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Module of Applied Entomology

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Presentation on theme: "Module of Applied Entomology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Module of Applied Entomology
Field pests - in temperate zone of Europe -

2 Polyphagous field pests Wheat pests Corn pests Sunflower pests
Main topics Polyphagous field pests Wheat pests Corn pests Sunflower pests

3 Rapeseed pests Alfalfa and pea pests Potato pests Rice pests
Main topics Rapeseed pests Alfalfa and pea pests Potato pests Rice pests

4 I. Polyphagous field pests

5 Polyphagous field pests
PHYTOPHAGY: MONOPHAGOUS SPECIES: Feed on only one plant taxon OLIGOPHAGOUS SPECIES: Feed on a few plant taxa (for example: one plant-family) POLYPHAGOUS SPECIES (generalist): Feed on many plant taxa

6 Polyphagous field pests
POLYPHAGOUS PESTS: Cockchafers’ (Melolonthidae) larvae (grubs) Click beetles’ (Elateridae) larvae (wireworms) Noctuid moths’ (Noctuidae) larvae (caterpillars) Rodents (common vole, gopher, hamster) Games (rabbit, roe-deer, red-deer, wild boar) 6

7 Polyphagous field pests
COCKCHAFERS: 12 species living in Hungary The most importants are the followings: 1. Common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) 7

8 Polyphagous field pests
2. Forest cockchafer (Melolontha hippocastani) 8

9 Polyphagous field pests
3. April beetle (Rhizotrogus aequinoctialis) 9

10 Polyphagous field pests
4. Summer chafer (Amphimallon solstitiale) 10

11 Polyphagous field pests
5. June beetle (Polyphylla fullo) 11

12 Polyphagous field pests
6. Vine chafer (Anomala vitis) 12

13 Polyphagous field pests
7. Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) – absent in Europe, quarantine pest 13

14 Polyphagous field pests
Larvae – the grubs Economic importance: 10-40% damage The grubs attacks the rooting system Most dangeorous when recently planted 14

15 Polyphagous field pests
Life cycle The development takes three years Most dangerous is the third instar larva (80% of the full damage) 5-10 cm deep – summer 20-40 cm deep – winter Adults live approx. two weeks Egg hatching needs moisture 15

16 Polyphagous field pests
Control: Damage threshold level: 1.2 larva/m2 Soil sterilization before planting Seed treatment Biological control (entomopathogenic nematodes) Less effective in orchards 16

17 Polyphagous field pests
Click beetles (Elateridae) Photograph copyright: ozwildlife 17

18 Polyphagous field pests
1. Western click beetle (Agriotes ustulatus) (foto 18

19 Polyphagous field pests
2. Dusky click beetle (Agriotes obscurus) 19

20 Polyphagous field pests
3. Lined click beetle (Agriotes lineatus) Copyright:http://molbiol.ru 20

21 Polyphagous field pests
4. Common click beetle (Agriotes sputator) Copyright: 21

22 Polyphagous field pests
Wireworms The larvae called: wireworms – cause the damage The adults feeds on pollen Economic importance: 10 – 20% damage Copyright: entomology.ucdavis.edu 22

23 Copyright: omafra.gov.on.ca
Polyphagous field pests Typical life cycle of click beetles Copyright: omafra.gov.on.ca 23

24 Polyphagous field pests
Control: Damage threshold level may vary by sites / year / culture: 2-5 larva/ m2 Soil sterilization before planting Seed treatment Biological control (entomopathogenic nematodes) For good efficacy, special skill / practice is needed 24

25 Polyphagous field pests
Noctuid moths (Noctuidae) Nocturnal Diurnal 25

26 Polyphagous field pests – Nocturnal moths
1. Turnip moth (Scotia segetum) 26

27 Polyphagous field pests – Nocturnal moths
2. Dart moth (Agrotis exclamationis) 27

28 Polyphagous field pests – Nocturnal moths
3. Spotted cutworm (Amathes c-nigrum) 28

29 Polyphagous field pests – Nocturnal moths
4. Black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon) 29

30 Polyphagous field pests – Nocturnal moths
5. Euxoa temera Copyright: fr.academic.ru 30

31 Polyphagous field pests – Nocturnal moths
Turnip moth damage The seedlings can be totally bored through The larva chew rings around the stems 31

32 Polyphagous field pests – Nocturnal moths
Biology and control of turnip moth Two generations per year First fly in May Damage can be observed from May to October The eggs laid into the surface of the soil Control is very difficult 32

33 Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths
1. Silver Y moth (Autographa gamma) Copyright: gardener.wikia.com 33

34 Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths
2. Shoulder-striped Clover (Heliothis maritima) Copyright: 34

35 Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths
3. Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Copyright: bayercropscience.co.za 35

36 Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths
Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) One of the most dangerous pests worldwide Host plants includes vegetables, field crops and ornamentals Damage: usually feeds on the generative parts of plants (flowers, fruits, seeds) 2-(3) generation per year The pupa can overwinter under Hungarian conditions, diapausing from September Forecasting with sex pheromone traps 36

37 Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths
3. Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Damage on corn: 37

38 Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths
3. Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Damage on pepper: 38

39 Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths
3. Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Damage on tomato: 39

40 Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths
3. Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Damage on alfalfa: 40

41 Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths
4. Cabbage armyworm (Mamestra brassicae) Copyright: russellipm-agriculture.com 41

42 Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths
5. Bright line- Brown eye moth (Mamestra oleracea) Copyright: 42

43 Copyright: www.ukmoths.org.uk
Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths Damage: Larvae of diurnal moths damages the following crops: Sugar beet, sunflower, soybean, rapeseed, alfalfa, pea, bean, lettuce, mustard, carrot, cabbage, tobacco, poppy, etc. They feeds on leaves or flowers Copyright: 43

44 Polyphagous field pests – Diurnal moths
Biology and control Most of them has two generation per year The eggs laid on the leaves Overwinters in the soil, except for the silver Y moth, which is a migrant moth The pupation is usually in the soil Control: good efficiacy can be achieved against young larvae 44

45 Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia)
Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing 45

46 Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia)
1. Common vole (Microtus arvalis) 46

47 Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia)
Common vole (Microtus arvalis) The most dangerous and widespread rodent in Hungary Mass outbreak in every 3-6 years after mild winter Host plants: alfalfa, wheat, maize, potato, sugarbeet, pea, onion, vegetables, fruit trees The damage is bigger nearby its holes Feeding on living plant parts, maize cob, wheat spike, rooting system of woody plants 47

48 Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia)
Common vole (Microtus arvalis) Biology: 6-8 litter per year, with 3 to 8 juveniles No winter sleep Densities can range froem 100/ha up to 2000 individuals /ha Control: Chemical control can be performed, using anticoalguant active ingredients (chlorphacinone, calcium phosphide, zinc phosphide, etc.) Biological control: predaceous birds 48

49 Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia)
Common vole (Microtus arvalis) 49

50 Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia)
2. European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) 50

51 Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia)
2. European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) Brown and white coloured face The body is medium sized among rodents Aggressive appearance when alarmed is typical Prefers loess soil Most abundant in the Great Plain – East Hungary Damage: Host plants: Maize (most important), wheat, potatoe, sugarbeet, onion, fruit trees’ root system Feeds on young seedlings, chews tip / upper part of the wheat and the cob of the maize Hamsters store food reserves in their burrows 51

52 Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia)
2. European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) Biology: 2 litters per year, with 4 to 6 juveniles Hibernating starts in October and finishes in April Sleeping periods alternate with wakeful phases when hamsters feed on their winter stores (15-20 kg maize) There is no effective control against this pest 52

53 Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia)
3. Ground squirrel (Citellus citellus) 53

54 Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia)
4. Water vole (Arvicola terrestris) 54

55 Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia)
4. Water vole (Arvicola terrestris) Occurs only, where water is present Live in and around streams, rivers and other water bodies Damage: Eat green shoots in preference to fruits and seeds they rely more on below-ground rhizomes during the winter The damaged tree shriveled Causing a wedge-like tree bottom 55

