the heads will be less. Sunflower pests – From emerge-ten leaf stage147

148 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Tarnished plant bug (Lygus rugulipennis) Sunflower pests – From emerge-ten leaf stage148 Copyright:

149 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Tarnished plant bug (Lygus rugulipennis) Damage: The tarnished plant bug feed preferentially on either the developing reproductive organs or on the apical meristematic and leaf primordial tissue causing a necrosis around the feeding site due to the injection of enzymes. This tissue destruction causes the brown spot on the sunflower kernel and can also result in a bitter taste to the seeds Sunflower pests – From emerge-ten leaf stage149

150 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Tarnished plant bug (Lygus rugulipennis) Life cycle: Two generation per year Adults overwinters in litter Occurs from May to September Larvae are green, similar to adults, but wings lacking Control: Insecticide treatments with pyrethroids have reduced feeding damage by Lygus bugs when applied at the beginning of flowering Sunflower pests – From emerge-ten leaf stage150 Copyright:

151 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Lucerne bug (Adelphocoris lineolatus) More dangerous than the tarnished plant bug Sunflower pests – From emerge-ten leaf stage151 Copyright: www. flickr.com

152 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Lucerne bug (Adelphocoris lineolatus) Adults and larvae feeding during the whole vegetation Cause leaf curling in the young plants Deformating the flowers, by sucking Eggs are placed into the stems in a batch in an irregular longitudinal row Sunflower pests – From emerge-ten leaf stage152

153 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Aphids – Aphididae 1.Black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) – generations, eggs overwinters in spindle bush 2.Leafcurl plum aphid (Brachycaudus helichrysi) – generations, eggs overwinters in plum tree Sunflower pests – During intensive growth153

154 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Aphids – Aphididae Aphids sucking on the plants and deformating the leaves Vectors of several viruses, including CMV – Cucumber mosaic virus Occurs from May Migrate back to woody plants in September Control: Systemic insecticides, if needed Sunflower pests – During intensive growth154

155 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Aphids – Aphididae Sunflower pests – During intensive growth155

156 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) Worldwide pest with several host plants, including vegetables, field crops, ornamentals Damage: Sucking damage, removal of chlorophyll causes the feeding area to appear white to silvery in color. Areas of leaf injury can occur as patches and streaks When feeding injury is severe,leaves take on a silvery cast and can wither Vector of severe viruses Sunflower pests – During intensive growth156

157 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Spider mites – Tetranychidae Occasional pests Feeding on the underside of the leaves Can be introduced to the field from the orchards nearby, with the help of wind Sunflower pests – During intensive growth157 Copyright: www. ctahr.hawaii.edu

158 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Diurnal noctuid moths – Noctuidae 1.Silver Y moth (Autographa gamma) 2.Shoulder-striped clover (Heliothis maritima) Sunflower pests – During intensive growth158

159 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Diurnal noctuid moths – Noctuidae There are two generations per year and overwinters as a pupa, cm deep in the soil The first flight usually starts in Hungary in May, and the second flight in August The eggs laid into the leaves of host plants. They move to the soil for overwintering in September The silver Y moth never overwinters in Hungary, it is a migrant moth, usually overwinters in South Europe. Control: Chemical: Against young larvae, feeding on the leaves Sunflower pests – During intensive growth159

160 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Sunflower pests – During reproductive stages160 Copyright: www. sciencedaily.com

161 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Damage: Usually feeds on the generative part of the plants, includes flowers, seeds etc. The larva damage the head of the sunflower, can cause % damage Young larvae can feed on the foliage Sunflower pests – During reproductive stages161

162 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Biology: In Hungary there are 2-3 generations per year The pupa is able to overwinter in Hungary. The first flight occurs at the end of May, the second in July, while the third in September. The eggs laid into the backstroke of the leaves. The diapausing start at the end of September. Forecasting: Sex pheromone traps Control: Spraying is not always effective due to the undercover life of the larvae. They cause harm on the generative parts – timing of spray. Damaged parts are entry hole for fungal diseases Sunflower pests – During reproductive stages162

163 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Sunflower moth (Homoesoma nebulellum) Sunflower pests – During reproductive stages163

