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Animal Phyla: Porifera & Cnidaria. Phylum Porifera (Sponges) Porifera means “pore-bearing” Porifera means “pore-bearing” Their bodies are perforated with.

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Phyla: Porifera & Cnidaria. Phylum Porifera (Sponges) Porifera means “pore-bearing” Porifera means “pore-bearing” Their bodies are perforated with."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Phyla: Porifera & Cnidaria

2 Phylum Porifera (Sponges) Porifera means “pore-bearing” Porifera means “pore-bearing” Their bodies are perforated with holes that lead to an inner water chamber Their bodies are perforated with holes that lead to an inner water chamber They pump water through these pores and expel it though osculum (large opening at top) They pump water through these pores and expel it though osculum (large opening at top)

3 Anatomy of a Sponge Key A) Osculum B) Pore C) Amoebocyte D) Spicule E) Choanocyte F) Flagella G) Microfilaments A C B D E F G D E E Image Source:

4 Anatomy of a Sponge (Cont.) Collar Cells (Choanocytes) Collar Cells (Choanocytes) Inner layer of cells Inner layer of cells Contain flagella and microfilaments Contain flagella and microfilaments Flagella = suck water through pores Flagella = suck water through pores Microfilaments = trap food particles Microfilaments = trap food particles Amoeboid Cells (Amebocytes) Amoeboid Cells (Amebocytes) Middle layer Middle layer Take up food from choanocytes, digest it, and carry nutrients to other cells Take up food from choanocytes, digest it, and carry nutrients to other cells Form spicules Form spicules Spicules Spicules Scaffolding that give sponge shape Scaffolding that give sponge shape Used by scientists to identify different species of sponges Used by scientists to identify different species of sponges

5 Water Flow in Sponges… Pores  Internal Cavity  Osculum Image Source: Campbell, N.A. & Reese, J.B. (2002). Biology (6 th Edition). New York: Benjamin Cummings.

6 Phylum Porifera (Cont.) Asymmetrical (no symmetry) Asymmetrical (no symmetry) Lack true tissues Lack true tissues Represent the most primitive animals Represent the most primitive animals They have been evolving the longest! They have been evolving the longest! Where do they live? (Habitat) Where do they live? (Habitat) Fresh water and salt water Fresh water and salt water How big are they? (Size) How big are they? (Size) 2 cm to 2 meters 2 cm to 2 meters

7 Phylum Porifera (Cont.) What do they eat? (Diet) What do they eat? (Diet) Filter feeders Filter feeders Filter bacteria, protists, and small crustaceans from the water Filter bacteria, protists, and small crustaceans from the water How do they move? How do they move? Mobile only as larvae Mobile only as larvae Sessile (do not move) as adults Sessile (do not move) as adults

8 Phylum Porifera (Cont.) How do they reproduce? How do they reproduce? Asexually Asexually Budding Budding Produce internal buds called gemmules which grow into new sponges Produce internal buds called gemmules which grow into new sponges Regeneration Regeneration Able to regrow missing parts Able to regrow missing parts Sexually Sexually Hermaphrodites Hermaphrodites Both male and female sex cells made by ameobocytes Both male and female sex cells made by ameobocytes Sperm released from osculum of one sponge and enters the pores of another sponge– sperm of one sponge fertilizes the egg of another sponge Sperm released from osculum of one sponge and enters the pores of another sponge– sperm of one sponge fertilizes the egg of another sponge

9 Red Barrel Sponge Image Source:

10 Branching Sponge Image Source:

11 Tube Sponge Image Source:

12 Indonesian Sponge Image Source:

13 Examples of Sponge Spicules Image Source:

14 Life Cycle of a Sponge Sexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Egg and sperm meet Egg and sperm meet New sponge is not identical to parents New sponge is not identical to parents Sperm Larva Released Larva Dividing Cells Egg New Sponge Flagella (movement)

15 Phylum Cnidaria (Jellyfish, Sea Anemones, & Corals) Exhibit Radial Symmetry Exhibit Radial Symmetry 2 Forms 2 Forms Polyp Polyp Sessile form (vase shape) Sessile form (vase shape) Medusa Medusa Swimming form (umbrella shape) Swimming form (umbrella shape)

16 2 Body Layers 2 Body Layers Epidermis (outer layer) & Gastrodermis (inner layer) Epidermis (outer layer) & Gastrodermis (inner layer) Mesoglea Mesoglea Jelly-like substance in between inner and outer layer Jelly-like substance in between inner and outer layer Gastrovascular Cavity (GVC) Gastrovascular Cavity (GVC) Empty space where digestion takes place Empty space where digestion takes place Phylum Cnidaria (Cont.)