56 Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia)
4. Water vole (Arvicola terrestris) Biology: Water vole has 3-4 litter per year with 4-6 young per litter It spends winter within the burrow, although they do not hibernate 56

57 Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia)
5. European mole – (Talpa europea) 57

58 Polyphagous field pests – Rodents (Rodentia)
5. European mole – (Talpa europea) A beneficial predator that feeds on insects Cause harm by the burrowing activity, especially the molehills While burrowing young plants often die Often feeds on earthworms Biology: The mole has 1 litter per year with 4-7 young per litter They don’t hibernate The european mole is under protection, any control methods against this pest is permitted!!! 58

59 Polyphagous field pests – Games
European hare (Lepus europeus) Most common in plain areas – Great Plain Host plants: pea, sunflower, watermelon, bean, cabbage, sugarbeet, fruit tree bark (at wintertime) Biology: The hare has 3-4 litter per year with 3-4 young per litter 59

60 Polyphagous field pests – Games
2. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) Important pest – high density Host plants: Maize, wheat, sugarbeet, grape, potatoe, corn Digs out the maize and the oak seedlings Treads down the field crops Eats out the seeds from the corncob 60

61 Polyphagous field pests – Games
3. Deers: Red deer (Cervus elaphus), Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) High population density in Hungary Host plants: wheat, maize, sunflower (roe deer), fruit trees (deer), grape, cabbage, pea, alfalfa, soybean, potatote, sugarbeet, oak, beech Damage: Gnaw off wheat and corn, treads down the field crops Leaves and twigs are ripped from trees and brush leaving a ragged surface Annuals can be pulled out, smaller trees can be destroyed 61

62 Polyphagous field pests – Games
4. Eurasian badger (Meles meles) Damages corn only, by beating down and feeding on corncobs 62

63 Polyphagous field pests – Games
Game control Game repellents Fence, electrical fence Cartonplast in woody plants (single control) Chemical (single and area management) 63

64 II. Wheat pests

65 Wheat pests Wheat: Sowed usually in October Spacing: 12,5x2-3cm
Harvesting in June- July It is the most important cultivated plant with the biggest area 65

66 Wheat pests Autumn pests Zabrus tenebrioides Cereal ground beetle
Oscinella frit Frit fly Meromyza saltatrix Wheat stem maggot Scotia segetum Turnip moth Melolontha melolontha Common cockchafer Angunia tritici Wheat seed gall nematode Macrosiphum graminum Grain aphid 66

67 Wheat pests Winter pests Microtus arvalis Common vole
Haplothrips tritici Wheat trips Spring pests Scotia segetum Turnip moth Cephus pygmaeus Wheat stem sawfly Eurygaster austriaca Wheat shield bug Aelia acuminata Bishop’s mitre shield bug Oulema melanopus, O. gallaeciana Cereal leaf beetles 67

68 Wheat pests Spring pests Zabrus tenebrioides Cereal ground beetle
Contarinia tritici Wheat blossom midge Rhopalosiphum padi Bird cherry aphid Macrosiphum graminum Grain aphid Angunia tritici Wheat seed gall nematode Anisoplia spp. Wheat chafers 68

69 Wheat pests – Autumn pests
Cereal ground beetle (Zabrus tenebrionides) 69

70 Wheat pests – Autumn pests
1. Cereal ground beetle (Zabrus tenebrionides) Damage: Larvae burrow into soil, pulling down and eating shoots from October to May Damage is greater in autumn if the weather is humid, despite in spring Autumn damage is bigger Spring damage is not so big, because the plant is more developed 70

71 Wheat pests – Autumn pests
1. Cereal ground beetle (Zabrus tenebrionides) Adult beetles feed on cereal ears before harvest and on spilt grain and stubble re-growths Damage is worst in all-cereal rotations and with minimal cultivations. A non-cereal break crop or early ploughing will provide good control 71

72 Wheat pests – Autumn pests
1. Cereal ground beetle (Zabrus tenebrionides) Biology: One generation per year Overwinters as a larva Adults occurs from May Eggs laid into the surface of the soil Control: Crop rotation 72

73 Wheat pests – Autumn pests
Cereal ground beetle (Zabrus tenebrionides) Adult and larva with typically damaged leaves 73

74 Wheat pests – Autumn pests
Cereal ground beetle (Zabrus tenebrionides) Adults can be monitored with pitfall traps 74

75 Wheat pests – Autumn pests
2. Frit fly (Oscinella frit) There are six species of wheat flies in Hungary Frit fly is the most important Host plants include: - wheat - barley - maize - rye - oat 75

76 Wheat pests – Autumn pests
2. Frit fly (Oscinella frit) Damage: In spring sown oat: blind, withered spikelets In corn: plants stop developing, leaves curling Wheat: The main shoot become yellow in autumn damage The larva burrows into the central shoot and causes ‘deadheart’ symptoms 76

77 Wheat pests – Autumn pests
2. Frit fly (Oscinella frit) Biology: There are three generations a year (2 in autumn, 1 in spring) Third generation is the most dangerous Larvae overwinters in the shoots Eggs laid onto the plants (cereals) Second generation is a maize pest as well (May) Control: No effective chemical control method 77

78 Wheat pests – Autumn pests
3. Wheat seed gall nematode (Anguina tritici) 78

79 Wheat pests – Autumn pests
3. Wheat seed gall nematode (Anguina tritici) Only a wheat pest Avoid monoculture Damage: Plants are twisted, deformated, become purple Brown galls in the spikes Anabiosis: from the galls the larvae can occur after several years 79

80 Wheat pests – Autumn pests
3. Wheat seed gall nematode (Anguina tritici) Biology: One generation per year Larvae overwinters in the galls or in the plant Seeking the plant with active movement, where moisture is important Passive movement in the plant inside to the spikes Control: Crop rotation 80

81 Wheat pests – Autumn pests
4. Aphids (Aphididae) Grain aphid (Schizaphis graminum) 81

82 Wheat pests – Autumn pests
4. Aphids (Aphididae) Bird-cherry aphid (Rhophalosiphum padi) 82

83 Wheat pests – Autumn pests
4. Aphids (Aphididae) Autumn and spring pests as well Spring damage is more significant in the recent years Damage: Direct damage: Withdrawing the sap from the leaves, the leaves are curling, produces honeydew, where black sooty mold (Cladosporium herbarum) usually occurs Indirect damage: It is more significant, as vectors of Barley yellow dwarf virus. These aphids often provides the primary source of BYDV infection in early sown winter cereals 83

84 Wheat pests – Autumn pests
4. Aphids (Aphididae) 84

85 Wheat pests – Autumn pests
4. Aphids (Aphididae) Biology: 10-15 generations per year Overwinters in woody plants or herbaceous plants as an egg Asexual forms not mating, reproducing by ovoviviparae Control: Spraying with systemic insecticides Can be made in autumn and spring as well Insecticide applications should be applied when aphids reach treatment levels Heavy rainfall and natural parasitism will significantly reduce aphid populations, so these factors should be considered before applying insecticide applications 85

86 Wheat pests – Autumn pests
5. Other autumn pests Common vole Turnip moth – cutworm Chafer grubs 86

87 Wheat pests – Spring pests
Wheat bugs Eurygaster austriaca Aelia acuminata Wheat shield bug Bishop’s mitre shield bug Copyright: photographersdirect.com Copyright: eol.org 87

88 Wheat pests – Spring pests
Wheat bugs Adults and larvae are both causing damage Sucking the stems, causing whitening or even death of the stem Also sucking on young kernels and semi- ripened grains Quality of the grain decreases Depressed germination ability 88

89 Wheat pests – Spring pests
Wheat bugs Biology: One generation per year Adults overwinters under fallen leaves 14 eggs/female are laid onto the underside of the leaves Hibernation starts from June Control: Insecticide spraying 89

90 Wheat pests – Spring pests
2. Cereal leaf beetles Blue leaf beetle – Oulema gallaeciana Red throated leaf beetle – Oulema melanopus 90