164 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Sunflower moth (Homoesoma nebulellum) Nowadays is a minor pest due to the developed morphological resistance – phytomelan layer thickness in seeds Biology: 2-3 generations per year, larvae overwinters is the soil Eggs are deposited on the surface of open sunflower heads. First instars feed primarily on pollen. Second instars feed on pollen, and may burrow through the corolla to feed on pollen inside disk flowers. Feeding by third instars may sever the style and prevent the ovary from being fertilized, resulting in empty seeds. Sunflower pests – During reproductive stages164

165 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Sunflower moth (Homoesome nebulellum) Sunflower pests – During reproductive stages165

166 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Sunflower moth (Homoesome nebulellum) Third instars also begin feeding on ovaries. Larval feeding until maturity results in an average of about 96 damaged disk flowers and about 23 damaged ovaries per larva. As they feed, larvae spin a webbing over the face of the sunflower head. The accumulated debris in the larval webbing and damage caused by larval feeding predispose the head to Rhizopus infection. Mature larvae move to the ground where they spin overwintering cocoons Sunflower pests – During reproductive stages166

167 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Sunflower moth (Homoesoma nebulellum) Control: A number of tachinid and hymenopteran parasitoids attack the sunflower moth and aid in its control, but other methods are often needed Sunflower is usually attacked by second (and sometimes third) generations, coming from surrounding Asteraceae weeds Can be forecasted with pheromone traps Resistance breeding is the best Sunflower pests – During reproductive stages167

168 IV. Rapeseed pests

169 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Two-four leaf stage pests (in September) Turnip Sawfly (Athalia rosae) Mustard Sawfly (Athalia glabricollis) Cabbage steam flea beetle (Psylloides chrysocephala) Cabbage flea beetles (Phyllotreta species) aphids Cabbage Aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) Turnip Moth (Agrotis segetum = Scotia segetum) Silver Y Moth (Autographa gamma) Diamondback moth (Plutella maculipennis) soilborne pests (white grubs, wireworms) Rapeseed pests169

170 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pests of stem elongation stage (in March) Cabbage Stem Weevil (Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus = C. quadridens) Cabbage Seed Weevil (Ceutorhynchus obstrictus = C. assimilis) Rape Stem Weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi) Black Turnip Ceutorhynchus (Ceutorhynchus picitarsis) Rutabaga Barid (Baris coerulescens) Rapeseed pests170

171 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pests from stem elongation to „yellow bud” stage (in April) Green-veined White (Pieris napi) Cabbage White (Pieris rapae) Large White (Pieris brassicae) Pollen beetles (Meligethes spp.) Rapeseed pests171

172 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pests of the flowering stage (in May) Pod Gall Midge (Dasyneura brassicae) Blossom Feeder (Tropinota hirta = Epicometis hirta) Hawthorn Alleculid Beetle (Omophlus proteus) leaf hoppers (Auchenorrhyncha) Rapeseed pests172

173 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Turnip sawfly – Athalia rosae Adult emerges in May and June After feeding, the females laterally incise the leaves and deposit their eggs one by one in the small chambers. Females laid approximately 300 eggs Larvae feed on the leaves. At 20°C, they consume twice their own weight in 24 hours. Pupation occurs after 10 to 13 days in the upper layers of the ground at a depth of 1 to 5 cm, inside a cocoon. The final larval stage hibernates underground in a cocoon. Rapeseed pests173 Copyright: sv.wikipedia.org

174 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cabbage Steam Flea beetle - Psylliodes chrysocephala Young adult appears in May-June After 10 to 15 days, the female starts to lay eggs. It stops when the temperature falls below 0°C, and starts again at the end of the winter. Total fecundity 70 to 150 eggs. After larvae hatching, it penetrates the plant by the upper surface of the petiole of one of the oldest leaves Pupation occurs in the ground Rapeseed pests174

175 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cabbage flea beetles - Phyllotreta spp. Rapeseed pests175

176 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cabbage flea beetles - Phyllotreta spp. Overwintered adults are usually active in the fields until late June, feeding on the foliage and depositing their eggs in the soil The larvae can be found in the root zone of host plants during June and July The pupal stage occurs from early to mid-July The new generation are present from late July to early September They can be found feeding on cultivated cruciferous crops and weeds The summer generation will move to overwintering sites in late autumn. Rapeseed pests176

