Presentation on theme: "Sponges Phylum Porifera. SPONGES ARE STRANGE Only meet MINIMUM requirement for Kingdom Animalia –Multicellular, eukaryotic cells, heterotrophic, moves."— Presentation transcript:
Sponges Phylum Porifera
SPONGES ARE STRANGE Only meet MINIMUM requirement for Kingdom Animalia –Multicellular, eukaryotic cells, heterotrophic, moves at some point in its life Body contains groups of specialized cells, does not form true tissues or organs
Phylum Porifera – Pore Bearers Water flow Choanocyte Spicule Pore cell Pore Epidermal cell Archaeocyte Osculum Central cavity Pores
Sessile-attached to surface Pores allow water/plankton to circulate (suspension/filter-feeders) Choanocytes – collar cells that pump water in with flagella, create currents and trap food particles Osculum – large opening for water to exit Feeding, circulation, excretion, respiration Simple skeleton –Spicules – transparent support structures made of calcium carbonate/silica –Spongin - protein –Amebocytes – mobile cells to secrete spicules and spongin
Feeding Suspension/Filter feeders-actively filtering food particles Intracellular digestion Choanocytes trap food/pass it on Amebocytes – complete digestion by transporting and storing food particles
Respiration, Feeding, Excretion Water circulation diffusion Response Lacks nervous system Produce toxins
Sexual Reproduction and Life Cycle Sperm from a sponge are released into the surrounding water-Spawning. Water currents carry the sperm to other sponges. Sperm enter another sponge through pores. The sperm are carried to eggs inside the body wall. Sperm fertilize eggs. The zygote develops into a free-swimming larva. Water currents carry the larva until it attaches to a surface and grows into a new sponge. Sperm (N) Egg (N) Larva (2N) Mature sponge Metamorphosis (2N) Swimming larva New sponge Haploid (N) Diploid (2N) FERTILIZATION MEIOSIS
Reproduction – Cont. Sexual Reproduction Gametes-sex cells developed from certain amebocytes (most sponges can produce both) Asexual Reproduction Budding-branches or buds break off and grow into separate sponges identical to parent Internal fertilization- Sperm cells drift with current, but must get INSIDE a female sponge body to create a new sponge.
Symmetry assymmetrical or assymmetry There is NO OFFICIAL SHAPE/SIZE for a sponge. Pictures that follow will show this.
Types of Sponges Encrusting-form thin growths on rocks/dead coral (sometimes bright colors)
Red bearded sponge
Glass-anchored in deep-water sediments, lace-like skeleton of fused spicules (ex. Venus Flower Basket)
Boring-bore thin channels through calcium carbonate shells such as oysters and coral
Coralline/Sclero-calcium carbonate skeleton with spicules and spongin form under its body (first known as fossils)