17 Anatomy of a Jellyfish

18 Phylum Cnidaria (Cont.) Cnidocytes and Nematocytes Cnidocytes and Nematocytes Cnidocytes = Cnidocytes = specialized cells specialized cells used for defense used for defense Nematocytes = Nematocytes = structures inside structures inside the cnidocyte that the cnidocyte that contain stinging filaments contain stinging filaments The filaments have sharp tips that can inject poison into victims The filaments have sharp tips that can inject poison into victims

19 1 st Nervous System 1 st Nervous System Porifera have no developed nervous system Porifera have no developed nervous system Cnidarians have a primitive nervous system Cnidarians have a primitive nervous system No brain, but rather a loose collection of nerves called a nerve net No brain, but rather a loose collection of nerves called a nerve net Nerves radiate throughout the whole body Nerves radiate throughout the whole body Phylum Cnidaria (Cont.)

20 Where do they live? (Habitat) Where do they live? (Habitat) Mostly salt water Mostly salt water Hydra found in fresh water Hydra found in fresh water How big are they? (Size) How big are they? (Size) Can be up to 6.5 feet in diameter and have ~100 foot long tentacles Can be up to 6.5 feet in diameter and have ~100 foot long tentacles

21 Phylum Cnidaria (Cont.) What do they eat? How do they eat? What do they eat? How do they eat? Tentacles capture small animals. Tentacles capture small animals. Nematocysts inject poison. Nematocysts inject poison. Tentacles push food into mouth Tentacles push food into mouth How do they move? How do they move? If mobile, move by contraction and expansion of body If mobile, move by contraction and expansion of body

22 Phylum Cnidaria (Cont.) How do they reproduce? How do they reproduce? Asexually Asexually Budding & Regeneration Budding & Regeneration Sexually Sexually Adult medusa releases sperm and eggs into the water where external fertilization takes place  zygote Adult medusa releases sperm and eggs into the water where external fertilization takes place  zygote Zygote forms the blastula (hollow ball of cells) and then forms a planula (ciliated larva) Zygote forms the blastula (hollow ball of cells) and then forms a planula (ciliated larva) Polyp attaches to the ocean floor and develops mouth and tentacles Polyp attaches to the ocean floor and develops mouth and tentacles Stacks of medusae form and then detach to form individual jellyfish Stacks of medusae form and then detach to form individual jellyfish

23 Life Cycle of Jellyfish Young Medusa Adult Female Medusa Adult Male Medusa Sperm Egg Blastula Planula Polyp

24 Class: Hydrozoa Hydra Hydra Polyp form found in Polyp form found in ponds and lakes ponds and lakes Portugese Man-of-War Found in tropical oceans Very poisonous to fish and even humans Image Source: Hydra Image Source:

25 Over 200 species Over 200 species Common Common jellyfish exist as jellyfish exist as both polyps both polyps and medusae and medusae Class: Scyphozoa Image Source:

26 Includes corals and sea anemones Includes corals and sea anemones All marine All marine Medusa stage completely absent Medusa stage completely absent Corals Corals Are polyps that live in small colonies Are polyps that live in small colonies Use nutrients from algae for energy Use nutrients from algae for energy Great Barrier Reef Great Barrier Reef Largest coral colony on earth Largest coral colony on earth Sea Anemones Sea Anemones Are polyps that use poisonous tentacles to feed on small fish Are polyps that use poisonous tentacles to feed on small fish Class: Anthozoa

27 Coral Polyps Polyp Image Source: Reef Image Source: Coral Reef

28 Sea Anemone Image Source:

29 Cnetophora are technically a separate phylum from Cnidaria, but they are closely related. Cnetophora are technically a separate phylum from Cnidaria, but they are closely related. For our purposes, we’ll group comb jellies with Cnidaria For our purposes, we’ll group comb jellies with Cnidaria Cnetophora Cnetophora Found in deep ocean Found in deep ocean Biolumienscence Biolumienscence Cnetophora (Comb Jellies) Image Source:

30 Anatomy of a Jellyfish


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