91 Wheat pests – Spring pests
2. Cereal leaf beetles Biology: Adults overwinters 1 generation per year Fly to corn in June Following emergence, beetles feed, mate and lay eggs for approximately six weeks eggs are laid per female. Larvae emerge from the egg and feed on the upper leaf surface without fully perforating the lower leaf surface 91

92 Wheat pests – Spring pests
2. Cereal leaf beetles Larvae have the interesting habit of covering their body with fecal matter which is thought to protect the larvae from desiccation and predation Larvae pass through four larval instars before leaving the plant to pupate in cocoons made of mixing their saliva with earth 1.25 to 5 cm deep (red-throated) or in wheat kernels (blue cereal leaf beetle) 92

93 Wheat pests – Spring pests
2. Cereal leaf beetles Adults emerge shortly after (15-20 d) and begin to feed on available crops or wild hosts. Adult feeding is characterized as between vein and completely perforating the leaf tissue Damage from cereal leaf beetle is apparent when the tips of leaves turn white and the leaves develop white stripes or slits where the beetle has consumed a strip. A field with extensive damage will look frosted or whitewashed 93

94 Wheat pests – Spring pests
3. Wheat chafers Anisoplia lata Anisoplia austriaca Anisoplia agricola Anisoplia segetum 94

95 Wheat pests – Spring pests
3. Wheat chafers (Anisoplia spp.) Damage: Beetle larvae feed on rotted plant residues in soil and when live plants are present, they eat their root system. The main damage is done by the beetles simply feeding on grain, converting it into low-value residues and also a lot of grain is knocked out from ears into soil Biology: Two years life cycle Larvae and adults overwinters in the soil Eggs laid on the soil at the end of June 95

96 Wheat pests – Spring pests
3. Wheat chafers (Anisoplia spp.) Control: Soil sterilization against larvae Spraying against adults – only if extremely great numbers are present 96

97 Wheat pests – Spring pests
4. Wheat stem sawfly (Cephus pygmaeus) 97

98 Wheat pests – Spring pests
4. Wheat stem sawfly (Cephus pygmaeus) Most dangerous in monoculture Flight of adults begin in May Adults prefer well-developed stems with thick and hollow culms for oviposition Larva lives inside the stem, feeding on tissues around fiberous vascular bundles After completion of feeding, the larva saws stem from inside at the height of a few centimeters above tillering node, plugs the stem up with a cork made of sawdust, and weaves a thin, semi-translucent, waterproof cocoon, where it overwinters 98

99 Wheat pests – Spring pests
4. Wheat stem sawfly (Cephus pygmaeus) Cold and snowy winters result in a higher mortality of overwintering larvae (50% or more) Control measures include stubbling and deep autumn plowing-in of stubble; harvesting as early as possible; two-phase harvesting of wheat with a close cut; use of resistant varieties with "filled" stems; and growing of less susceptible crops (oats, millet). Treatment by chemicals during the period of adult flight is ineffective 99

100 Wheat pests – Spring pests
5. Wheat blossom midges – Contarinia tritici, Sitodiplosis mosellana Contarinia tritici and Sitodiplosis mosellana are the most important pests The larvae of Contarinia tritici feed on the floral parts of wheat, preventing pollination and development of the grain The larvae of Sitodiplosis mosellana feed on the developing grain, resulting in reduced grain size and milling/baking qualities In most seasons and regions, damage is slight. However, S. mosellana in particular can cause serious losses in northern Europe 100100

101 Wheat pests – Spring pests
5. Wheat blossom midges – Contarinia tritici, Sitodiplosis mosellana Biology: One generation per year, larvae overwinters Eggs laid on the kernels of wheat 101101

102 Wheat pests – Spring pests
5. Wheat blossom midges – Contarinia tritici, Sitodiplosis mosellana Copyright: 102102

103 Wheat pests – Spring pests
6. Other spring pests Wheat thrips (Haplothrips tritici) 103103

104 II. Corn pests

105 Corn cultivation Corn is one of the most important cultivated plants in Hungary 1,1 – 1,2 million hectares Around 25% of the field crops The easiest cultivating method Well profitable Spacing: 75x18-20 cm Sowing: April (usually same time of blackthorn blossom) 10oC soil degree is needed Seed treatment Harvest from September to November, ideal is October 105105

106 Corn pests – During the whole vegetation
Soil borne pests: Grubs, wireworms 106106

107 Corn pests – During the whole vegetation
Soil borne pests: Wireworm damage: 107107

108 Corn pests – During the whole vegetation
Wireworms are attracted to the carbon dioxide from germinating seeds They are active in the root zone They can weaken or kill emerged seedlings by : (1) Feeding on tender young roots (2) Boring into the base of corn plants below ground (3) Drilling upward into stalks of larger corn plants. Porous well drained loam soils are more likely to be infested with wireworms than are heavy clay soils Wireworm populations are not uniformly distributed: damaged corn plants may be found next to healthy plants 108108

109 Corn pests – During the whole vegetation
White grubs have a 3-year life cycle and spend two consecutive seasons pruning roots and eating organic matter in the soil Chewing results in aboveground stunting and wilting Leaf tips occasionally turn purple Control: Seed treatment protects only the seed and will not protect the seedling following germination The damage of wireworms are the biggest in corn fields Crop rotation 109109

110 Corn pests – During germination
Turnip moth – cutworm (Scotia segetum) The larvae are nocturnal feeders, hiding in shadow burrows or under soil clods during the day Damage: (1) Plants cut a tor just above the soil surface, (2) purplish, lodged plants cut below ground (3) Wilting or dead plants 110110

111 Corn pests – During germination
Birds – Pheasant, rook Birds will dig around a seedling with their bill During the reproductive stages of corn development, blackbirds peel the husks from the tip of the ear back towards the base in very thin strips The damage of pheasant concentrated only to the field edges There is no available control method as the earlier seed treatments are forbidden now Copyright: bbc.co.uk Copyright: rspb.org.uk 111111

112 Corn pests – During one-four leaf stage
Weevils Adults are pests, which damages the leaves of corn at 2-4 leaf stage (April- May) They consume leaves margins and destroy apical meristems. Control measures include limiting maize production to 2 or less years in a crop rotation. Maize and sunflower are necessary to alternate with cereals in crop rotation They have chewing mouthparts on a "beak" or snout Adults are more dangerous during the early phase of development shoot, larvae feeds on roots 112112

113 Corn pests – During one-four leaf stage
Maize leaf weevil, Sugar-beet weevil They have 1 generation per year Adults overwintering cm deep in the soil Occurs at early April Feeds until late May Eggs are placed on the soil Adults able to fly just above 20oC Moving mostly by walking Biggest damage on field edges 113113

114 Corn pests – During one-four leaf stage
Black weevil (Psalidium maxillosum), Beet-leaf weevil (Tanymecus palliatus) Both species have two years life cycle Overwinters as a larva and an adult (2nd year) Unable to fly Larvae feeds on smaller roots, adults on young leaves 114114

115 Corn pests – During one-four leaf stage
Barley frit fly (Oscinella frit) Main damage caused in wheat, barley and oat fields The larva burrows into the central shoot and may cause deadheart symptoms in wheat fields Overwinters as a larva in wheat shoots 3 generations per year 1st or 2nd generation occurs in corn 115115

116 Corn pests – During one-four leaf stage
Barley flea beetle (Phyllotreta vittula) Copyright: 116116

117 Corn pests – During one-four leaf stage
Corn is the favourit host plant of the pest Monovoltine; inhabits wild cereals everywhere Flight begins at an average daily temperature of 5 degrees Celsius Warm and dry conditions in summer are favorable for the pest; but prolonged and cold springs decrease population. Adults hibernate after additional feeding in forests, ravines, and forest belts 117117

118 Corn pests – During one-four leaf stage
Overwintered adults occurs in March Feeding on weed plants first Eggs deposited on the soil surface Larvas hatches in April, adults fly in May These adults feeding on the leaves of corn plants As a result of global warming, hybernating starts later, at mid summer – longer damage period 118118

119 Corn pests – During one-four leaf stage
Cereal leaf beetles – Oulema spp. Copyright: species.wikimedia.org Copyright: biolob.cz Red-throated cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) Blue leaf beetle (Oulema gallaeciana) 119119

