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Allergic Reactions due to Tick Bites Clinical Associate Professor Sheryl van Nunen Senior Staff Specialist Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergy Royal North Shore Hospital & Sydney Medical School-Northern, University of Sydney © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
Distribution of Ixodes holocyclus Ixodes holocyclus is found 20-30km inland from the coast along virtually the entire eastern seaboard of Australia. It can be found in pockets up to 100km inland, depending upon the surrounds. This tick is also found in the Australian Capital Territory and a similar tick is found around Launceston in Tasmania. There are several tick species, however, it appears likely that the Ixodes holocyclus is the tick causing most of the allergic problems in Man. It is also known as the paralysis tick. © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
The Life Cycle of the Tick Ticks are found most commonly in wet sclerophyll forests and temperate rainforests 2,500-3,000 eggs are deposited in moist leaf litter by the female before she dies Only a few of these eggs survive to adulthood days after theyve been laid the eggs hatch as six-legged larvae This larval tick must obtain a blood meal before it can moult to the next stage and to do so the larva quests i.e. It climbs to the top of the nearest vegetation and waves its forelegs to and fro slowly, thereby contacting a passing host-bandicoot, possum, kangaroo, koala The larva feeds on the hosts blood for 4-6 days, then drops off the host and moults to the eight-legged nymph stage Nymphs seek a further blood meal for 4-8 days before moulting to the adult tick Adult female ticks feed for 10 days, drop off the host and then lay eggs over several weeks © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
The Life Cycle of the Tick (2) The entire life cycle of the tick, comprising 4 stages & 3 hosts, takes around a year Each life stage can be present throughout the year Typically, larvae (seed ticks) from late February to April/May Nymphs (grass ticks) appear from March to September/October Adults from August to February, peaking around December In conditions favourable for ticks, a second peak can occur in May Adult ticks may be present even in mid-winter © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
Ticks: Seasonal Factors Humid conditions are essential for survival of the adult tick (27 C/high humidity) Tick numbers are probably determined by rainfall in the previous year The weather along the Eastern seaboard is favourable for tick breeding Predators are limited- Anystis mites, insectivorous birds and wasps Adult ticks can re-attach to different dogs © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
Ticks and People The natural host of the tick is the bandicoot Other native animals such as kangaroos, koalas and possums host ticks Individuals living in tick endemic areas report all creatures as having resident ticks: domestic animals and reptiles e.g. blue-tongued lizards People live in the areas where ticks are endemic Where people live in these areas surrounded by natural bushland, tick bites occur in humans © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
Allergic Conditions caused by Tick Bites The most common serious medical complaints caused by ticks are allergic reactions to their bites Large local allergic reactions Tick induced anaphylaxis Mammalian meat induced anaphylaxis associated with prior tick bites Anaphylaxis to both ticks and mammalian meat in individuals with the co-existing condition of mastocytosis © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
Large local allergic reactions to tick bites Large local reactions are allergic reactions. Large local reactions are the least dangerous type of allergic reaction to ticks, however, they are physically limiting when present and very uncomfortable. These reactions commence within 4-12hours and keep increasing in size for hours. The allergen to which the body is reacting is most likely a protein molecule in the saliva of the tick. These reactions typically extend from the joint above the bite to the joint below the bite. Treatment consists of rest, elevation of the part above the heart (if possible), ice, regular antihistamines and often oral cortisone. Because these reactions are caused by a puncture wound and the tissues are grossly swollen, antibiotics are often given. Large local reactions usually take at least 10 days to resolve and typically have no after effects. Large local reactions occur with many different insects- bees, wasps, mosquitoes, midges. © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
Tick-induced Anaphylaxis: General information Rarely, anaphylactic allergic reactions to tick bites have been fatal. Life-threatening allergic reactions to ticks are much more common than similarly severe reactions to bees or wasps. Life-threatening allergic reactions to ticks are much more common than shark attacks or being struck by lightning. The anaphylactic reaction itself is treated as for anaphylaxis from any other cause. Australian researchers have identified the allergens as proteins in the tick saliva. Crucially, people who have an anaphylactic reaction to a tick bite react only when the tick is disturbed. © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
Tick-induced Anaphylaxis: Symptoms Within seconds to a few minutes of removing a tick, the afflicted will typically note one or more of the following: generalised itch generalised feeling of warmth urticaria (welts) may appear breathing difficulty sensation of throat closure a feeling of impending doom dizziness and may collapse, due to a drop in the blood pressure and may be so severely affected as to lose consciousness © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
