Presentation on theme: "Interest Grabber What’s the Difference?"— Presentation transcript:
1Interest Grabber What’s the Difference? Section 26-1What’s the Difference?In the course of the day, you probably have encountered animals and other types of organisms.1. Make a list of five animals that you saw today.2. Then, make a list of five organisms other than animals that you saw today.3. What characteristics do animals have that the other types of organisms do not?
2Section Outline 26–1 Introduction to the Animal Kingdom A. What Is an Animal?B. What Animals Do to Survive1. Feeding2. Respiration3. Circulation4. Excretion5. Response6. Movement7. ReproductionC. Trends in Animal Evolution1. Cell Specialization and Levels of Organization2. Early Development3. Body Symmetry4. Cephalization5. Body Cavity Formation
3Concept Map Animals Section 26-1 have are carry out Eukaryotic cells HeterotrophsEssential functionswithsuch asNo cell wallsFeedingRespirationCirculationExcretionResponseMovementReproduction
4Figure 26–5 Body Symmetry Bilateral Symmetry Radial Symmetry Section 26-1Bilateral SymmetryRadial SymmetryPosterior endDorsal sideAnterior endVentral sidePlane of symmetryPlanes of symmetry
5Interest Grabber No Sinking or Swimming Section 26-2No Sinking or SwimmingYou likely have a green, yellow, blue, or pink sponge in your kitchen sink at home. This is a synthetic (human-made) sponge, not a natural sponge. But you may have used a natural sponge in the bath or when washing the car. These sponges are usually brownish and are irregularly shaped.1. Natural sponges live in the water, and are attached to a single spot. Although they cannot move from place to place like many other animals, sponges are still animals. Because they are animals, what characteristics must sponges have?2. What characteristics does a kitchen sponge have? Which of these characteristics do you think a natural sponge has?
6Section Outline 26–2 Sponges A. What Is a Sponge? B. Form and Function in Sponges1. Body Plan2. Feeding3. Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion4. Response5. ReproductionC. Ecology of Sponges
7Sponge Life Cycle Section 26-2 MEIOSISHaploid (N)Diploid (2N)Sperm from a sponge are released into the surrounding water. Water currents carry the sperm to other sponges.New spongeSperm (N)Mature sponge (2N)Egg (N)Swimming larvaLarva (2N)The zygote develops into a free-swimming larva. Water currents carry the larva until it attaches to a surface and grows into a new sponge.Sperm enter another sponge through pores. The sperm are carried to eggs inside the body wall. Sperm fertilize eggs.FERTILIZATION
8Figure 26–8 The Anatomy of a Sponge Section 26-2Water flowOsculumChoanocyteCentral cavityPoresSpiculePore cellPoreEpidermal cellArchaeocyte
9Interest Grabber What’s in a Name? Section 26-3What’s in a Name?Perhaps you have heard about creatures called jellyfishes on television, in school, or at an aquarium; maybe you live near the ocean and have actually seen jellyfishes.1. Do jellyfishes look like what their name describes? Make a simple drawing of what you think a jellyfish looks like.2. Some scientists suggest that jellyfishes should be called “jellies.” What might this new name tell you about jellyfishes?
10Section Outline 26–3 Cnidarians A. What Is a Cnidarian? B. Form and Function in Cnidarians1. Body Plan2. Feeding3. Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion4. Response5. Movement6. ReproductionC. Groups of Cnidarians1. Jellyfishes2. Hydras and Their Relatives3. Sea Anemones and CoralsD. Ecology of Corals
11Jellyfish Life Cycle Section 26-3 Female medusa (2N) MEIOSISFertilization occurs in the open water, producing many diploid zygotes.Egg (N)Adult medusas reproduce sexually by releasing gametes into the water.FERTILIZATIONSperm (N)Each zygote grows into a ciliated larva. The larva eventually attaches to a hard surface and develops into a polyp.Zygote (2N)Male medusa (2N)Young medusaSwimming larvaPolypThe polyp buds to release young medusas.HaploidDiploidBudding polyp
12Figure 26–12 The Polyp and Medusa Stages Section 26-3EpidermisMesogleaGastrodermTentaclesMouth/anusGastrovascular cavityMesogleaGastrovascular cavityMouth/anusTentaclesMedusaPolyp