120 Corn pests – During one-four leaf stage
Cereal leaf beetles – Oulema spp. More important damage on wheat Adults overwinters 1 generation per year Fly to corn in June Damage from cereal leaf beetle is apparent when the tips of leaves turn white and the leaves develop white stripes or slits where the beetle has consumed a strip. A field with extensive damage will look frosted or whitewashed 120120

121 Corn pests – During intensive growth
Aphids – Aphididae Pest status: Common insects, rarely economic pests Life cycle: During the summer, all aphids are female and do not need to mate to reproduce; females produce live young (parthenogenesis). Multiple overlapping generations Type of damage: Sucks plant sap from leaves, removing water and nutrients. In heavy infestations, honeydew secretions may result in sticky leaves, whorls, and tassels, inhibiting pollen shed and weakening plants 121121

122 Corn pests – During intensive growth
Aphids – Aphididae 1. Corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis) 2. Bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) Feeds on leaves or tassels and silks Yellow mottling, wilting and curling on leaves 10-15 generations, overwinters as an egg Vector of maize dwarf mosaic virus Copyright: extension.iastate.edu 122122

123 Corn pests – From tasseling
European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) 123123

124 Corn pests – From tasseling
European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) Pest status: Common insect. Outbreaks in some years and at some location Life cycle: Mature larvae overwinter in corn stubble, debris and soil, pupate occurs in late spring Adult moths emerge in May. Females lay eggs of the 1st generation on the undersides of corn leaves 124124

125 Corn pests – From tasseling
European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) Eggs hatch within 5-7 days, larvae feed on the leaves or in the whorl Mature larvae tunnel into stalk to complete development. 1st generation adults emerge, mate, and females lay 2nd generation eggs. 2nd generation larvae bore into the stalk, ear shank, and ear Copyright: nematode.unl.edu Copyright: nwnyteam.org 125125

126 Corn pests – From tasseling
European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) Type of damage: 1st Generation = Shot holing in the leaves by feeding on the whorl, then tunneling into stalk 126126

127 Corn pests – From tasseling
European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) 2nd generation (only in middle and southern part of Hungary)= Larvae tunnel into the stalk, shank, and ear. Stalk tunneling weakens plant, disrupts water flow, and creates entry wounds for stalk rot fungus (Fusarium) Management: Forecasting: light traps Control: Chitin synthesis inhibitor: diflubenzuron – active agent Control against moths and corn rootworm are aggregated 127127

128 Corn pests – From tasseling
European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) Typical damage: 128128

129 Corn pests – From tasseling
European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) Larva inside the stem: 129129

130 Corn pests – From tasseling
Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) 130130

131 Corn pests – From tasseling
Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) Greatest problems in seed corn Come from USA in 1992, since 1995 in Hungary Monoculture (20%) → crop rotation (80%) Overwinter as eggs in the soil Egg hatch, end of May Adults swarming begin, end of June Adult damage Adults: feeding on silks, also on leaves, and soft kernels Harm: silks are clipped shorter than 2,5 cm before pollination occurs and if adults are still active 131131

132 Corn pests – From tasseling
Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) Larval damage: Small larvae feed inside root hairs, tips Larger larvae feed on large roots, and can severely prune entire nodes of roots Root loss leads to plant stress from poor water and nutrient uptake Poor root formation also leads to lodging of plants, harvest problems 132132

133 Corn pests – From tasseling
Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) Control: Larvae: Soil sterilization with sowing, seed treatment Larvae hatches one month after sowing By this time insecticides are not effective enough Adult: damages for a long period, multiple control is needed Forecasting: Egg washing method Swarming, trap Pheromone traps 133133

134 Corn pests – From tasseling
Cotton bollworm/Corn earworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Damage: usually feeds on the generative parts of plants (flowers, fruits, seeds) 2-3 generation per year The pupa can overwinter under hungarian conditions, diapausing from September Copyright: ozanimals.com Copyright: photoshelter.com 134134

135 Corn pests – From tasseling
Cotton bollworm/Corn earworm (Helicoverpa armigera) The tiny, white eggs are laid singly on the foliage and fresh corn silk, which is the favorite site for egg deposition Larvae feed on leaves, tassels, the whorl, and within ears, but the ears are the preferred sites for corn earworm attack 135135

136 Corn pests – From tasseling
Cotton bollworm/Corn earworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Young larvae feed on corn silks, clipping them off Shortly thereafter, they bore into the ear where they remain, feeding in the tip area until they exit to pupate in the soil Eggs hatch in 5 to 7 days following oviposition Once larvae enter the corn ears, control with insecticides is difficult Forecasting with pheromone traps Treatments should be timed to coincide with egg hatch Direct insecticidal control towards young larvae that are feeding on the exposed ear tips 136136

137 Corn pests – From tasseling
Cotton bollworm/Corn earworm (Helicoverpa armigera) In sweet corn, where tolerance for worm damage is low, timing of insecticide treatments is critical: begin treatments during silking stage, at the start of egg hatch Before silking stage no control is needed, even at high pheromone trap catches Treatments are usually not needed on field or silage corn 137137

138 Corn pests – From tasseling
Mammal pests European hamster Wild boar Deers Copyright: Copyright: 138138

139 Corn pests – From tasseling
Mammal pests Causing great harm when corn matures Feeds on corn ears and kernels European badger: Chewing the corn ears 139139

140 III. Sunflower pests

141 Sunflower pests Soil borne pests
Grubs and wireworms feeding on the root system Plants are tasseling, often die Control: Soil sterilizers Vine chafer can damage the sunflowers’ foliage Cutworms 2 generation per year, overwinters as a larva Larvae chew off the base of the plants, or bore into the sunflower stem 141141

142 Sunflower pests From emergence to ten leaf stage
Turnip moth – cutworm – Agrotis segetum Weevils – See corn pests Darkling beetle – Opatrum sabulosum Tarnished plant bug - Lygus rugulipennis Lucerne bug - Adelphocoris lineolatus Birds – Pheasant, pigeons Mammals – as usual in field crops 142142

143 Sunflower pests During intensive growth
Tarnished plant bug - Lygus rugulipennis Lucerne bug - Adelphocoris lineolatus Black bean aphid - Aphis fabae Leafcurl plum aphid - Brachycaudus helichrysi Spider mites – Tetranychidae Onion thrips – Thrips tabaci Larvae of noctuid moths – Noctuidae Roe deer 143143

144 Sunflower pests During reproductive stages
Tarnished plant bug - Lygus rugulipennis Lucerne bug - Adelphocoris lineolatus Sunflower moth - Homoesoma nebulellum Cotton bollworm - Helicoverpa armigera Corn rootworm - Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Birds – Sparrow, pigeon 144144

145 Sunflower pests – From emerge-ten leaf stage
Weevils Young plants are damaged by the adults They chew on the leaf margins, when high numbers occurs, can completely defoliate the plant Usually damaging in May Larvae develop in the rooting system, without causing significant damage Copyright: www. agroatlas.ru 145145

146 Sunflower pests – From emerge-ten leaf stage
Weevils Damage: 146146

147 Sunflower pests – From emerge-ten leaf stage
Mammals: European hare (Lepus europeus) Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) Damage: Gnaw off the plants, treads down the field crops. Deer damage is easily recognized because, lacking upper front incisors, deer can only grind and chew with their molars. The plants may be pulled out of the ground After damaged sunflower can shoot again, but it branches and the heads will be less. 147147

148 Sunflower pests – From emerge-ten leaf stage
Tarnished plant bug (Lygus rugulipennis) Copyright: 148148

149 Sunflower pests – From emerge-ten leaf stage
Tarnished plant bug (Lygus rugulipennis) Damage: The tarnished plant bug feed preferentially on either the developing reproductive organs or on the apical meristematic and leaf primordial tissue causing a necrosis around the feeding site due to the injection of enzymes. This tissue destruction causes the brown spot on the sunflower kernel and can also result in a bitter taste to the seeds 149149