Tick-induced Anaphylaxis: First Aid Lie the person down if possible and elevate the legs as this maximises the blood flow to the head and therefore the oxygen to the brain. Call 000 and explain that the reaction is life-threatening. If you are alone, open the front door and chock it and then lie down and put your feet up on a chair/settee, leaving a note beside you noting that you have been bitten by a tick, if time permits. If you have an adrenaline auto-injector (EpiPen®, Anapen®) in the home - use it while waiting if there is any closing over of the throat, breathing difficulty or impending loss of consciousness. © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
Tick-induced Anaphylaxis: Treatment Oxygen and adrenaline are the mainstay. Oral corticosteroids and antihistamines are usually given for use at home over the ensuing 3 days. An authority prescription is given or instructions are given to see your family doctor as soon as possible for same. © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
Prevention of further Tick Bite- induced Anaphylactic Reactions DO NOT SCRATCH ANYTHING YOU CANT SEE DO NOT DISTURB A TICK USE AEROSTART® TO KILL THE TICK INSTANTLY (THE ETHER FREEZE DRIES THE TICK) SCRAPE THE TICK OUT AFTERWARD OR WAIT FOR IT TO DROP OFF FIRST TIME: DO THIS ONLY UNDER MEDICAL SUPERVISION © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
The Association between Tick Bites & Mammalian Meat Allergy The association between prior tick bites and mammalian meat allergy was first described in 2007 by van Nunen et al. The Association Between Ixodes holocyclus Tick Bite Reactions and Red Meat Allergy. Internal Medicine Journal 2007; 39 (Suppl5): A132. The molecular basis has been determined by Commins et al. Delayed anaphylaxis, angioedema or urticaria after consumption of red meat in patients with IgE antibodies speciific for galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2009; Vol 123, Issue 2, The allergen in the mammalian meat (beef, lamb, pork... meat from any animal apart from humans, great apes and Old World monkeys) is unique amongst allergens, as it is a carbohydrate allergen (all other known allergens are proteins). © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
The Association between Tick Bites & Mammalian Meat Allergy: Typical Features Mammalian meat allergy is exceedingly rare in adults in the absence of an association with prior tick bites. Tick bites precede any reactions to mammalian meats. Often, tick bites in the past often have given rise to small local reactions (or larger local reactions) usually to adult ticks, occasionally to smaller stages of ticks (nymphs, larvae). Mammalian meat allergy symptoms often do not commence until several months after the tick bites. The allergic reaction to the meat is typically delayed by several hours after the ingestion of the meat (usually 3-6 hours). Cross-reactivity occurs between mammalian meats e.g. venison. Amplifying factors for food allergy may modify the severity of the reactions. © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
The Association between Tick Bites & Mammalian Meat Allergy Management of the meat allergy is limited to the avoidance of all mammalian meats and, in some instances, the avoidance of cows milk as well. Dietary review focussing upon iron intake, ensuring overall nutritional adequacy is advisable. Provision of an adrenaline auto-injector and training in its use. Prevention of future tick bites is considered prudent. © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
The rare problem of mammalian meat allergy after tick bites and co- existing mastocytosis Mastocytosis is a very rare disease in which an increased number of mast cells (histamine releasing cells which result in the inflammation seen in allergic reactions) are made in the bone marrow. Allergens and other agents provoke mast cells to release histamine and a profound anaphylaxis results because the mast cells are increased in number. Around 3-4% of those with mammalian meat allergy after tick bites have co-existing mastocytosis. This condition must be checked for in any individual with a profound anaphylaxis, whatever the agent. Education regarding other potential triggers is essential for safety. © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
Prevention of Tick Bites Avoid tick infested areas. Insect repellent (DEET e.g.RID, Aerogard Tropical, Bushmans). Re-apply the insect repellent each few hours. Wear light clothing (ticks may be more easily detected). Wear long-sleeved shirts and trousers/slacks and tuck legs into long socks. Remove all clothing after exposure and place in a hot dryer for 20minutes to kill any ticks. Search your body for ticks, particularly the head and behind the ears (they can take 2 hours to attach). © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
Tick Habitat Modification & Treatment Habitat Modification: remove low vegetation clear brush remove leaf litter increase sunlight to the backyard cut lawns Habitat Treatment: bandicoot boards insecticides © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
The Future? Increased population at risk as population growth occurs along the Eastern seaboard of Australia. + Increased numbers of ticks due potentially to the effects of global warming. = Increased numbers of individuals with serious allergic conditions due to tick bites. © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
Acknowledgements Thank you to Kathy Kai, Community Environmental Officer and David Wilks, Biodiversity Officer, Ku-ring-gai Council, for their invitation to speak, which was the stimulus to the preparation of this resource. Stephen Doggett, Senior Hospital Scientist, Department of Medical Entomology, University of Sydney at Westmead for his generous advice and illustrations. Wikimedia Common Source for some of the illustrations. The staff at Mona Vale District Hospital, Manly Hospital, Hornsby Hospital, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney Adventist Hospital and Ryde Hospital Emergency Departments for their care and expertise in resuscitating so many of the sufferers of the severe allergic reactions to ticks and mammalian meat. Resources © Sheryl van Nunen 2012
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