177 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cabbage flea beetles - Phyllotreta spp. One generation per year They emerge from the overwintering sites during early spring when temperature is above of 5 Celsius degree Overwintered adults feed on seedling cruciferous host plants. Summer adults feed on the pods of oilseed rape, mustard and other cruciferous crops and weeds Damage: Adult attacks rape seedlings and can totally destroy the crop. The plants attacked by the larvae become bushy and stunted. Maturity is irregular and the yield is reduced Rapeseed pests177

178 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cabbage Aphid - Brevicoryne brassicae Insects form big colonies, reaching large numbers when flowering Spring larvae hatch at the daily average temperature 7-8°C. There are 6-8 generations a year At high insect numbers, the yield may decrease by 34-62% Rapeseed pests178

179 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cabbage Seed Weevil - Ceutorhynchus obstrictus Overwintered adults appear in April after average daily temperature reaches 7–8°C At first, the beetles appear on wild crucifers; later they migrate to cruciferous cultures Adults feed on stems, pedicles, buds, gnawing small cavities Oviposition continues from the 2nd half of May to the end of June Fertility is about eggs Main damage occurs during larval stage Pupation occurs in the soil Adults hibernate Rapeseed pests179

180 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cabbage Stem Weevil - Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus One generation in a year Adults overwinter in leaf litter Eggs are laid into the petiole of the upper leaves. Larval development requires 25–35 days in May Larva consumes the tissues of the petioles and the stem. The fully developed larva drops itself on the ground, enters the soil and pupates Rapeseed pests180

181 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Rape Stem Weevil - Ceutorhynchus napi One generation per year The adult hibernates in the soil of rape fields Egg-laying begins 10 to 20 days after the first emergence There are 3 larval instars which last 30 to 40 days on winter rape It feeds on the stem pith; having reached maturity, it leaves through an exit hole formed in the stem level with the petiole of a low leaf and buries itself to pupate into the soil The damage is essentially caused by egg laying. The presence of the egg in the stem induces a cancer Secondary organism, such as Phoma can occur Rapeseed pests181

182 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Rape Stem Weevil - Ceutorhynchus napi Rapeseed pests182

183 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Common Pollen Beetle - Meligethes aeneus Fecundity: 250 eggs; but there is high level of adult mortality Oviposition begins towards the end of March or beginning of April Adults enters to overwinter in sheltered situations by the end of July Rapeseed pests183

184 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Common Pollen Beetle - Meligethes aeneus Damage: Damage is caused by the pollinivorous adults Prior to flowering, the adults bite holes into the buds to reach the stamens and feed on the pollen Once flowering has begun, the beetle eats the now freshly available pollen and damage is negligible Rapeseed pests184

185 V. Alfalfa pests

186 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Alfalfa cultivation Alfalfa is usually cultivated for 2-4 years Cultivation is recommended due to nitrogen fixation of alfalfa on the soil Alfalfa pests186

187 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Soil borne pests Soil borne pests occurs during the whole vegetation, but doesn’t cause significant damage in alfalfa The problem is, that in alfalfa these pests can pile up very well – cause harm in the next plant culture Alfalfa pests187

188 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Winter and early spring pests Sitona spp. – Sitona weevils Otiorrhynchus ligustici- Alfalfa Snout Beetle Microtus arvalis – Common vole Spring pests Weevils – See: Corn and sunflower pests Lygus spp. – Lygus bugs Alfalfa pests188

189 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pests of intensive growth Soil borne pests – Grubs, wireworms Sitona weevils Phytodecta fornicata – Lucerne leaf beetle Subcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata – alfalfa lady beetle Phytonomus variablis – Alfalfa weevil Lygus spp. – Lygus bugs Alfalfa pests189

190 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pests of intensive growth Acyrtosiphon pisum – pea aphid Noctuidae – Diurnal noctuid moths Plagionotus floralis – lucerne longicorn Microtus arvalis - common vole Alfalfa pests190