150 Sunflower pests – From emerge-ten leaf stage
Tarnished plant bug (Lygus rugulipennis) Life cycle: Two generation per year Adults overwinters in litter Occurs from May to September Larvae are green, similar to adults, but wings lacking Control: Insecticide treatments with pyrethroids have reduced feeding damage by Lygus bugs when applied at the beginning of flowering Copyright: 150150

151 Sunflower pests – From emerge-ten leaf stage
Lucerne bug (Adelphocoris lineolatus) More dangerous than the tarnished plant bug Copyright: www. flickr.com 151151

152 Sunflower pests – From emerge-ten leaf stage
Lucerne bug (Adelphocoris lineolatus) Adults and larvae feeding during the whole vegetation Cause leaf curling in the young plants Deformating the flowers, by sucking Eggs are placed into the stems in a batch in an irregular longitudinal row 152152

153 Sunflower pests – During intensive growth
Aphids – Aphididae Black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) – generations, eggs overwinters in spindle bush Leafcurl plum aphid (Brachycaudus helichrysi) – generations, eggs overwinters in plum tree 153153

154 Sunflower pests – During intensive growth
Aphids – Aphididae Aphids sucking on the plants and deformating the leaves Vectors of several viruses, including CMV – Cucumber mosaic virus Occurs from May Migrate back to woody plants in September Control: Systemic insecticides, if needed 154154

155 Sunflower pests – During intensive growth
Aphids – Aphididae 155155

156 Sunflower pests – During intensive growth
Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) Worldwide pest with several host plants, including vegetables, field crops, ornamentals Damage: Sucking damage, removal of chlorophyll causes the feeding area to appear white to silvery in color. Areas of leaf injury can occur as patches and streaks When feeding injury is severe,leaves take on a silvery cast and can wither Vector of severe viruses 156156

157 Sunflower pests – During intensive growth
Spider mites – Tetranychidae Occasional pests Feeding on the underside of the leaves Can be introduced to the field from the orchards nearby, with the help of wind Copyright: www. ctahr.hawaii.edu 157157

158 Sunflower pests – During intensive growth
Diurnal noctuid moths – Noctuidae Silver Y moth (Autographa gamma) Shoulder-striped clover (Heliothis maritima) 158158

159 Sunflower pests – During intensive growth
Diurnal noctuid moths – Noctuidae There are two generations per year and overwinters as a pupa, cm deep in the soil The first flight usually starts in Hungary in May, and the second flight in August The eggs laid into the leaves of host plants. They move to the soil for overwintering in September The silver Y moth never overwinters in Hungary, it is a migrant moth, usually overwinters in South Europe. Control: Chemical: Against young larvae, feeding on the leaves 159159

160 Sunflower pests – During reproductive stages
Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Copyright: www. sciencedaily.com 160160

161 Sunflower pests – During reproductive stages
Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Damage: Usually feeds on the generative part of the plants, includes flowers, seeds etc. The larva damage the head of the sunflower, can cause 30-50% damage Young larvae can feed on the foliage 161161

162 Sunflower pests – During reproductive stages
Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Biology: In Hungary there are 2-3 generations per year The pupa is able to overwinter in Hungary. The first flight occurs at the end of May, the second in July, while the third in September. The eggs laid into the backstroke of the leaves. The diapausing start at the end of September. Forecasting: Sex pheromone traps Control: Spraying is not always effective due to the undercover life of the larvae. They cause harm on the generative parts – timing of spray. Damaged parts are entry hole for fungal diseases 162162

163 Sunflower pests – During reproductive stages
Sunflower moth (Homoesoma nebulellum) 163163

164 Sunflower pests – During reproductive stages
Sunflower moth (Homoesoma nebulellum) Nowadays is a minor pest due to the developed morphological resistance – phytomelan layer thickness in seeds Biology: 2-3 generations per year, larvae overwinters is the soil Eggs are deposited on the surface of open sunflower heads. First instars feed primarily on pollen. Second instars feed on pollen, and may burrow through the corolla to feed on pollen inside disk flowers. Feeding by third instars may sever the style and prevent the ovary from being fertilized, resulting in empty seeds. 164164

165 Sunflower pests – During reproductive stages
Sunflower moth (Homoesome nebulellum) 165165

166 Sunflower pests – During reproductive stages
Sunflower moth (Homoesome nebulellum) Third instars also begin feeding on ovaries. Larval feeding until maturity results in an average of about 96 damaged disk flowers and about 23 damaged ovaries per larva. As they feed, larvae spin a webbing over the face of the sunflower head. The accumulated debris in the larval webbing and damage caused by larval feeding predispose the head to Rhizopus infection. Mature larvae move to the ground where they spin overwintering cocoons 166166

167 Sunflower pests – During reproductive stages
Sunflower moth (Homoesoma nebulellum) Control: A number of tachinid and hymenopteran parasitoids attack the sunflower moth and aid in its control, but other methods are often needed Sunflower is usually attacked by second (and sometimes third) generations, coming from surrounding Asteraceae weeds Can be forecasted with pheromone traps Resistance breeding is the best 167167

168 IV. Rapeseed pests

169 Rapeseed pests Two-four leaf stage pests (in September)
Turnip Sawfly (Athalia rosae) Mustard Sawfly (Athalia glabricollis) Cabbage steam flea beetle (Psylloides chrysocephala) Cabbage flea beetles (Phyllotreta species) aphids Cabbage Aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) Turnip Moth (Agrotis segetum = Scotia segetum) Silver Y Moth (Autographa gamma) Diamondback moth (Plutella maculipennis) soilborne pests (white grubs, wireworms) 169169

170 Rapeseed pests Pests of stem elongation stage (in March)
Cabbage Stem Weevil (Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus = C. quadridens) Cabbage Seed Weevil (Ceutorhynchus obstrictus = C. assimilis) Rape Stem Weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi) Black Turnip Ceutorhynchus (Ceutorhynchus picitarsis) Rutabaga Barid (Baris coerulescens) 170170

171 Rapeseed pests Pests from stem elongation to „yellow bud” stage (in April) Green-veined White (Pieris napi) Cabbage White (Pieris rapae) Large White (Pieris brassicae) Pollen beetles (Meligethes spp.) 171171

172 Rapeseed pests Pests of the flowering stage (in May)
Pod Gall Midge (Dasyneura brassicae) Blossom Feeder (Tropinota hirta = Epicometis hirta) Hawthorn Alleculid Beetle (Omophlus proteus) leaf hoppers (Auchenorrhyncha) 172172

173 Rapeseed pests Turnip sawfly – Athalia rosae
Adult emerges in May and June After feeding, the females laterally incise the leaves and deposit their eggs one by one in the small chambers. Females laid approximately 300 eggs Larvae feed on the leaves. At 20°C, they consume twice their own weight in 24 hours. Pupation occurs after 10 to 13 days in the upper layers of the ground at a depth of 1 to 5 cm, inside a cocoon. The final larval stage hibernates underground in a cocoon. Copyright: sv.wikipedia.org 173173

174 Rapeseed pests Cabbage Steam Flea beetle - Psylliodes chrysocephala
Young adult appears in May-June After 10 to 15 days, the female starts to lay eggs. It stops when the temperature falls below 0°C, and starts again at the end of the winter. Total fecundity 70 to 150 eggs. After larvae hatching, it penetrates the plant by the upper surface of the petiole of one of the oldest leaves Pupation occurs in the ground 174174

175 Rapeseed pests Cabbage flea beetles - Phyllotreta spp. 175175

176 Rapeseed pests Cabbage flea beetles - Phyllotreta spp.
Overwintered adults are usually active in the fields until late June, feeding on the foliage and depositing their eggs in the soil The larvae can be found in the root zone of host plants during June and July The pupal stage occurs from early to mid-July The new generation are present from late July to early September They can be found feeding on cultivated cruciferous crops and weeds The summer generation will move to overwintering sites in late autumn. 176176

177 Rapeseed pests Cabbage flea beetles - Phyllotreta spp.
One generation per year They emerge from the overwintering sites during early spring when temperature is above of 5 Celsius degree Overwintered adults feed on seedling cruciferous host plants. Summer adults feed on the pods of oilseed rape, mustard and other cruciferous crops and weeds Damage: Adult attacks rape seedlings and can totally destroy the crop. The plants attacked by the larvae become bushy and stunted. Maturity is irregular and the yield is reduced 177177

