Presentation on theme: "Stephen L. Doggett Senior Hospital Scientist Department of Medical Entomology Institute for Clinical Pathology & Medical Research, Pathology West, Westmead."— Presentation transcript:
Stephen L. Doggett Senior Hospital Scientist Department of Medical Entomology Institute for Clinical Pathology & Medical Research, Pathology West, Westmead Hospital, Westmead NSW 2145
Worldwide – about 800 sp. Worldwide – about 800 sp. Australia – 75 (~15 attack humans) 2 groups – Soft & Hard ticks Most important - Ixodes holocyclus Most important - Ixodes holocyclus Paralysis tick, scrub, bush, shell back Seed, grass (larval stage) Ticks
Most of the year Most of the year Survival dependant on humidity Survival dependant on humidity Most active: Most active: Following rain Periods of high humidity Larvae far more common than other stages Larvae far more common than other stages High mortality in larval stage to nymph When are ticks active?
Animal Hosts Red-necked Wallaby House Mouse Magpie Australian Raven Domestic Fowl Human Dog Cat Pig Eastern Grey Kangaroo Norwegian Rat Bush Rat Grasslands Melomys Water Rat Crimson Rosella Pied Butcherbird Echidna Common Dunnart Feathertail Glider Red-legged Pademelon Northern Brown Bandicoot Southern Brown Bandicoot Long-nosed Bandicoot Mountain Brushtail Possum Common Brushtail Possum Brush-tailed Phascogale Koala Swamp Wallaby Rabbit Black Rat After Roberts (1970)
Cultural Control: Behaviour modification Cultural Control: Behaviour modification Physical Control: Exclusion fencing Physical Control: Exclusion fencing Biological Control Biological Control Host removal Habitat modification Chemical Control Chemical Control Habitat treatment Personal Protection Host treatment Tick Management
Advantages Advantages Rapid control, 97% within 24 hours Cost effective Less environmental damage Disadvantages Disadvantages Not tick specific Relatively short term Pyrethroids: Permethrin, Betacyfluthrin, Bifenthrin Pyrethroids: Permethrin, Betacyfluthrin, Bifenthrin Chemical Control
Avoid ticky habitat Avoid ticky habitat Avoid good ticky times Avoid good ticky times After rain, high humidity Wear light coloured clothing Wear light coloured clothing Check oneself regularly during & after Check oneself regularly during & after Tuck pants into socks, shirts into pants Tuck pants into socks, shirts into pants Remove clothing, place into hot dryer Remove clothing, place into hot dryer Use repellents/permethrin on clothing Use repellents/permethrin on clothing Cultural Control
Permethrin = toxicant not a repellent Permethrin = toxicant not a repellent Two forms: Two forms: DIY, ‘dip’ clothing Impregnated fabrics (IF) Studies show: Studies show: IF better protection than DIY IF more washes than DIY IF less environmental impacts Permethin better protection than repellents Widely used by armies Permethrin Impregnated Clothing
Registered Equip Equip The Travel Doctor The Travel Doctor Impregnation packs Impregnation packs 10ml/4L H 2 O, soak 2m 10ml/4L H 2 O, soak 2m Effective 6 months Effective 6 months
Human Safety Risk analysis Risk analysis What is worse: bites or repellents? DEET first registered, 1957 DEET first registered, 1957 Billions of uses Recommended by WHO & CDC Only product recommended by CDC US EPA: adverse reactions 1:100million EPA: “permethrin factory-treated clothing is unlikely to pose any significant acute or chronic hazard to people” EPA: “permethrin factory-treated clothing is unlikely to pose any significant acute or chronic hazard to people” “Naturals” are a greater risk to human health!!! “Naturals” are a greater risk to human health!!! Read & heed the label!