191 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Seed pests: Contarinia medicaginis – Lucerne flower midge Adelphocoris lineolatus – Lucerne plant bug Tychius flavus – Lucerne seed weevil Bruchophagus roddi – Alfalfa seed chalcid Pod pests: Heliothis maritima - Shoulder-striped Clover Helicoverpa armigera – Cotton bollworm Alfalfa pests191

192 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Common vole (Microtus arvalis) 6-8 litter per year, with 3 to 8 juveniles They haven’t got winter sleep, and cause harm at wintertime as well Alfalfa is accumulator area for them Feeds on green parts and with its holes enhance the negative effect of winter frost Control with redentin from November to March (chlorphacinone) Biological control: Establishing „T“-standards for raptors (predatory birds) Alfalfa pests192

193 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Lucerne longicorn beetle (Plagionotus floralis) Not an important pest The larva chews uprightly in the main root, causing yellowing and death Adult is not a pest Alfalfa pests193

194 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Lucerne longicorn beetle (Plagionotus floralis) Biology: One generation per year Larva overwinters in the main root Adults occurs from May, they are pollen feeders Eggs laid to the base of the plants in July Larvae damaging from July to October Alfalfa pests194 Copyright:

195 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Alfalfa snout beetle (Otiorhynchus ligustici) Alfalfa pests195

196 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Alfalfa snout beetle (Otiorhynchus ligustici) The larva of this pest can develop only in alfalfa roots Therefore this pest, however polyphagous mainly damaging alfalfa Adults are unable to fly, so can occur only near alfalfa fields Alfalfa pests196 Copyright: www. pest.ceris.purdue.edu

197 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Alfalfa snout beetle (Otiorhynchus ligustici) Damage: Adults feeds on the leaves Larvae causing wilting or even death, by chewing on the rooting system Alfalfa pests197 Copyright:

198 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Alfalfa snout beetle (Otiorhynchus ligustici) Biology: One generation per two year Adults occurs from March There are only females, reproduction by parthenogenesis Eggs laid in May 1-2 cm deep in the soil near the plant Larvae hatches in June and damaging the roots until November, when overwinters In the next year larvae damaging till mid- summer, than pupate in the soil Control against it is unnecessery Alfalfa pests198

199 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Sitona weevils (Sitona spp.) Alfalfa pests199

200 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Sitona weevils (Sitona spp.) They are damaging all legumin plants (pea, bea, soybean) Adults causing U-like damage in the leaves Larvae feeds on the roots - causing no important damage Alfalfa pests200

201 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Sitona weevils (Sitona spp.) Biology: Adults are early emerging from the soil and damaging plants from March to June Only one generation per year and overwintering as an adult Larvae damaging in summer Than adults emerge again and feeds till hibernation Spring damage is more significant Alfalfa pests201

202 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Lucerne leaf beetle (Phytodecta fornicata) Alfalfa pests202

203 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Lucerne leaf beetle (Phytodecta fornicata) Adults and larvae are both pests Biology: One generation per year Overwinters in adult stage Adults flies in April Eggs are laid in May In the end of May development is completed, new adults emerge, but starts hibernating without damaging the plants Alfalfa pests203

204 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Alfalfa lady beetle (Subcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata) Alfalfa pests204 Copyright:

205 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Alfalfa lady beetle (Subcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata) 1-2 generation per year Adults overwinters First generation flies in April, second in June Eggs are laid onto the underside of the leaves Alfalfa pests205

206 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Alfalfa lady beetle (Subcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata) Adults and larvae are both pests They feeds on the foliage, rarely feeding on the flowers Leaves stay small and often falling down Alfalfa pests206

207 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Alfalfa weevil (Phytonomus variablis) Alfalfa pests207

208 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Alfalfa weevil (Phytonomus variablis) Both adults and larvae are damaging the foliage of the plant The only weevil larva, which lives in the foliage Alfalfa pests208

209 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Alfalfa weevil (Phytonomus variablis) Biology: 1 generation per year Adults overwinter Adults occur from May, eggs are laid in June Fully developed adults starts hibernating in July Alfalfa pests209 Copyright:

210 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea aphid (Acyrtosiphon pisi) Alfalfa pests210