178 Rapeseed pests Cabbage Aphid - Brevicoryne brassicae
Insects form big colonies, reaching large numbers when flowering Spring larvae hatch at the daily average temperature 7-8°C. There are 6-8 generations a year At high insect numbers, the yield may decrease by 34-62% 178178

179 Rapeseed pests Cabbage Seed Weevil - Ceutorhynchus obstrictus
Overwintered adults appear in April after average daily temperature reaches 7–8°C At first, the beetles appear on wild crucifers; later they migrate to cruciferous cultures Adults feed on stems, pedicles, buds, gnawing small cavities Oviposition continues from the 2nd half of May to the end of June Fertility is about eggs Main damage occurs during larval stage Pupation occurs in the soil Adults hibernate 179179

180 Rapeseed pests Cabbage Stem Weevil - Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus
One generation in a year Adults overwinter in leaf litter Eggs are laid into the petiole of the upper leaves. Larval development requires 25–35 days in May Larva consumes the tissues of the petioles and the stem. The fully developed larva drops itself on the ground, enters the soil and pupates 180180

181 Rapeseed pests Rape Stem Weevil - Ceutorhynchus napi
One generation per year The adult hibernates in the soil of rape fields Egg-laying begins 10 to 20 days after the first emergence There are 3 larval instars which last 30 to 40 days on winter rape It feeds on the stem pith; having reached maturity, it leaves through an exit hole formed in the stem level with the petiole of a low leaf and buries itself to pupate into the soil The damage is essentially caused by egg laying. The presence of the egg in the stem induces a cancer Secondary organism, such as Phoma can occur 181181

182 Rapeseed pests Rape Stem Weevil - Ceutorhynchus napi 182182

183 Rapeseed pests Common Pollen Beetle - Meligethes aeneus
Fecundity: 250 eggs; but there is high level of adult mortality Oviposition begins towards the end of March or beginning of April Adults enters to overwinter in sheltered situations by the end of July 183183

184 Rapeseed pests Common Pollen Beetle - Meligethes aeneus Damage:
Damage is caused by the pollinivorous adults Prior to flowering, the adults bite holes into the buds to reach the stamens and feed on the pollen Once flowering has begun, the beetle eats the now freshly available pollen and damage is negligible 184184

185 V. Alfalfa pests

186 Alfalfa pests Alfalfa cultivation
Alfalfa is usually cultivated for 2-4 years Cultivation is recommended due to nitrogen fixation of alfalfa on the soil 186186

187 Alfalfa pests Soil borne pests
Soil borne pests occurs during the whole vegetation, but doesn’t cause significant damage in alfalfa The problem is, that in alfalfa these pests can pile up very well – cause harm in the next plant culture 187187

188 Alfalfa pests Winter and early spring pests
Sitona spp. – Sitona weevils Otiorrhynchus ligustici- Alfalfa Snout Beetle Microtus arvalis – Common vole Spring pests Weevils – See: Corn and sunflower pests Lygus spp. – Lygus bugs 188188

189 Alfalfa pests Pests of intensive growth
Soil borne pests – Grubs, wireworms Sitona weevils Phytodecta fornicata – Lucerne leaf beetle Subcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata – alfalfa lady beetle Phytonomus variablis – Alfalfa weevil Lygus spp. – Lygus bugs 189189

190 Alfalfa pests Pests of intensive growth Acyrtosiphon pisum – pea aphid
Noctuidae – Diurnal noctuid moths Plagionotus floralis – lucerne longicorn Microtus arvalis - common vole 190190

191 Alfalfa pests Seed pests:
Contarinia medicaginis – Lucerne flower midge Adelphocoris lineolatus – Lucerne plant bug Tychius flavus – Lucerne seed weevil Bruchophagus roddi – Alfalfa seed chalcid Pod pests: Heliothis maritima - Shoulder-striped Clover Helicoverpa armigera – Cotton bollworm 191191

192 Alfalfa pests Common vole (Microtus arvalis)
6-8 litter per year, with 3 to 8 juveniles They haven’t got winter sleep, and cause harm at wintertime as well Alfalfa is accumulator area for them Feeds on green parts and with its holes enhance the negative effect of winter frost Control with redentin from November to March (chlorphacinone) Biological control: Establishing „T“-standards for raptors (predatory birds) 192192

193 Alfalfa pests Lucerne longicorn beetle (Plagionotus floralis)
Not an important pest The larva chews uprightly in the main root, causing yellowing and death Adult is not a pest 193193

194 Alfalfa pests Lucerne longicorn beetle (Plagionotus floralis) Biology:
One generation per year Larva overwinters in the main root Adults occurs from May, they are pollen feeders Eggs laid to the base of the plants in July Larvae damaging from July to October Copyright: 194194

195 Alfalfa pests Alfalfa snout beetle (Otiorhynchus ligustici) 195195

196 Alfalfa pests Alfalfa snout beetle (Otiorhynchus ligustici)
The larva of this pest can develop only in alfalfa roots Therefore this pest, however polyphagous mainly damaging alfalfa Adults are unable to fly, so can occur only near alfalfa fields Copyright: www. pest.ceris.purdue.edu 196196

197 Alfalfa pests Alfalfa snout beetle (Otiorhynchus ligustici) Damage:
Adults feeds on the leaves Larvae causing wilting or even death, by chewing on the rooting system Copyright: 197197

198 Alfalfa pests Alfalfa snout beetle (Otiorhynchus ligustici) Biology:
One generation per two year Adults occurs from March There are only females, reproduction by parthenogenesis Eggs laid in May 1-2 cm deep in the soil near the plant Larvae hatches in June and damaging the roots until November, when overwinters In the next year larvae damaging till mid- summer, than pupate in the soil Control against it is unnecessery 198198

199 Alfalfa pests Sitona weevils (Sitona spp.) 199199

200 Alfalfa pests Sitona weevils (Sitona spp.)
They are damaging all legumin plants (pea, bea, soybean) Adults causing U-like damage in the leaves Larvae feeds on the roots - causing no important damage 200200

201 Alfalfa pests Sitona weevils (Sitona spp.) Biology:
Adults are early emerging from the soil and damaging plants from March to June Only one generation per year and overwintering as an adult Larvae damaging in summer Than adults emerge again and feeds till hibernation Spring damage is more significant 201201

202 Alfalfa pests Lucerne leaf beetle (Phytodecta fornicata) 202202

203 Alfalfa pests Lucerne leaf beetle (Phytodecta fornicata)
Adults and larvae are both pests Biology: One generation per year Overwinters in adult stage Adults flies in April Eggs are laid in May In the end of May development is completed, new adults emerge, but starts hibernating without damaging the plants 203203

204 Alfalfa pests Alfalfa lady beetle (Subcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata) Copyright: 204204

205 Alfalfa pests Alfalfa lady beetle (Subcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata) 1-2 generation per year Adults overwinters First generation flies in April, second in June Eggs are laid onto the underside of the leaves 205205

206 Alfalfa pests Alfalfa lady beetle (Subcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata) Adults and larvae are both pests They feeds on the foliage, rarely feeding on the flowers Leaves stay small and often falling down 206206

207 Alfalfa pests Alfalfa weevil (Phytonomus variablis) 207207

208 Alfalfa pests Alfalfa weevil (Phytonomus variablis)
Both adults and larvae are damaging the foliage of the plant The only weevil larva, which lives in the foliage 208208

209 Alfalfa pests Alfalfa weevil (Phytonomus variablis) Biology:
1 generation per year Adults overwinter Adults occur from May, eggs are laid in June Fully developed adults starts hibernating in July Copyright: 209209

210 Alfalfa pests Pea aphid (Acyrtosiphon pisi) 210210

211 Alfalfa pests Pea aphid (Acyrtosiphon pisi)
Permitted to sow pea, near alfalfa field Noxious pest of these two plant They are sucking the plant sap, plants are dwarfing, seed production decreases Vectors of lucerne mosaic virus 10-15 generation per year They can occur in pea and alfalfa as well, but overwintering eggs are laid on the alfalfa only 211211

