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IPM for Sustainable Sugarcane

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Presentation on theme: "IPM for Sustainable Sugarcane"— Presentation transcript:

1 IPM for Sustainable Sugarcane
Production in Florida Gregg Nuessly Everglades REC-IFAS Belle Glade

2 440,000 acres

3 IPM of Florida Sugarcane Insect Pests
Grouped by Plant Damage: Roots, Seed Pieces, Tillers Stalks Foliage

4 Insect Pests of Sugarcane Roots, Seed Pieces, Shoots
Sugarcane grub - root feeder Corn wireworm - root, shoot feeder Lesser cornstalk borer (LCB) - shoot feeder

5 Sugarcane grub Root feeding causes - reduced vigor - lodging in storms
- stool dislodging during harvest Larva Adult

6 Corn wireworm Shoot and seed piece feeding causes - dead heart &
stand loss Larva Adult

7 Lesser cornstalk borer - dead heart
Shoot feeding causes - dead heart & stand loss Larvae Adults

8 Lesser cornstalk borer damage Rows of holes Feeding tube Dead shoots
New shoot

9 IPM for Pests of Roots, Seed Pieces and Shoots *Cultural Control
- Disking & cultivating - kills and exposes them to natural enemies - Flooding and rotation (Rice) - soil type, season & duration

10 IPM for Pests of Roots, Seed Pieces and Shoots *Cultural Control
- Weed control in fallow fields reduces Summer egg deposits by wireworm adults

11 IPM for Pests of Roots, Seed Pieces and Shoots *Chemical Control
- At plant treatment for grubs and wireworms directed into furrows when flooding or rice rotation is not possible - Post emergence for LCB

12 Insect Pests of Sugarcane
Stalks Sugarcane borer - leaves, mid to upper stalks West Indian sugarcane weevil - lower stalks

13 Sugarcane borer Stalk feeding causes - breaking, microbial
rot of stalk, reduced yield Larva Adult

14 West Indian sugarcane weevil
Stalk feeding causes broken stalks, microbial rot of stalks, increased rat damage, yield loss Larva Adult

15 West Indian sugarcane weevil damage

16 IPM for Pests of Stalks *Biological control
- Cotesia flavipes, parasitoid of sugarcane borer released in 1960’s - Research by Dr. David Hall, U.S.Sugar Corp., led to culture and mass production of wasps

17 Biological control of sugarcane borer Cotesia flavipes Adult Larvae

18 IPM for Pests of Stalks *Economic threshold used to
initiate treatments - Fields scouted for damage - Sugarcane borer larvae examined for parasitism - Cotesia wasps released in fields as needed to augment natural levels of parasitism

19 IPM for Pests of Stalks *Host plant resistance - Breeding programs
(public and private) select for clones resistant to insects and diseases - Some clones much more susceptible to stalk pests

20 IPM for Pests of Stalks *Chemical control
- Insecticides applied by air when late season damage is above threshold - Recent registration of selective material provides alternative that preserves natural enemy complex

21 Insect Pests of Sugarcane
Foliage Sucking insect pests - Yellow sugarcane aphid - White sugarcane aphid - Sugarcane lace bug Chewing insect pests - Armyworms - Cutworms

22 Yellow sugarcane aphid

23 Yellow sugarcane aphid
Late season Early season Prolonged feeding leads to reduced stalk diameter and yield loss

24 Yield loss from yellow sugarcane aphid

25 White sugarcane aphid

26 White sugarcane aphid Honeydew deposits and sooty
mold fungus, but no losses

27 Sugarcane lace bug Leaf feeding results in yellow and
red discoloration, large populations can lead to premature leaf death

28 IPM for Pests of Foliage
Natural biological control agents often keep populations below damage threshold and respond to outbreaks - Ants (incl. red imported fire ants), earwigs, beetles, flower flies and spiders

29 Aphid predators Doru taeniatum Diomus terminatus

30 Aphid predators Olla v-nigrum Coelophora inaequalis Harmonia axyridis
Hippodamia convergens Cycloneda sanguinea

31 IPM for Pests of Foliage
*Host plant resistance - Yellow sugarcane aphids colonize and damage only small subset of clones - Stage 3 clones now being evaluated for resistance

32 IPM for Pests of Foliage
*Chemical control Broad spectrum insecticides used as last resort to prevent or minimize losses from foliage pests

33 Summary - Insect pests of roots, seed pieces, shoots & foliage
- IPM in Sugarcane includes: cultural (incl. flooding & rotation), chemical and biological controls, scouting using treatment thresholds, breeding program for host plant resistance

34 Summary - Natural and augmentative biological
control agents important for maintaining insect populations under economic thresholds

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