211 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea aphid (Acyrtosiphon pisi) Permitted to sow pea, near alfalfa field Noxious pest of these two plant They are sucking the plant sap, plants are dwarfing, seed production decreases Vectors of lucerne mosaic virus generation per year They can occur in pea and alfalfa as well, but overwintering eggs are laid on the alfalfa only Alfalfa pests211

212 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Lygus bugs (Lygus spp.) Most dangerous in seed production By sucking on the plant cause wilting 2-3 generation per year, eggs overwinters in the plant stem Eggs are placed inside the stem Alfalfa pests212

213 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Lucerne flower midge (Contarinia medicaginis) Alfalfa pests213

214 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Lucerne flower midge (Contarinia medicaginis) Larvae are flower pests Flowers become galls due to their damage Eggs are placed onto flowers Larvae develops within two weeks 3 generation per year Overwinters as a pupa Alfalfa pests214 Copyright:

215 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Lucerne seed weevil (Tychius flavus) Alfalfa pests215 Copyright:

216 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Lucerne seed weevil (Tychius flavus) Damage: Adults and larvae are both pests Larval damage is more important, because it feeds on the seeds, which looses the germinating ability Biology: One generation / adults overwinters Eggs are placed on the flowers Larvae feeds on 3-4 seeds, during developing Becomes pupa in August Alfalfa pests216

217 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Alfalfa seed chalcid (Bruchophagus roddi) Alfalfa pests217 Copyright:

218 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Alfalfa seed chalcid (Bruchophagus roddi) Only the larva is a pest 3-4 generations / larvae overwinters in the soil Eggs are placed on the seeds Larvae developing inside the seeds, which takes around one month Drop to the soil in August and overwintering there Preventive technology: at seed harvest, do not blow light fraction (containing diapausing larvae) back to the field, from the pneumatic separator of the combine harvester. Alfalfa pests218 Copyright: Copyright:

219 VI. Pea pests

220 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea cultivation Pea is the cultivated plant, which requires the shortest time Always sowed Spacing: 12x3-5 cm Sowed early in the season, sometimes in February Harvested in late May or early June Pea pests220 Copyright:

221 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pests after sowing Sitona weevils Weevils (See corn and sunflower pests) Birds (rook, pheasant) Pea pests221 Copyright:

222 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pests at 20 cm stage: Scotia segetum – turnip moth Pea aphid – Acyrtosiphon pisum Pea pests222 Copyright:

223 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pests at intensive growth Diurnal noctuid moths - Noctuidae Pea aphid Pea pests223

224 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Seed pests: Kakothrips pisivorus - Pea thrips Aoromius quinquepunctatus - Pea weevil Laspeyresia nigricana – Pea moth Etiella zinckenella – limabean pod borer Bruchus pisorum – bruchid pea weevil Pea pests224 Copyright:

225 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Mammal pests: European hare Roe deer Can cause great harm after emerging the plant, by chewing it off Pea pests225 Copyright:www.enature.com

226 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Sitona weevils (Sitona spp.) Biology: Adults are erly emerging from the soil and damaging plants from March to June Only one generation per year and overwintering as an adult Larvae damaging in summer Then adults emerge again and feeds till hibernation Spring damage is more significant Sitona weevils causes bigger harm in the pea than in alfalfa They are damaging the emerging, young plants Pea pests226

227 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Sitona weevils (Sitona spp.) Typical damage: Pea pests227

228 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Sitona weevils (Sitona spp.) Adult weevil: Pea pests228

229 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea aphid (Acyrtosiphon pisum) Very important pest in pea Only asexual forms are present in the pea Sucking damage causes wilting, roting They are virus vectors as well When harvesting, females move back to alfalfa Control: Systemic insecticides Pea pests229

230 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea thrips (Kakothrips pisivorus) Pea pests230 Copyright:

231 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea thrips (Kakothrips pisivorus) Larvae and adults sucking on the leaves and pods White spots in the plants Pods become smaller Only 2-3 seeds in the pods (normal is 5-6) Pea pests231 Copyright:

232 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea thrips (Kakothrips pisivorus) Biology: 1 generation / year, overwinters as a larva Adults occurs in May Eggs are placed on the flowers Before harvesting, at June, hibernation begins Control: Systemic insecticides has good efficiacy Important to avoid natural enemies, including bugs, predatory thrips, etc.. Pea pests232

233 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea thrips (Kakothrips pisivorus) Typical damage: Pea pests233 Copyright: sciencephotolibrary.comwww.photoshelter.com

234 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea weevil (Aoromius quinquepunctatus) Pea pests234

235 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea weevil (Aoromius quinquepunctatus) Larvae are more dangerous They are feeds inside the seeds Adults are pests of green parts, without causing important damage Pea pests235

236 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea weevil (Aoromius quinquepunctatus) Biology: 1 generation / year, adults overwinters Occurs from April Adults are long – living, until September Eggs are placed on the pods in May – June Larvae feeding inside the pods (2-3 larvae / pod) Pupation takes place in the soil Control: The targeted stage should be the adult Contact insecticides can be effective Pea pests236

237 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea weevil (Aoromius quinquepunctatus) Typical damage: Pea pests237

238 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea bruchid weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Adult has no significant damage They emerge from April Pupating inside the seeds Pea pests238

239 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea bruchid weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Biology: 1 generation / year, overwinters as an adult Eggs placed on the pods Larvae chew into the seed – always one larva per seed Developing inside the seed for 5-6 weeks After pupation in a hole, emerging from the seed and starts hibernating Control: Control in the store, with special gas active ingredients Pea pests239

240 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea bruchid weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Typical damage: Pea pests240

241 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea moth (Cydia nigricana), Limabean pod borer (Etiella zinckenella) Pea pests241 Copyright:

242 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea moth (Cydia nigricana), Limabean pod borer (Etiella zinckenella) The two moth has similar damage, however selective pheromone traps are available Larvae webbing inside the pods Biology: Larvae overwinters in the soil or in the surface of it Pea moth has 1, limabean pod borer has 2 generation per year Only the second generation of pod borer occurs in soybean They flies in June – July Eggs are placed on the pods Pea pests242

243 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea moth (Cydia nigricana), Limabean pod borer (Etiella zinckenella) Typical damage: Pea pests243

244 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pea moth (Cydia nigricana), Limabean pod borer (Etiella zinckenella) Typical damage: Pea pests244

245 VII. Potato pests

246 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Soil borne pests Common cockchafer – Melolontha melolontha Wireworms Potato cyst nematodes - Globodera rostochienis, G. pallida Potato tuber nematode - Ditylenchus destructor Common vole - Microtus arvalis Turnip moth – Agrotis segetum Potato pests246

247 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pests of green parts Colorado potato beetle - Leptinotarsa decemlineata Potato tuberworm moth - Gnorimoschema operculellum (quarantine, not present at the moment) Peach-potato aphid - Myzus persicae Buckthorn aphid - Aphis nasturtii Potato leafhopper - Empoasca solani Black blister beetle - Epicauta rufidorsum Common vole - Microtus arvalis Wild boar - Sus scrofa Deers Potato pests247

248 TÁMOP A/2-10/ They are important, because feeding on the edible parts of the plants Grub damage: Damage appears as large, shallow, irregular and ridged gouges. Gouges are usually a quarter to a half inch deep running along the surface of the tuber and not drilled into the tuber as one would see with wireworm holes Potato pests – Soil borne pests248

249 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cutworm damage: Spotty damage on leaves and tubers Tunneling into tubers and feeding on young plants Potato pests – Soil borne pests249

250 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cyst nematodes: They are quarantine pests Spreaded in Hungary after EU accession (due to the lack of quarantine examinations in borders) If they are present, cultivating potato is not permitted for 15 years Males are eel-like, while females are bottle-like Mated female conformate to cyst, which is viable for years Potato pests – Soil borne pests250 Copyright:

251 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cyst nematodes: Biology: One generation per year, overwinters as a cyst A cyst consist of larvae and eggs If conditions are appropriate, larvae occur from May and starts feeding on the roots They are only potato pests Potato pests – Soil borne pests251 Copyright:

252 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Potato pests – Soil borne pests252