212 Alfalfa pests Lygus bugs (Lygus spp.)
Most dangerous in seed production By sucking on the plant cause wilting 2-3 generation per year, eggs overwinters in the plant stem Eggs are placed inside the stem 212212

213 Alfalfa pests Lucerne flower midge (Contarinia medicaginis) 213213

214 Alfalfa pests Lucerne flower midge (Contarinia medicaginis)
Larvae are flower pests Flowers become galls due to their damage Eggs are placed onto flowers Larvae develops within two weeks 3 generation per year Overwinters as a pupa Copyright: 214214

215 Alfalfa pests Lucerne seed weevil (Tychius flavus)
Copyright: 215215

216 Alfalfa pests Lucerne seed weevil (Tychius flavus) Damage:
Adults and larvae are both pests Larval damage is more important , because it feeds on the seeds, which looses the germinating ability Biology: One generation / adults overwinters Eggs are placed on the flowers Larvae feeds on 3-4 seeds, during developing Becomes pupa in August 216216

217 Alfalfa pests Alfalfa seed chalcid (Bruchophagus roddi)
Copyright: 217217

218 Alfalfa pests Alfalfa seed chalcid (Bruchophagus roddi)
Only the larva is a pest 3-4 generations / larvae overwinters in the soil Eggs are placed on the seeds Larvae developing inside the seeds, which takes around one month Drop to the soil in August and overwintering there Preventive technology: at seed harvest, do not blow light fraction (containing diapausing larvae) back to the field, from the pneumatic separator of the combine harvester. Copyright: Copyright: 218218

219 VI. Pea pests

220 Pea pests Pea cultivation
Pea is the cultivated plant, which requires the shortest time Always sowed Spacing: 12x3-5 cm Sowed early in the season, sometimes in February Harvested in late May or early June Copyright: 220220

221 Pea pests Pests after sowing Sitona weevils
Weevils (See corn and sunflower pests) Birds (rook, pheasant) Copyright: 221221

222 Pea pests Pests at 20 cm stage: Scotia segetum – turnip moth
Pea aphid – Acyrtosiphon pisum Copyright: 222222

223 Pea pests Pests at intensive growth Diurnal noctuid moths - Noctuidae
Pea aphid 223223

224 Pea pests Seed pests: Kakothrips pisivorus - Pea thrips
Aoromius quinquepunctatus - Pea weevil Laspeyresia nigricana – Pea moth Etiella zinckenella – limabean pod borer Bruchus pisorum – bruchid pea weevil Copyright: 224224

225 Pea pests Mammal pests: European hare Roe deer
Can cause great harm after emerging the plant, by chewing it off Copyright:www.enature.com 225225

226 Pea pests Sitona weevils (Sitona spp.) Biology:
Adults are erly emerging from the soil and damaging plants from March to June Only one generation per year and overwintering as an adult Larvae damaging in summer Then adults emerge again and feeds till hibernation Spring damage is more significant Sitona weevils causes bigger harm in the pea than in alfalfa They are damaging the emerging, young plants 226226

227 Pea pests Sitona weevils (Sitona spp.) Typical damage: 227227

228 Pea pests Sitona weevils (Sitona spp.) Adult weevil: 228228

229 Pea pests Pea aphid (Acyrtosiphon pisum) Very important pest in pea
Only asexual forms are present in the pea Sucking damage causes wilting, roting They are virus vectors as well When harvesting, females move back to alfalfa Control: Systemic insecticides 229229

230 Pea pests Pea thrips (Kakothrips pisivorus)
Copyright: 230230

231 Pea pests Pea thrips (Kakothrips pisivorus)
Larvae and adults sucking on the leaves and pods White spots in the plants Pods become smaller Only 2-3 seeds in the pods (normal is 5-6) Copyright: 231231

232 Pea pests Pea thrips (Kakothrips pisivorus) Biology:
1 generation / year, overwinters as a larva Adults occurs in May Eggs are placed on the flowers Before harvesting, at June, hibernation begins Control: Systemic insecticides has good efficiacy Important to avoid natural enemies, including bugs, predatory thrips, etc.. 232232

233 Pea pests Pea thrips (Kakothrips pisivorus) Typical damage:
Copyright: sciencephotolibrary.com 233233

234 Pea pests Pea weevil (Aoromius quinquepunctatus) 234234

235 Pea pests Pea weevil (Aoromius quinquepunctatus)
Larvae are more dangerous They are feeds inside the seeds Adults are pests of green parts, without causing important damage 235235

236 Pea pests Pea weevil (Aoromius quinquepunctatus) Biology:
1 generation / year, adults overwinters Occurs from April Adults are long – living, until September Eggs are placed on the pods in May – June Larvae feeding inside the pods (2-3 larvae / pod) Pupation takes place in the soil Control: The targeted stage should be the adult Contact insecticides can be effective 236236

237 Pea pests Pea weevil (Aoromius quinquepunctatus) Typical damage:
237237

238 Pea pests Pea bruchid weevil (Bruchus pisorum)
Adult has no significant damage They emerge from April Pupating inside the seeds 238238

239 Pea pests Pea bruchid weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Biology:
1 generation / year, overwinters as an adult Eggs placed on the pods Larvae chew into the seed – always one larva per seed Developing inside the seed for 5-6 weeks After pupation in a hole, emerging from the seed and starts hibernating Control: Control in the store, with special gas active ingredients 239239

240 Pea pests Pea bruchid weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Typical damage: 240240

241 Pea pests Pea moth (Cydia nigricana), Limabean pod borer (Etiella zinckenella) Copyright: 241241

242 Pea pests Pea moth (Cydia nigricana), Limabean pod borer (Etiella zinckenella) The two moth has similar damage, however selective pheromone traps are available Larvae webbing inside the pods Biology: Larvae overwinters in the soil or in the surface of it Pea moth has 1, limabean pod borer has 2 generation per year Only the second generation of pod borer occurs in soybean They flies in June – July Eggs are placed on the pods 242242

243 Pea pests Pea moth (Cydia nigricana), Limabean pod borer (Etiella zinckenella) Typical damage: 243243

244 Pea pests Pea moth (Cydia nigricana), Limabean pod borer (Etiella zinckenella) Typical damage: 244244

245 VII. Potato pests

246 Potato pests Soil borne pests
Common cockchafer – Melolontha melolontha Wireworms Potato cyst nematodes - Globodera rostochienis, G. pallida Potato tuber nematode - Ditylenchus destructor Common vole - Microtus arvalis Turnip moth – Agrotis segetum 246246

247 Potato pests Pests of green parts
Colorado potato beetle - Leptinotarsa decemlineata Potato tuberworm moth - Gnorimoschema operculellum (quarantine, not present at the moment) Peach-potato aphid - Myzus persicae Buckthorn aphid - Aphis nasturtii Potato leafhopper - Empoasca solani Black blister beetle - Epicauta rufidorsum Common vole - Microtus arvalis Wild boar - Sus scrofa Deers 247247

248 Potato pests – Soil borne pests
They are important, because feeding on the edible parts of the plants Grub damage: Damage appears as large, shallow, irregular and ridged gouges. Gouges are usually a quarter to a half inch deep running along the surface of the tuber and not drilled into the tuber as one would see with wireworm holes 248248

249 Potato pests – Soil borne pests
Cutworm damage: Spotty damage on leaves and tubers Tunneling into tubers and feeding on young plants 249249

250 Potato pests – Soil borne pests
Cyst nematodes: They are quarantine pests Spreaded in Hungary after EU accession (due to the lack of quarantine examinations in borders) If they are present, cultivating potato is not permitted for 15 years Males are eel-like, while females are bottle-like Mated female conformate to cyst, which is viable for years Copyright: 250250

251 Potato pests – Soil borne pests
Cyst nematodes: Biology: One generation per year, overwinters as a cyst A cyst consist of larvae and eggs If conditions are appropriate, larvae occur from May and starts feeding on the roots They are only potato pests Copyright: 251251