253 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cyst nematodes: Damage: The first symptoms of infestation are typically poor plant growth, chlorosis, and wilting. Heavy infestations can lead to reduced root systems, water stress, and nutrient deficiencies, while indirect effects of an infestation include premature senescence and increased susceptibility to fungal infections Potato pests – Soil borne pests253 Copyright: archive.comwww.animalpictures

254 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Cyst nematodes: Detection: Soil sampling Cyst washing Petri-dish method Control: years crop rotation Potato pests – Soil borne pests254 Copyright:

255 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Potato tuber nematode: Not only potato but a sugarbeet pest It has generations per year Damage: Early infections can be detected by peeling the tuber which can reveal small, off-white spots in the otherwise healthy flesh. These later enlarge, darken, are woolly in texture and may be slightly hollow at the centre Potato pests – Soil borne pests255

256 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Potato tuber nematode: Description: Adults of D. destructor are minute worm-like animals, mm in length and μm in diameter. Considerable morphometric variation occurs in adults according to their host and/or age. Males and females are similar in general appearance Potato pests – Soil borne pests256 Copyright:

257 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Potato tuber nematode: Control: Treatment with soil-applied nematicides can provide a high level of control but can be expensive Granulated nematicides such as carbofuran were reported to be effective against the nematode Control by crop rotation is possible using non-host crops It is important to control weeds carefully because of the polyphagous habit of D. destructor The use of nematode-free seed potatoes is an essential component of any control programme Potato pests – Soil borne pests257

258 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Potato tuber nematode: Potato pests – Soil borne pests258 Copyright:

259 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Colorado beetle: Present in Hungary from 1947 Became the most dangerous potato pest Potato pests – Pests of green parts259

260 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Colorado beetle: Damage: They may also cause significant damage to tomatoes and eggplants Both adults and larvae chewing on foliage and may completely eliminate the crop Biggest damage is caused by the fourth instar larva and the adult beetle (80%) Potato pests – Pests of green parts260

261 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Colorado beetle: Biology: Two generations per year, overwinters as an adult Colorado potato beetle females are very prolific; they can lay as many as 800 eggs to the underside of the leaves Potato pests – Pests of green parts261

262 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Colorado beetle: Biology: As they are adopted to long day period, first generation lays more eggs, than the second Adults occur from May, they are long-living – both generations can be present Potato pests – Pests of green parts262

263 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Colorado beetle: The first through third instars each last about 2-3 days; the fourth, 4-7 days Upon reaching full size, each fourth instar spends an additional several days as a non-feeding prepupa, which can be recognized by its inactivity and lighter coloration The prepupae drop to the soil and burrow to a depth of several inches, then pupate Potato pests – Pests of green parts263

264 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Colorado beetle: Control: Resistence for several insecticides were reported Young larvae should be the targeted group Effective agents are neonictionoids BT pesticides in biofarming as well Potato pests – Pests of green parts264

265 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Colorado beetle: Serious damage Potato pests – Pests of green parts265

266 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Peach-potato aphid – Myzus persicae: Damage: Big colonies sucking on host plants Leaves become yellow, dwarfing, yield reducing Indirect damage as virus vectors: Potato Y virus, Potato leafroll virus Potato pests – Pests of green parts266 Copyright:

267 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Peach-potato aphid – Myzus persicae: Biology: Overwinters as an egg in peach trees, where the 1-4 generations develop Potato pests – Pests of green parts267

268 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Peach-potato aphid – Myzus persicae: Biology: Winged forms migrate to potato, where sevaral more generations develop In the potato only asexual forms are present, with ovovivipar reproduction Potato pests – Pests of green parts268 Copyright:

269 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Peach-potato aphid – Myzus persicae: In september migrate back to peach, where sexual reproduction take place Forecasting with yellow pan trap Control: Systemic insecticides Potato pests – Pests of green parts269

270 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Potato leafhopper - Empoasca solani Become recently noxious due to the vector role of stolbur phytoplasma Potato pests – Pests of green parts270 Copyright:

271 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Potato leafhopper - Empoasca solani Damage: Sucking on the underside of leaves Withdrawing the sap from the cells – causing white pots Potato pests – Pests of green parts271