252 Potato pests – Soil borne pests
252252

253 Potato pests – Soil borne pests
Cyst nematodes: Damage: The first symptoms of infestation are typically poor plant growth, chlorosis, and wilting. Heavy infestations can lead to reduced root systems, water stress, and nutrient deficiencies, while indirect effects of an infestation include premature senescence and increased susceptibility to fungal infections Copyright: archive.com 253253

254 Potato pests – Soil borne pests
Cyst nematodes: Detection: Soil sampling Cyst washing Petri-dish method Control: 10-15 years crop rotation Copyright: 254254

255 Potato pests – Soil borne pests
Potato tuber nematode: Not only potato but a sugarbeet pest It has generations per year Damage: Early infections can be detected by peeling the tuber which can reveal small, off-white spots in the otherwise healthy flesh. These later enlarge, darken, are woolly in texture and may be slightly hollow at the centre 255255

256 Potato pests – Soil borne pests
Potato tuber nematode: Description: Adults of D. destructor are minute worm-like animals, mm in length and μm in diameter. Considerable morphometric variation occurs in adults according to their host and/or age. Males and females are similar in general appearance Copyright: 256256

257 Potato pests – Soil borne pests
Potato tuber nematode: Control: Treatment with soil-applied nematicides can provide a high level of control but can be expensive Granulated nematicides such as carbofuran were reported to be effective against the nematode Control by crop rotation is possible using non-host crops It is important to control weeds carefully because of the polyphagous habit of D. destructor The use of nematode-free seed potatoes is an essential component of any control programme 257257

258 Potato pests – Soil borne pests
Potato tuber nematode: Copyright: 258258

259 Potato pests – Pests of green parts
Colorado beetle: Present in Hungary from 1947 Became the most dangerous potato pest 259259

260 Potato pests – Pests of green parts
Colorado beetle: Damage: They may also cause significant damage to tomatoes and eggplants Both adults and larvae chewing on foliage and may completely eliminate the crop Biggest damage is caused by the fourth instar larva and the adult beetle (80%) 260260

261 Potato pests – Pests of green parts
Colorado beetle: Biology: Two generations per year, overwinters as an adult Colorado potato beetle females are very prolific; they can lay as many as 800 eggs to the underside of the leaves 261261

262 Potato pests – Pests of green parts
Colorado beetle: Biology: As they are adopted to long day period, first generation lays more eggs, than the second Adults occur from May, they are long-living – both generations can be present 262262

263 Potato pests – Pests of green parts
Colorado beetle: The first through third instars each last about 2-3 days; the fourth, 4-7 days Upon reaching full size, each fourth instar spends an additional several days as a non-feeding prepupa, which can be recognized by its inactivity and lighter coloration The prepupae drop to the soil and burrow to a depth of several inches, then pupate 263263

264 Potato pests – Pests of green parts
Colorado beetle: Control: Resistence for several insecticides were reported Young larvae should be the targeted group Effective agents are neonictionoids BT pesticides in biofarming as well 264264

265 Potato pests – Pests of green parts
Colorado beetle: Serious damage 265265

266 Potato pests – Pests of green parts
Peach-potato aphid – Myzus persicae: Damage: Big colonies sucking on host plants Leaves become yellow, dwarfing, yield reducing Indirect damage as virus vectors: Potato Y virus, Potato leafroll virus Copyright: 266266

267 Potato pests – Pests of green parts
Peach-potato aphid – Myzus persicae: Biology: Overwinters as an egg in peach trees, where the 1-4 generations develop 267267

268 Potato pests – Pests of green parts
Peach-potato aphid – Myzus persicae: Biology: Winged forms migrate to potato, where sevaral more generations develop In the potato only asexual forms are present, with ovovivipar reproduction Copyright: 268268

269 Potato pests – Pests of green parts
Peach-potato aphid – Myzus persicae: In september migrate back to peach, where sexual reproduction take place Forecasting with yellow pan trap Control: Systemic insecticides 269269

270 Potato pests – Pests of green parts
Potato leafhopper - Empoasca solani Become recently noxious due to the vector role of stolbur phytoplasma Copyright: 270270

271 Potato pests – Pests of green parts
Potato leafhopper - Empoasca solani Damage: Sucking on the underside of leaves Withdrawing the sap from the cells – causing white pots 271271

272 Potato pests – Pests of green parts
Potato leafhopper - Empoasca solani Biology: Overwinters as an adult 2-4 overlapping generations per year Occurs from July to September in potato Alfalfa and apple pests as well Control: Systemic insecticides 272272

273 Potato pests – Pests of green parts
Black blister beetle - Epicauta rufidorsum Occasionally pest Feeds on the foliage, without causing economically important damage 273273

274 VIII. Rice pests

275 Rice pests Rice cultivation In Hungary it decreased to a minimal level
Now cultivated only in the Great Plain, near Szarvas 275275

276 Rice pests Rice cultivation:
Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is very labor-intensive to cultivate and requires plenty of water for cultivation Rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a steep hill or mountain Copyright: 276276

277 Rice pests Rice production
World production of rice[27] has risen steadily from about 200 million tonnes of paddy rice in 1960 to over 600 million tonnes in 2004 In 2004, the top four producers were China (26% of world production), India (20%), Indonesia (9%) and Bangladesh (5%) Copyright: 277277

278 Rice pests Pests at germination Birds – pigeon, rook
Copyright:www.corkdudeing.blogspot.com 278278

279 Rice pests Pests of underwater parts
Horseshoe shrimp – Triops canciformis Buzzer midge - Chironomus plumosus Copyright:www.flyforums.co.uk Copyright:www.uimpi.net 279279

280 Rice pests Pests of green parts
Non-biting midge - Trichocladius (Cricotopus) bicinctus Smaller rice leaf miner - Hydrellia griseola Rice leaf nematoda - Aphelenchoides bessey Brown china-mark - Nymphula nymphaeata Sugarcane borer - Diatraea (Chilo) saccharalis Copyright:www.us.ask.com Copyright:www.bladmineerders.nl 280280

281 Rice pests Seed pests: Birds Common vole – Microtus arvalis
Birds usually feeds on badly sowed seeds They may dig out the seeds from the soil They also damages the ripening seeds Copyright:www.madarlesen.blog.hu 281281

282 Rice pests Horseshoe shrimp – Triops canciformis Damage:
They feeds on newly germinated plants Also feeds on stems of more developed plants Plant parts are visible, swimming everywhere in the field Copyright:www.freeshop.web.de 282282

283 Rice pests Horseshoe shrimp – Triops canciformis Biology:
To complete their lives, tadpole shrimps depend on the changing nature of the temporary waters they inhabit. During the dry season (summer and fall), they stay inside the eggs. As the pool fills with rainwater during the winter and spring, they hatch and feed on fairy shrimps and other invertebrates. The first larval stage (the metanauplius) is orange in color. It has a single eye and six legs, and develops through instars (growth stages 283283

284 Copyright:www. harmoniamundimagazin.com
Rice pests Horseshoe shrimp – Triops canciformis Biology: They have one generation per year Eggs are able to hatch only after frost Larvae hatch at May Eggs are viable up to5-10 years Copyright:www. harmoniamundimagazin.com 284284

285 Copyright:www. agroengineer.com
Rice pests Horseshoe shrimp – Triops canciformis Control: Crop rotation Rolling after sowing Copyright:www. agroengineer.com 285285

286 Rice pests Buzzer midge Damage:
Larvae cause the damage, by chewing apart young plants up to 12 cm It is not a pest of rice, sowed into the soil Copyright:www.sciencephotolibrary.com 286286

287 Rice pests Buzzer midge Biology: 3-4 generation per year
Overwinters as a larva in the soil First generation flies from April First and second generations are recommended as rice pests Eggs are laid onto he water surface, later lower down 287287

288 Rice pests Buzzer midge Red coloured larvae feeding for 5-6 weeks
They can reproduce only in standard waters Control: Water drainage (Diatraea (Chilo) saccharalis 288288

289 Thank you for your attention
Sipos Péter Dr. Zsolt Marczali


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