272 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Potato leafhopper - Empoasca solani Biology: Overwinters as an adult 2-4 overlapping generations per year Occurs from July to September in potato Alfalfa and apple pests as well Control: Systemic insecticides Potato pests – Pests of green parts272

273 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Black blister beetle - Epicauta rufidorsum Occasionally pest Feeds on the foliage, without causing economically important damage Potato pests – Pests of green parts273

274 VIII. Rice pests

275 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Rice cultivation In Hungary it decreased to a minimal level Now cultivated only in the Great Plain, near Szarvas Rice pests275

276 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Rice cultivation: Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is very labor-intensive to cultivate and requires plenty of water for cultivation Rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a steep hill or mountain Rice pests276 Copyright:

277 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Rice production World production of rice[27] has risen steadily from about 200 million tonnes of paddy rice in 1960 to over 600 million tonnes in 2004 In 2004, the top four producers were China (26% of world production), India (20%), Indonesia (9%) and Bangladesh (5%) Rice pests277 Copyright:

278 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pests at germination Birds – pigeon, rook Rice pests278 Copyright:www.corkdudeing.blogspot.com

279 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pests of underwater parts Horseshoe shrimp – Triops canciformis Buzzer midge - Chironomus plumosus Rice pests279 Copyright:www.uimpi.net Copyright:www.flyforums.co.uk

280 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Pests of green parts Non-biting midge - Trichocladius (Cricotopus) bicinctus Smaller rice leaf miner - Hydrellia griseola Rice leaf nematoda - Aphelenchoides bessey Brown china-mark - Nymphula nymphaeata Sugarcane borer - Diatraea (Chilo) saccharalis Rice pests280 Copyright:www.us.ask.com Copyright:www.bladmineerders.nl

281 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Seed pests: Birds Common vole – Microtus arvalis Birds usually feeds on badly sowed seeds They may dig out the seeds from the soil They also damages the ripening seeds Rice pests281 Copyright:www.madarlesen.blog.hu

282 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Horseshoe shrimp – Triops canciformis Damage: They feeds on newly germinated plants Also feeds on stems of more developed plants Plant parts are visible, swimming everywhere in the field Rice pests282 Copyright:www.freeshop.web.de

283 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Horseshoe shrimp – Triops canciformis Biology: To complete their lives, tadpole shrimps depend on the changing nature of the temporary waters they inhabit. During the dry season (summer and fall), they stay inside the eggs. As the pool fills with rainwater during the winter and spring, they hatch and feed on fairy shrimps and other invertebrates. The first larval stage (the metanauplius) is orange in color. It has a single eye and six legs, and develops through instars (growth stages Rice pests283

284 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Horseshoe shrimp – Triops canciformis Biology: They have one generation per year Eggs are able to hatch only after frost Larvae hatch at May Eggs are viable up to5-10 years Rice pests284 Copyright:www. harmoniamundimagazin.com

285 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Horseshoe shrimp – Triops canciformis Control: Crop rotation Rolling after sowing Rice pests285 Copyright:www. agroengineer.com

286 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Buzzer midge Damage: Larvae cause the damage, by chewing apart young plants up to 12 cm It is not a pest of rice, sowed into the soil Rice pests286 Copyright:www.sciencephotolibrary.com

287 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Buzzer midge Biology: 3-4 generation per year Overwinters as a larva in the soil First generation flies from April First and second generations are recommended as rice pests Eggs are laid onto he water surface, later lower down Rice pests287

288 TÁMOP A/2-10/ Buzzer midge Red coloured larvae feeding for 5-6 weeks They can reproduce only in standard waters Control: Water drainage Rice pests288 (Diatraea (Chilo) saccharalis

289 AZ ELŐADÁS LETÖLTHETŐ : - Georgikon Kar Növényvédelmi Intézet Thank you for your attention Sipos Péter Dr. Zsolt Marczali


Download ppt "AZ ELŐADÁS LETÖLTHETŐ : - Georgikon Kar Növényvédelmi Intézet AZ ELŐADÁS LETÖLTHETŐ : - Georgikon Kar Növényvédelmi Intézet Module of Applied Entomology."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google